Mental health is the level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness. It is the state of someone, "functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment". From the perspectives of positive psychology or of holism, mental health may include an individual's ability to enjoy life and to create a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. According to the World Health Organization, mental health includes "subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, competence, inter-generational dependence, self-actualization of one's intellectual and emotional potential, among others"; the WHO further states that the well-being of an individual is encompassed in the realization of their abilities, coping with normal stresses of life, productive work, contribution to their community. Cultural differences, subjective assessments, competing professional theories all affect how one defines "mental health". According to the U. K. Surgeon Journal, mental health is the successful performance of the mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, providing the ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity.
The term mental illness refers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders—health conditions characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior associated with distress or impaired functioning. Mental health and mental illness are two continuous concepts. People with optimal mental health can have a mental illness, people who have no mental illness can have poor mental health. Mental health problems may arise due to stress, depression, relationship problems, death of a loved one, suicidal thoughts, addiction, ADHD, self-harm, various mood disorders, or other mental illnesses of varying degrees, as well as learning disabilities. Therapists, psychologists, social workers, nurse practitioners, or family physicians can help manage mental illness with treatments such as therapy, counseling, or medication. In the mid-19th century, William Sweetser was the first to coin the term mental hygiene, which can be seen as the precursor to contemporary approaches to work on promoting positive mental health.
Isaac Ray, the fourth president of the American Psychiatric Association and one of its founders, further defined mental hygiene as "the art of preserving the mind against all incidents and influences calculated to deteriorate its qualities, impair its energies, or derange its movements". Dorothea Dix was an important figure in the development of the "mental hygiene" movement. Dix was a school teacher who endeavored to help people with mental disorders and to expose the sub-standard conditions into which they were put; this became known as the "mental hygiene movement". Before this movement, it was not uncommon that people affected by mental illness would be neglected left alone in deplorable conditions without sufficient clothing. Dix's efforts caused a rise in the number of patients in mental health facilities, which resulted in these patients receiving less attention and care, as these institutions were understaffed. Emil Kraepelin in 1896 developed the taxonomy of mental disorders which has dominated the field for nearly 80 years.
The proposed disease model of abnormality was subjected to analysis and considered normality to be relative to the physical and cultural aspects of the defining group. At the beginning of the 20th century, Clifford Beers founded "Mental Health America – National Committee for Mental Hygiene", after publication of his accounts as a patient in several lunatic asylums, A Mind That Found Itself, in 1908 and opened the first outpatient mental health clinic in the United States; the mental hygiene movement, related to the social hygiene movement, had at times been associated with advocating eugenics and sterilisation of those considered too mentally deficient to be assisted into productive work and contented family life. In the post-WWII years, references to mental hygiene were replaced by the term'mental health' due to its positive aspect that evolves from the treatment of illness to preventive and promotive areas of healthcare. Marie Jahoda described six major, fundamental categories that can be used to categorize mentally healthy individuals.
These include: a positive attitude towards the self, personal growth, autonomy, a true perception of reality, environmental mastery, which include adaptability and healthy interpersonal relationships. Mental illnesses are more common than diabetes, or heart disease. Over 26 percent of all Americans over the age of 18 meet the criteria for having a mental illness. A World Health Organization report estimates the global cost of mental illness at nearly $2.5 trillion in 2010, with a projected increase to over $6 trillion by 2030. Evidence from WHO suggests that nearly half of the world's population are affected by mental illness with an impact on their self-esteem and ability to function in everyday life. An individual's emotional health can impact their physical health. Poor mental health can lead to problems such as substance abuse. Good mental health can improve life quality. According to Richards, Campania, & Muse-Burke, "There is growing evidence, showing emotional abilities are associated with pro-social behaviors such as stress management and physical health."
Their research concluded that people who lack emotional expression are inclined to anti-social behaviors, which are a direct reflection of their mental health and suppressed emotions. Adults and children wi
The Shops at Ledgewood Commons is a shopping mall in Ledgewood, New Jersey. Its anchors are Ashley Furniture HomeStores and Walmart, it is a single-level, regional mall, with a gross leasable area of 518,246 square feet. From the mall's opening in 1972 until 2016, it was branded Ledgewood Mall; the center was opened in 1972 as Ledgewood Mall, with anchors of W. T. Grant store and Finast. By 1980, the mall's anchors were Rickel and Arthur's Catalog Showroom; these anchors remained for over a decade. The Rickel space closed and became PharmHouse and Marshalls. Federated Department Stores announced in July 1993 that it would be opening a 60,000-square-foot Stern's store in the fall of 1994, as part of a major nationwide expansion of the chain; this store was converted to a Macy's in 2001 when Stern's stores were closed. Jamesway closed in December 1995 following the company's liquidation. By 1999, Walmart replaced both the former Jamesway and Arthur's stores, Circuit City, which has since closed as part of the economic collapse of that retail chain, was added as well.
PharmHouse became an Ashley Furniture HomeStore location. From 2009-2017, Circuit City became Spirit Halloween every September until October, in 2018 the Spirit Halloween relocated to the nearby Roxbury Mall. Other buildings on the mall property include Marshalls and The former Sports Authority, Wendy's, Red Lobster and Barnes & Noble. Following the closing of Circuit City and the Great Recession few individual non-anchor stores remain. In January 2015, it was announced the Macy's store was closing as part of a plan to close 14 stores nationwide. In 2016, plans were presented to the public that the mall would become an open-air mall, Ledgewood Mall would be rebranded as "The Shops at Ledgewood Commons"; the only stores remaining in the mall as of September 2017 are Wal-Mart, Men's Wearhouse, Barnes & Noble, an Ashley Furniture HomeStore,and Marshalls. New stores have signed leases and plan on opening. In 2016, JV Partnership, Advance Realty, Debartolo Development & Invesco bought the mall; the owners had plans for a redevelopment.
The owners announced that Noble would get a new building where Sports Authority once was. The former Macy's Building was demolished on November 30, 2017, which kicked off the construction project; as of June 2018, much of the mall has been demolished, with only a small seating area remaining open between Marshalls and Ashley Home Furniture. What isn’t demolished has been closed off to the public. On September 26 2018, The owners of the mall announced that Five Below, Ulta Beauty, DSW, Starbucks and Chipotle had signed leases and will open stores in the mall. On December 6 2018 Walmart announced that it will demolish its current store at the Shops At Ledgewood Commons for a new modern supercenter store; the old store closed on May 10, 2019, Walmart started construction on the new store in June 2019 for an anticipated Fall 2020 opening. On January 16, 2019, 24 Hour Fitness announced that it will open a Gym at the mall
Heinz Berggruen was a German art dealer and collector who sold 165 works of art to the German federal government to form the core of the Berggruen Museum in Berlin, Germany. Berggruen was born in Wilmersdorf, Berlin to assimilated Jewish parents: Ludwig Berggruen, a businessman who owned an office supply business before the war, Antonie, he attended the Goethe-Gymnasium in Wilmersdorf and graduated from the Friedrich-Wilhelms University in 1932, where he read literature. After 1933, he continued his studies at the universities of Toulouse, he contributed free-lance articles to the Frankfurter Zeitung, the forerunner of today's Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. He got around the restrictions on Jewish contributors by submitting his pieces through a colleague and signing them with his initials, H. B. rather than his full, Jewish-sounding surname. He fled Germany in 1936, he immigrated to the United States in 1936 and studied German literature at University of California, Berkeley. After working as an art critic for the San Francisco Chronicle, in 1939 he became an "assistant to the director" at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
There, he helped to prepare an exhibition about the Mexican painter Diego Rivera. He met Frida Kahlo, with whom had a short love affair in New York in 1940; that same year he says. It was a watercolour by Paul Klee, he bought it from a Jewish refugee in need of money. While living in California, Berggruen was a student of the painter David Park. After the Second World War Berggruen returned to Europe as member of the U. S. Army and worked on the American-sponsored paper Heute in Munich, he moved to Paris, where he worked in the fine arts division of UNESCO, run by his former boss at the San Francisco museum, Grace Morley. Within a few years, he opened a small bookshop on the Île Saint-Louis, specializing in illustrated books and lithographs. During this time he became acquainted with Tristan Tzara, who introduced him to Pablo Picasso in Paris, he soon became an important dealer in Picasso prints, as well as in second-hand Picasso paintings. His renowned art collection, which he valued at $450 million in 2001, included 165 works by 20th-century masters such as Braque, Matisse and Giacometti, with a unique group of 85 works by Picasso.
In 1977, Berggruen published Douglas Cooper's catalogue raisonné of Juan Gris. He resigned as director of the Paris gallery in 1980 in order to devote himself to collecting and dealing. In 1988, he donated 90 Klee works to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, although he expressed fear that his donation would go unnoticed in the museum's own vast collections; that same year, he exhibited his collection at the Musée d'Art et d'Histoire in Geneva. In 1990, he lent a good part of his collection to the National Gallery in London, where he exhibited works—including Seurat's landmark painting Les Poseuses —until 2001. In 1995, the German government lent him an apartment in Berlin and gave him an art museum opposite the Charlottenburg Palace; the collection comprising 118 works, opened to the public in 1997. At the time German culture minister Ulrich Roloff-Momin described it as "the most meaningful art transfer in Berlin's post-war history." In 2000, he sold the art collection to the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation: the collection of 165 works, which Berggruen valued at €750m, was purchased by the PCHF at about a quarter of that value.
It additionally includes over sixty works by Paul Klee, twenty by Matisse. For his achievements, Berggruen was named a Commandeur of the Legion of Honour by the French government, received the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1999, was named an honorary citizen of Berlin, he additionally received the Jewish Museum Berlin's Award for Understanding and Tolerance in 2005, was bestowed an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Adelphi University in 1993. In 2008, a Berlin school was named the Heinz-Berggruen-Gymnasium in his honor. An honorary trustee of the Metropolitan Museum, he additionally served on the board of the Berlin Philharmonic. In 2016, Berggruen's Klee collection was exhibited in its entirety to inaugurate the Met Breuer, traveled to the National Gallery of Canada in 2018. Berggruen had four children. Berggruen, who until his death maintained homes in Paris and Berlin, was quoted as saying "I am neither French nor German, I am European. I'd much like to think there was a European nationality, but I think I may be dreaming."
Through his mother, Antonie Zadek, Berggruen was a cousin of the opera singer Hilde Zadek. In 1939, Berggruen married the American Lillian Zellerbach, they divorced in 1945. They had two children: John Berggruen, owner of the Berggruen Gallery in San Francisco and active in the Bay Area art scene since 1970. In 1960, he married a Catholic of Albanian and German descent, they had two children: art historian and curator. Berggruen died at the American Hospital of Paris in Neuilly-sur-Seine on 23 February 2007. At his own wish he was buried in the forest cemetery in Berlin, his funeral was attended by German chancellor Angela Merkel, then-president Horst Köhler, among others. "Obituary: Heinz Berggruen". UK: The Independent. 28 February 2007. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2007