Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has influenced ska and reggae music. It is a fusion of African rhythmic elements and European elements, which reached his peak popularity in the 1940s and 1950s. Mento features acoustic instruments, such as acoustic guitar, hand drums, the rhumba box — a large mbira in the shape of a box that can be sat on while played; the rhumba box carries the bass part of the music. Mento is confused with calypso, a musical form from Trinidad and Tobago. Although the two share many similarities, they are distinct musical forms. During the mid-20th century, mento was conflated with calypso, mento was referred to as calypso and mento calypso. Mento singers used calypso songs and techniques; as in calypso, mento uses topical lyrics with a humorous slant, commenting on poverty and other social issues. Sexual innuendos are common. Mento draws on musical traditions brought by West African slaves. Slaves who could play musical instruments were required to play music for their masters and rewarded for such skills.
The Africans created a creole music, incorporating such elements of these traditions, including quadrille, into their own folk music. The Jamaican mento style has a long history of conflation with Trinidadian calypso; the lyrics of mento songs deal with aspects of everyday life in a light-hearted and humorous way. Many comment on poverty, poor housing, other social issues. Thinly veiled sexual references and innuendo are common. Mento can be seen as a precursor of some of the movement motifs and themes dealing with such social issues found in modern dancehall, it became more popular in the late 1940s, with mento performances becoming a common aspect of dances and other events in Jamaica. Major 1950s mento recording artists include Louise Bennett, Count Lasher, Harold Richardson, Lord Flea, Lord Fly, Alerth Bedasse with Chin's Calypso Sextet, Laurel Aitken, Denzil Laing, Lord Composer, Lord Lebby, Lord Power, Hubert Porter, Harry Belafonte, a New Yorker of Jamaican origin, his wildly popular hit records in 1956-1958, including "Day-O" and "Jamaica Farewell," were mento songs sold as calypso.
Recorded Jamaican versions of many Belafonte's classic "calypso" hits can be heard on the Jamaica - Mento 1951-1958 CD released by Frémeaux & Associés in 2009. Due in part to Belafonte's popularity, mento became conflated with calypso in the 1950s. In a 1957 interview for Calypso Star magazine, Lord Flea explained: "In Jamaica, we call our music'mento' until recently. Today,'calypso' is beginning to be used for all kinds of West Indian music; this is. Some people like to think of West Indians as carefree natives who work and sing and play and laugh their lives away, but this isn't so. Most of the people there are hard working folks, many of them are smart business men. If the tourists want "calypso", that's what we sell them." This was the golden age of mento, as records pressed by Stanley Motta, Ivan Chin, Ken Khouri and others brought the music to a new audience. In the 1960s it became overshadowed by reggae. Mento is still played in Jamaica in areas frequented by tourists. Lloyd Bradley, reggae historian and author of the seminal reggae book, Bass Culture, said that Lee "Scratch" Perry’s seminal 1976 dub album, Super Ape, contained some of the purest mento influences he knew.
This style of music was revived in popularity by the Jolly Boys in the late 1980s and early 1990s with the release of four recordings on First Warning Records/Rykodisc and a tour that included the United States. Stanley Beckford and Gilzene and the Blue Light Mento Band revived rural mento in the 2000s; the mento dance is a Jamaican folk-form dance with acoustic guitar, hand drums and rhumba box. Boogu Yagga Gal - Jamaican Mento 1950s Trojan Calypso Box Set Mento Madness - Motta's Jamaican Mento: 1951-56 Dip & Fall Back Dr. Kinsey To Haile Selassie - Classic Jamaican Mento Take Me To Jamaica - The Story Of Jamaican Mento From 1951 To 1958 The Trojan Calypso Collection Jamaica-Mento 1951-1958 Trojan Presents Mento & R&B - 40 Roots Of Reggae Classics 1955 To 1962 Mento, Not Calypso! - The Original Sound Of Jamaica Jamaica Is The Place To Go - An Invitation To Jamaican Mento 1984 - Caribbean Crucible. From Repercussions: A Celebration of African-American Music series, program 6. Directed by Dennis Marks and Geoffrey Haydon.
Floyd Jr, Samuel A. "Black Music in the Circum-Caribbean". American Music, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 1–38. Neely, Daniel. "Long Time Gal! Mento is Back!". The Beat, December 2001, vol. 20, no. 6: 38-42. Available in pdf format at New York University homepages. Neely, Daniel. "One of mento's great voices silenced". "Jamaica Observer, March 18, 2007, Daniel. "Calling All Singers and Speechmakers: Mento Aesthetics and Jamaica’s Early Recording Industry." Caribbean Quarterly, Vol. 53, No. 4. Pp. 1–15. Barrow, Steve. "The Beginnings: Mento to Ska". The Rough Guide to Reggae. Strand, England: Rough Guides, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84353-329-0. Jamaica-Mento 1951-1958 - CD booklet online - Jamaica - In Calypso: A World Music, a site created by Historical Museum of Southern Florida about calypso and mento Jamaican Mento Music - site created by Michael Garnice Ivan Chin - Mento music's pages on
Gurth Christian Hoyer-Millar was a Scottish sportsman who played international rugby union for Scotland. He played first-class cricket with the Oxford University Cricket Club. Hoyer-Millar spent his early sporting years at Harrow School, where he captained their cricket team in both 1947 and 1948, he was awarded rugby union and boxing blues at Oxford University and kept wicket for the university in two first-class matches in 1952, against Kent and Warwickshire. He was capped just once for the Scotland national rugby union team, his only Test came against Ireland at Murrayfield in the 1953 Five Nations Championship. Though he was called to the bar by Middle Temple, Hoyer-Millar did not practice as a lawyer, instead working for BP and J Sainsbury, where he was the first chairman of the Homebase DIY chain, he was chairman of Bonhams auctioneers from 1988 to 1996 and served as a non-executive director of the Hudson's Bay Company. He stood as a Liberal candidate in Kensington South in 1959, he stood for Southend West against Conservative incumbent Paul Channon twice, in 1964 and 1966 On the first occasion he finished ahead of Labour candidate and newspaper/broadcast journalist Rex Winsbury.
Flawless is a 1999 crime comedy-drama film directed and written by Joel Schumacher and starring Robert De Niro and Philip Seymour Hoffman. Other cast members include Wilson Jermaine Heredia, it is the last MGM film of the 1990s. Walter Koontz is a decorated "local hero" officer of the New York police department who lives in a downtown apartment complex. Despite his locale and rampant run of drag queens in his building, he tends to keep to himself and still lives a life involved with lovely women and dining. One night, he hears gunshots upstairs, while ascending to help suffers a stroke, he awakens with the right side of his body paralyzed resulting in poor speech and posture, giving him an unrecoverable limp that requires him to use a cane to get around. He suffers a massive blow to his ego, Walter becomes ashamed to be seen in public in such a fashion. Rusty is one of Walter's drag queen neighbors, the two are at odds due to their differing lifestyles. Rusty lacks the money to do so; when Walter comes to Rusty to use his musical talents for voice lessons to overcome his impediment, the pair, while at first argumentative and uncomfortable with each other become friends.
Walter begins to make strides to return to a normal life. However, their friendship is marred when Rusty shows Walter a stash of money, hidden in the body of his dress making mannequin, enough to pay for his operation; when Walter inquires how Rusty got the money, Rusty says he stole it from a drug pusher, responsible for the attack the night Walter had his stroke. Outraged by this and Rusty part ways angrily. One night, after returning from a drag beauty contest called "Flawless", Rusty is accosted by the criminals who had crept into his apartment to find the stolen money. Walter runs up to save Rusty's life. Rusty locks himself in the bedroom, when Walter comes in, the criminals turn their attention to him, prompting Rusty to return the favor. In the fight, Walter is shot by the criminals. While boarding an ambulance with Walter, Rusty gives the paramedics the stolen cash to ensure that Walter is okay; the pair again rekindle their friendship. Robert De Niro as Walter Koontz Philip Seymour Hoffman as Rusty Skipp Sudduth as Tommy Barry Miller as Leonard Wilcox Chris Bauer as Jacko Wilson Jermaine Heredia as Cha-Cha Daphne Rubin-Vega as Tia Rory Cochrane as Pogo Scott Allen Cooper as Ivana Jude Ciccolella as Detective Noonan Mina Bern as Mrs. Spivak Penny Balfour as Cristal Victor Rasuk as Neighborhood boy Richie Lamontagne as Carmine the Pizza Boy Luis Saguar as Mr. Z "Planet Love" – Taylor Dayne "Half-Breed" – Cher "Lady Marmalade" – Patti LaBelle "When the Money's Gone" – Bruce Roberts "G.
A. Y." – Geri Halliwell "When Will You Learn" – Boy George "La Chica Marita" – Marcus Schenkenberg "Turn Me Over" – Wonderbox "Lady Marmalade" – All Saints "Sidewalk Talk" – John "Jellybean" Benitez "Can't Stop Love" – Soul Solution "Give It to Me" – Drama Kidz "The Name Game" – Shirley Ellis "Whenever You Fall" – Taylor Dayne "The Neighborhood" – Bruce Roberts. Hoffman felt that his exposure to that level of acting profoundly improved his own abilities as an actor. Review-aggregate site Rotten Tomatoes reports a 43% approval rating based on 56 reviews, with an average rating of 5.2/10, a consensus reading: "Uneven performances, formulaic." Hoffman was praised by critics for his ability to avoid clichés in playing such a delicate role. Emily VanDerWerff praised the warmth of his portrayal of Rusty, commenting that "Hoffman’s work is quiet and humanistic, it provides the film with a core Schumacher doesn’t remotely earn. No matter. Roger Ebert highlighted Hoffman as "one of the best new character actors", remarking that he was "able to take a flamboyant role and find the quiet details in it".
Army General Valentin Vladimirovich Korabelnikov is a Russian general, best known for being director of GRU for 12 years. Korabelnikov attended the Minsk Higher Engineering Anti-Aircraft Rocket School of Air Defense, from which he graduated in 1969, subsequently graduated from the Frunze Military Academy in 1974 and the General Staff Academy in 1988. In May 1997 Korabelnikov was appointed Chief of the Main Intelligence Directorate of the Russian General Staff, Russia's largest intelligence agency. Korabelnikov worked his way up the GRU hierarchy for 20 years before becoming the Intelligence Directorate's head. Korabelnikov spent time alongside Spetsnaz brigades in Chechnya, while he was responsible for the operation which resulted in the elimination of Chechen leader Dzhokhar Dudayev in 1996. Korabelnikov involved himself in operational work, was wounded by Chechen fighters. In July 1999, Korabelnikov received an official acknowledgment from president Boris Yeltsin for his "significant contribution to the settlement of the Kosovo Conflict".
He was a member of Russian delegation, led by Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov that met with Slobodan Milosevic during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. On 24 April 2009 Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree dismissing Korabelnikov from his position as head of the GRU's Intelligence Directorate, replacing him with Gen Alexander Shlyakhturov. No reason was given the decision, however Korabelnikov had tendered his resignation earlier in 2009 due to disagreement over military reforms. Smart and well trained people work with US His interview President Putin visits new GRU headquarters Another interview His biography
This list of tallest buildings in Kuwait ranks skyscrapers in Kuwait by height. The tallest building in Kuwait is the 80–story Al Hamra Firdous Tower, which rises 413 metres and was completed in 2011, it is the world's fifteenth-tallest building. Liberation Tower is the second-tallest completed tower in Kuwait, built in 1996 it rises 372 metres. Should it be constructed, the Burj Mubarak Al Kabir would be 1,001 metres tall, it would become the world's tallest building, standing one metre taller than the approved Jeddah Tower in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Only buildings over 150 metres are included. List of tallest structures in the Middle East List of tallest buildings and structures in the world Proposed tall buildings and structures Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Documents most planned and under-construction skyscrapers Emporis, International database of various buildings Urbika, Includes many projects not documented by other websites SkyscraperPage and diagrams of most skyscrapers
NMS Regele Ferdinand was the lead ship of her class of two destroyers built in Italy for the Romanian Navy in the late 1920s. After the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, she was limited to escort duties in the western half of the Black Sea during the war by the powerful Soviet Black Sea Fleet which outnumbered Axis naval forces in the Black Sea; the ship may have sunk two Soviet submarines during the war. In early 1944 the Soviets were able to cut off and surround the port of Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula. Regele Ferdinand covered convoys evacuating Axis troops from Sevastopol and was badly damaged in May when she rescued some troops herself; that year Romania switched sides, but despite that the Soviets seized the Romanian ships and incorporated them into the Soviet Navy. Renamed Likhoy, the ship served until she was struck from the navy list in 1951 when she was returned to the Romanians who renamed her D21 in 1952; the ship was subsequently scrapped. Following the end of World War I and the re-purchase of two Aquila-class cruisers from Italy, the Romanian Government decided to order two modern destroyers from the Pattison Yard in Italy, as part of the 1927 Naval Programme.
The design was based on the British Shakespeare-class destroyer leaders, but differed in the arrangement of their propulsion machinery. The guns were imported from the fire-control system from Germany. Four destroyers were intended to be ordered, but only two were built; the Regele Ferdinand-class ships had an overall length of 101.9 metres, a beam of 9.6 metres, a mean draught of 3.51 metres. They displaced 1,400 long tons at 1,850 long tons at deep load, their crew numbered 212 sailors. The ships were powered by two Parsons geared steam turbines, each driving a single propeller, using steam provided by four Thornycroft boilers; the turbines were designed to produce 52,000 shaft horsepower for a speed of 37 knots, although the Regele Ferdinands reached 38 knots during their sea trials. They could carry 480 long tons of fuel oil which gave them a range of 3,000 nautical miles at a speed of 15 knots; the main armament of the Regele Ferdinand-class ships consisted of five 50-calibre Bofors 120-millimetre guns in single mounts, two superfiring pairs fore and aft of the superstructure and one gun aft of the rear funnel.
For anti-aircraft defense, they were equipped with one Bofors 76-millimetre anti-aircraft gun between the funnels and a pair of 40-millimetre AA guns. The ships were fitted with two triple mounts for 533-millimetre torpedo tubes and could carry 50 mines and 40 depth charges, they were equipped with a Siemens fire-control system which included a pair of rangefinders, one each for the fore and aft guns. The 40-millimetre guns were replaced by two German 3.7-centimetre AA guns and a pair of French 13.2-millimetre M1929 Hotchkiss machineguns were added in 1939. Two Italian depth charge throwers were installed. During World War II, the 76-millimetre gun was replaced by four 20-millimetre AA guns. In 1943, the two ships were equipped with a German S-Gerät sonar; the following year, the upper forward 120-millimetre gun was replaced by a German 88-millimetre AA gun. German 88-millimetre guns in Romanian service were themselves modified by being fitted with Romanian-produced barrel liners. Regele Ferdinand, named after King Ferdinand I of Romania, was ordered on 13 November 1926 and was laid down by Pattison in June 1927 at their shipyard in Naples, Italy.
She was commissioned on 7 September 1930 after arriving in Romania. The ship was assigned to the Destroyer Squadron, visited by King Carol II of Romania and the Prime Minister, Nicolae Iorga, on 27 May 1931. Massively outnumbered by the Black Sea Fleet, the Romanian ships were kept behind the minefields defending Constanța for several months after the start of Operation Barbarossa on 22 June 1941, training for convoy escort operations. Beginning on 5 October, the Romanians began laying minefields to defend the route between the Bosphorus and Constanța. After the evacuation of Odessa on 16 October, they began to clear the Soviet mines defending the port and to lay their own minefields protecting the route between Constanța and Odessa. On 1 December Regele Ferdinand, her sister ship Regina Maria and the flotilla leader Mărăști were escorting a convoy to Odessa when a submarine unsuccessfully attacked the convoy, it was spotted and depth charged by Regele Ferdinand and Regina Maria with the latter claiming a kill.
Soviet records do not acknowledge any losses on that date. The sisters escorted another convoy to Odessa on 16–17 December, the last one before ice closed the port; as the convoy passed Jibrieni, Regele Ferdinand spotted a submarine's periscope and depth charged the submarine after evading a pair of torpedoes. The ship reported spotting an oil slick. During the winter of 1941–1942, the Romanian destroyers were occupied with escorting convoys between the Bosporus and Constanța. On the nights of 22/23 and 24/25 June, Regele Ferdinand, Regina Maria and the flotilla leader Mărășești covered the laying of defensive minefields off Odessa. After Sevastopol surrendered on 4 July, a direct route between the port and Constanța was opened in October and operated year-round. On 14 October Regele Ferdinand was attacked and missed by the submarine M-32; the submarine Shch-207 unsuccessfully attacked Regele Ferdinand and Mărăști as they escorted a convoy of