A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions. Barristers mostly specialise in courtroom advocacy and litigation and their tasks include taking cases in superior courts and tribunals, drafting legal pleadings, researching the philosophy and history of law, and giving expert legal opinions. Often, barristers are recognised as legal scholars, Barristers are distinguished from solicitors, who have more direct access to clients, and may do transactional-type legal work. It is mainly barristers who are appointed as judges, and they are hired by clients directly. In England and Wales, barristers may seek authorisation from the Bar Standards Board to conduct litigation and this allows a barrister to practise in a dual capacity, fulfilling the role of both barrister and solicitor. A barrister, who can be considered as a jurist, is a lawyer who represents a litigant as advocate before a court of appropriate jurisdiction, a barrister speaks in court and presents the case before a judge or jury.
In some jurisdictions, a barrister receives additional training in law, ethics. In contrast, a solicitor generally meets with clients, does preparatory and administrative work, in this role, he or she may draft and review legal documents, interact with the client as necessary, prepare evidence, and generally manage the day-to-day administration of a lawsuit. Barristers usually have particular knowledge of law, precedent. When a solicitor in general practice is confronted with a point of law. In most countries, barristers operate as sole practitioners, and are prohibited from forming partnerships or from working as a barrister as part of a corporation, barristers normally band together into chambers to share clerks and operating expenses. Some chambers grow to be large and sophisticated, and have a corporate feel. In some jurisdictions, they may be employed by firms of solicitors, banks, in contrast and attorneys work directly with the clients and are responsible for engaging a barrister with the appropriate expertise for the case.
Barristers generally have little or no contact with their lay clients. All correspondence, invoices, and so on, will be addressed to the solicitor, in court, barristers are often visibly distinguished from solicitors by their apparel. For example, in Ireland and Wales, a barrister usually wears a wig, stiff collar, bands. Since January 2008, solicitor advocates have been entitled to wear wigs, in many countries the traditional divisions between barristers and solicitors are breaking down. Barristers once enjoyed a monopoly on appearances before the courts, but in Great Britain this has now been abolished
Round table (discussion)
Round table is a form of academic discussion. Participants agree on a topic to discuss and debate. Each person is given right to participate, as illustrated by the idea of a circular layout referred to in the term round table. Round table discussions are a feature of political talk shows. Talk shows such as Washington Week and Meet the Press have roundtables of reporters or pundits, most of these are done around a table in a studio, but occasionally they report in split-screen from remote locations. Some sports shows, such as ESPNs Around the Horn, employ the round table format, the round table method is still highly used to this day
Literacy is traditionally understood as the ability to read and use arithmetic. The concept of literacy is expanding in OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as being illiterate. The key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand words and decode written words. The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism, Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society. Literacy is thought to have first emerged with the development of numeracy, script developed independently at least four times in human history in Mesopotamia, lowland Mesoamerica, and China. The earliest forms of written communication originated in Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE, writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production.
The token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets, proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but ideograms depicting objects being counted. Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites, the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values. Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE and these civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. The earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE and these systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite. These oracle-bone inscriptions were the ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script.
According to social anthropologist Jack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet, many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels. Thus, many argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 BCE. Much of this development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie. Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these contain an alphabet. In 1948, William F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence that had been discovered subsequent to Goodys findings and this included a series of inscriptions from Ugarit, discovered in 1929 by French archaeologist Claude F. A. Schaeffer. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts that consisted of a 32-letter cuneiform consonantal alphabet, another significant discovery was made in 1953 when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century BCE
A table is an item of furniture with a flat top and one or more legs, used as a surface for working at, eating from or on which to place things. There are a range of specialized types of tables, such as drafting tables, used for doing architectural drawings, common design elements include, top surfaces of various shapes, including rectangular, rounded, semi-circular or oval legs arranged in two or more similar pairs. However, some tables have three legs, use a heavy pedestal, or are attached to a wall. In Late Latin, tabula took over the meaning previously reserved to mensa, in Old English, the word was bord, replaced by table for this meaning. Tables come in a variety of materials and heights dependent upon their origin, intended use. Many tables are made of wood or wood-based products, some are made of materials including metal. Most tables are composed of a surface and one or more supports. A table with a single, central foot is a pedestal table, long tables often have extra legs for support.
Table tops can be in any shape, although rectangular, round. Others have higher surfaces for use while either standing or sitting on a tall stool. Many tables have tops that can be adjusted to change their height, shape, or size, either with foldable, some tables are entirely foldable for easy transportation, e. g. camping or storage, e. g. TV trays. Small tables in trains and aircraft may be fixed or foldable, tables can be freestanding or designed for placement against a wall. Tables of various shapes and sizes are designed for specific uses, bedside tables, nightstands, or night tables are small tables used in a bedroom. They are often used for convenient placement of a lamp, alarm clock, glasses. Gateleg tables have one or two hinged leaves supported by hinged legs, coffee tables are low tables designed for use in a living room, in front of a sofa, for convenient placement of drinks, books, or other personal items. Refectory tables are long tables designed to seat many people for meals, drafting tables usually have a top that can be tilted for making a large or technical drawing.
They may have a ruler or similar element integrated, workbenches are sturdy tables, often elevated for use with a high stool or while standing, which are used for assembly, repairs, or other precision handwork. Nested tables are a set of tables of graduated size that can be stacked together
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Orlando is a city in the U. S. state of Florida and the county seat of Orange County. Located in Central Florida, it is the center of the Orlando metropolitan area, which had a population of 4,000,002, according to U. S. As of 2015, Orlando had an estimated population of 270,934, making it the 73rd-largest city in the United States, the fourth-largest city in Florida. The City of Orlando is nicknamed The City Beautiful, and its symbol is the fountain at Lake Eola, Orlando is known as The Theme Park Capital of the World and in 2014 its tourist attractions and events drew more than 62 million visitors. The Orlando International Airport is the thirteenth-busiest airport in the United States, with the exception of Walt Disney World, most major attractions are located along International Drive. The city is one of the busiest American cities for conferences and conventions. Orlando is home to the University of Central Florida, which is the largest university campus in the United States in terms of enrollment as of 2015, in 2010, Orlando was listed as a Gamma− level of world-city in the World Cities Study Groups inventory.
Orlando ranks as the fourth-most popular American city based on where people want to live according to a 2009 Pew Research Center study. Fort Gatlin, as the Orlando area was known, was established at what is now just south of the city limits by the 4th U. S. Artillery under the command of Ltc, alexander C. W. Fanning on November 9,1838 during the construction of a series of fortified encampments across Florida during the Second Seminole War. The fort and surrounding area were named for Dr. John S. Gatlin, king Phillip and Coacoochee frequented this area and the tree was alleged to be the place where the previous 1835 ambush that had killed over 100 soldiers had been planned. When the U. S. military abandoned the fort in 1839 the surrounding community was built up by settlers, prior to being known by its current name, Orlando was once known as Jernigan. Aarron Jernigan became Orange Countys first State Representative in 1845 but his pleas for military protection went unanswered. Fort Gatlin was briefly reoccupied by the military for a few weeks during October and November 1849, a historical marker indicates that by 1850 the Jernigan homestead served as the nucleus of a village named Jernigan.
One of the countys first records, a grand jurys report, mentions a stockade where it states homesteaders were driven from their homes, Aaron Jernigan led a local volunteer militia during 1852. Jernigan appears on an 1855 map of Florida and by 1856 the area had become the county seat of Orange County and it is known for certain that the area was renamed Orlando in 1857. The move is believed to be sparked, in part, by Aaron Jernigans fall from grace after he was relieved of his command by military officials in 1856. His behavior was so notorious that Secretary of War Jefferson Davis wrote, in 1859, Jernigan and his sons were accused of committing a murder at the towns post office
Tampa Bay Times
The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St. Petersburg Times through 2011, is an American newspaper published in St. Petersburg, Florida. It has won twelve Pulitzer Prizes since 1964, and in 2009, many issues are available through Google News Archive. A daily electronic version is available for the Amazon Kindle. The newspaper traces its origins to the West Hillsborough Times, a newspaper established in Dunedin. At the time, neither St. Petersburg nor Pinellas County existed, the paper was published weekly in the back of a pharmacy and had a circulation of 480. It subsequently changed ownership six times in seventeen years, in December 1884 it was bought by A. C. Turner, who moved it to Clear Water Harbor. In 1892 it moved to St. Petersburg, and by 1898 it was renamed the St. Petersburg Times. The Times became bi-weekly in 1907, and began six days a week in 1912. Paul Poynter, an originally from Indiana, bought the paper in September 1912 and converted to a seven-day paper. Pauls son, Nelson Poynter, became editor in 1939 and took majority control of the paper in 1947, Nelson Poynter controlled the paper until his death in 1978, when he willed the majority of the stock to the non-profit Poynter Institute.
In November 1986, the Evening Independent was merged into the Times, Poynter was succeeded by Eugene Patterson, Andrew Barnes, Paul Tash and Neil Brown. On January 1,2012, the St, as the newly rechristened Tampa Bay Times, the papers weekday tabloid tbt*, a free daily publication and which used as its subtitle, became just tbt when the name change took place. The St. Pete Times name lives on as the name for the Times neighborhood news sections in southern Pinellas County, serving communities from Largo southward. The Times has been an opponent to the Church of Scientology, since the churchs acquisition of the Fort Harrison Hotel in 1975. The Times has published reports and series critical of the church and its current leader. The newspaper operates PolitiFact. com, a project in which its reporters and editors fact-check statements by members of Congress, the site includes an Obameter, tracking U. S. President Barack Obamas performance with regard to his campaign promises. List of newspapers in Florida Media in the Tampa Bay Area James F.
Tracy, strikebusting in St. Petersburg, Nelson Poynters Postwar Assault on Union Printers. What will happen to the Tampa Bay Times, official website Todays Tampa Bay Times front page at the Newseum website PolitiFact. com website
An intelligence quotient is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. The resulting fraction is multiplied by 100 to obtain the IQ score, by this definition, approximately two-thirds of the population scores between IQ85 and IQ115. About 5 percent of the population scores above 125, and 5 percent below 75, IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is debate about the significance of heritability estimates. IQ scores are used for placement, assessment of intellectual disability. Even when students improve their scores on standardized tests, they do not always improve their abilities, such as memory, attention. In research contexts they have studied as predictors of job performance. They are used to study distributions of psychometric intelligence in populations, raw scores on IQ tests for many populations have been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect.
Investigation of different patterns of increases in subtest scores can inform current research on human intelligence, even before IQ tests were invented, there were attempts to classify people into intelligence categories by observing their behavior in daily life. Those other forms of observation are still important for validating classifications based primarily on IQ test scores. The English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardized test for rating a persons intelligence and he hypothesized that there should exist a correlation between intelligence and other observable traits such as reflexes, muscle grip, and head size. He set up the first mental testing centre in the world in 1882 and he published Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development in 1883, after gathering data on a variety of physical variables, he was unable to show any such correlation, and he eventually abandoned this research. French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when published the Binet-Simon test.
The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the childs mental age, for example, a six-year-old child who passed all the tasks usually passed by six-year-olds—but nothing beyond—would have a mental age that matched his chronological age,6.0. Binet thought that intelligence was multifaceted, but came under the control of practical judgment, American psychologist Henry H. Goddard published a translation of it in 1910. American psychologist Lewis Terman at Stanford University revised the Binet-Simon scale and it became the most popular test in the United States for decades. The many different kinds of IQ tests include a variety of item content. Some test items are visual, while many are verbal, test items vary from being based on abstract-reasoning problems to concentrating on arithmetic, vocabulary, or general knowledge
Mitcham is a district in south west London, located within the London Borough of Merton. It is centred 7.2 miles south-west of Charing Cross, a suburban area, Mitcham is located on the border of Inner London and Outer London, and was historically in the county of Surrey. It is both residentially and financially developed and served by train and tram routes, localities within Mitcham include Mitcham Town Centre and Mitcham Common. Amenities include Mitcham Library and Mitcham Cricket Green, nearby districts include Wimbledon, Croydon, Tooting and Sutton. Mitcham is close to Wimbledon, Croydon and Tooting, the River Wandle bounds the town to the southwest. The original village lies in the west, although expansion has pushed the boundary the furthest. Mitcham Common takes up the part of the boundary and area to the south. The toponym Mitcham is Old English in origin and means big settlement, before the Romans and Saxons were present, there was a Celtic settlement in the area, with evidence of a hill fort in the Pollards Hill area.
The discovery of Roman-era graves and a well on the site of the Mitcham gas works evince Roman settlement. The Saxon graveyard, located on the North bank of the Wandle is the largest discovered to date, scholars such as Myres have suggested that Mitcham and other Thames Valley settlements were some of the first populated by the Anglo-Saxons. The area is a location for the Battle of Merton,871. The Church of England parish church of St Peter and St Paul dates from the Saxon era, although it was mostly rebuilt in 1819–21, the current building retains the original Saxon tower. The area lay within the Anglo-Saxon administrative division of Wallington hundred, the Domesday Book records Mitcham as Michelham. It was held partly by the Canons of Bayeux, partly by William, son of Ansculf and its domesday assets were,8 hides and 1 virgate. It had ½ mill worth £1, 3½ ploughs,56 acres of meadow, during her reign Queen Elizabeth I made at least five visits to the area. John Donne and Sir Walter Raleigh had residences here in this era and it was at this time that Mitcham became gentrified, as due to the abundance of lavender fields Mitcham became renowned for its soothing air.
The air led people to settle in the area during times of plague, when industrialisation occurred, Mitcham quickly grew to become a town and most of the farms were swallowed up in the expansion. There were many fields in Mitcham, and peppermint and lavender oils were distilled
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
Caythorpe is a large village and civil parish in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. The population at the 2011 census was 1,374 and it is situated on the A607, approximately 3 miles south from Leadenham and 8 miles north from Grantham. Caythorpe Heath stretches east of the village to Ermine Street and Byards Leap, Caythorpe Grade I listed Anglican parish church is dedicated to St Vincent. The church has a double nave divided by Geometric piers. The central tower supports a crocketed spire rising to 156 feet, Grade II* listed Caythorpe Hall lies on the northern edge of the village, it was built between 1824 and 1827 in the classical style. The park wall is all that remains of the earlier house, the Red Lion and the Waggon and Horses are the two village public houses. There was once a Caythorpe railway station on the line between Grantham and Lincoln, mensa International has had its registered office in the village since 2008. In 1980 it became part of Lincolnshire College of Agriculture and Horticulture, when Riseholme Agricultural College, part of De Montfort, was adopted by the new University of Lincoln in 2001, Caythorpe was subsumed into Lincoln as the Lincolnshire School of Agriculture.
The school closed in September 2002, after which the became a PGL activity centre. Edmund Weaver, 18th-century astronomer and land agent, lived at Frieston and he was buried at St Vincents Church, where his memorial is placed in the south chancel. Media related to Caythorpe, Lincolnshire at Wikimedia Commons Caythorpe and Frieston Parish Council, retrieved 13 July 2011 Village fights asylum plan, BBC News,13 January 2003