Scone Palace is a Category A listed historic house and 5 star tourism attraction near the village of Scone and the city of Perth, Scotland. Built of red sandstone with a castellated roof, it is one of the finest examples of late Georgian Gothic style in the United Kingdom. A place steeped in history, Scone was the site of an early Christian church, an Augustinian priory. In the 12th century, Scone Priory was granted abbey status and as a result an Abbot's residence – an Abbot's Palace – was constructed, it is for this reason that the current structure retains the name "Palace". Scone Abbey was damaged in 1559 during the Scottish Reformation after a mob whipped up by the famous reformer, John Knox, came to Scone from Dundee. Having survived the Reformation, the Abbey in 1600 became a secular Lordship within the parish of Scone, Scotland; the Palace has thus been home to the Earls of Mansfield for over 400 years. During the early 19th century the Palace was enlarged by the architect William Atkinson.
In 1802, David William Murray, 3rd Earl of Mansfield, commissioned Atkinson to extend the Palace, recasting the late 16th-century Palace of Scone. The 3rd Earl tasked Atkinson with updating the old Palace whilst maintaining characteristics of the medieval Gothic abbey buildings it was built upon, with the majority of work finished by 1808. Landscaping work around the Palace was undertaken by John Claudius Loudon. Loudon was to Atkinson, tasked with designing a landscape to remain in keeping with, as well as highlighting, the historic significance of Scone. Scone was for nearly 1000 years the crowning-place of Scottish kings and the home of the Stone of Scone, it is a site of immense historic significance. Further work was undertaken in 1842 to make Scone Palace ready for the visit of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert; the vast majority of this work was to the interior decor although did include the provision of running water a huge cost to the Earl. Many of the original early 19th-century interior designs survive, including several ornately carved and vaulted ceilings.
Scone Palace is a 5-star tourism attraction. The State Rooms are open each year from April till the end of October, it is possible for groups to organize visits during the winter months. The Palace grounds are open to the public; the gardens include the famous David Douglas Pinetum plus a star-shaped maze. The Palace hosts multiple outdoor events including the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust's Scottish Game Fair, Rewind Festival, the Farming of Yesteryear among many others; the history of Scone is shrouded in legend. Scotland, sitting on the edge of Europe, was one of the last kingdoms to adopt and benefit from the written word and the legal system it upheld. In fact it was only at the end of the 11th century that Scotland saw a growth of record keeping, with property rights logged via legal charter and royal government practice noted in writing, it is that there were a few documents written before the 11th century, Scotland's turbulent history is to have been witness to the loss or destruction of many documents.
The first piece of hard evidence that relates to Scone is a charter dating to 906. This date could represent the period in which Scone first came to prominence as a center of power and government, or it could be the first concrete date we have in what is a much longer history. Many historians writing to the 20th century have suggested without any decent evidence that Scone's history was not just "post" but in some cases "pre-Roman". Modern historians for this reason are non-committal regarding the early history of Scone as there is too much doubt and little evidence, it is not known why the area is called "Scone". The search for a meaning to the word has not been helped by the fact that throughout the last 10 centuries, Scone has been written as Scon, Scoan, Schone, Skune, Skuyne, Sgoin, Sgàin and Sgoinde, it is difficult thus to know. It is known that Scone was at the heart of the ancient Pictish kingdom and thus one would think that the name would derive from the Pictish language; the existence of a distinct Pictish language during the Early Middle Ages is attested in Blessed Bede's early 8th century Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, which names Pictish as a language distinct from that spoken by the Britons, the Irish, the English.
Bede states that a Gael, used an interpreter during his mission to the Picts. The problem is that no record of written Pictish has been found. Given Bede's description of Columba's encounter with the Picts. Contemporary historians, believe that the Pictish language in fact had Celtic origins; the inhabitants of Britain that the Romans fought, in part subjugated, spoke various dialects of Celtic: P-Celtic Brittonic and Q-Celtic Goidelic. Scottish Gaelic, a language still spoken by thousands of people in the west of Scotland, stems from the Q-Celtic language, it is easy to mistakenly conclude that Scottish Gaelic and Pictish must have both derived singularly from the ancient Q-Celtic language and thus that the place name "Scone" has Gaelic origins. This theory was popularized through persistent folklore. Many contemporary historians, now believe that Pictish was a northerly dialect of the P-Celtic Brittonic languages and thus related to the Cumbric and Welsh languages, less so to the Irish Q-Celtic language.
The mistaken 19th-century his
Iconoclasm is the social belief in the importance of the destruction of icons and other images or monuments, most for religious or political reasons. People who engage in or support iconoclasm are called iconoclasts, a term that has come to be applied figuratively to any individual who challenges "cherished beliefs or venerated institutions on the grounds that they are erroneous or pernicious". Conversely, one who reveres or venerates religious images is called an iconolater; the term does not encompass the specific destruction of images of a ruler after his death or overthrow. Iconoclasm may be carried out by people of a different religion, but is the result of sectarian disputes between factions of the same religion. Within Christianity, iconoclasm has been motivated by those who adopt a strict interpretation of the Ten Commandments, which forbid the making and worshipping of "graven images or any likeness of anything"; the Church Fathers identified Jews, fundamental iconoclasts, with heresy and saw deviations from orthodox Christianity and opposition to the veneration of images as heresies that were "Jewish in spirit".
The degree of iconoclasm among Christian branches varies. Islam, in general, tends to be more iconoclastic than Christianity, with Sunni Islam being more iconoclastic than Shia Islam. In the Bronze Age, the most significant episode of iconoclasm occurred in Egypt during the Amarna Period, when Akhenaten, based in his new capital of Akhetaten, instituted a significant shift in Egyptian artistic styles alongside a campaign of intolerance towards the traditional gods and a new emphasis on a state monolatristic tradition focused on the god Aten, the Sun disk— many temples and monuments were destroyed as a result: In rebellion against the old religion and the powerful priests of Amun, Akhenaten ordered the eradication of all of Egypt's traditional gods, he sent royal officials to chisel out and destroy every reference to Amun and the names of other deities on tombs, temple walls, cartouches to instill in the people that the Aten was the one true god. Public references to Akhenaten were destroyed soon after his death.
Comparing the ancient Egyptians with the Israelites, Jan Assmann writes: For Egypt, the greatest horror was the destruction or abduction of the cult images. In the eyes of the Israelites, the erection of images meant the destruction of divine presence. In Egypt, iconoclasm was the most terrible religious crime. In this respect Osarseph alias Akhenaten, the iconoclast, the Golden Calf, the paragon of idolatry, correspond to each other inversely, it is strange that Aaron could so avoid the role of the religious criminal, it is more than probable. In this respect and Akhenaten became, after all related. Although widespread use of Christian iconography only began as Christianity spread among gentiles after the legalization of Christianity by Roman Emperor Constantine, scattered expressions of opposition to the use of images were reported; the period after the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian evidently saw a huge increase in the use of images, both in volume and quality, a gathering aniconic reaction.
In the Eastern Roman Empire, government-led iconoclasm began with Byzantine Emperor Leo III, following what seems to have been a long period of rising opposition to the use or misuse of images. The religious conflict created economic divisions in Byzantine society, it was supported by the Eastern, non-Greek peoples of the Empire who had to deal with raids from the new Muslim Empire. On the other hand, the wealthier Greeks of Constantinople, the peoples of the Balkan and Italian provinces opposed iconoclasm. Within the Byzantine Empire the government had been adopting Christian images more frequently. One notable change came in 695, when Justinian II's government added a full-face image of Christ on the obverse of imperial gold coins; the change caused the Caliph Abd al-Malik to stop his earlier adoption of Byzantine coin types. He started a purely Islamic coinage with lettering only. A letter by the Patriarch Germanus written before 726 to two Iconoclast bishops says that "now whole towns and multitudes of people are in considerable agitation over this matter" but there is little written evidence of the debate.
The first iconoclastic wave happened in Wittenberg in the early 1520s under reformers Thomas Müntzer and Andreas Karlstadt. It prompted Martin Luther concealing as Junker Jörg, to intervene. In contrast to the Lutherans who favoured sacred art in their churches and homes, the Reformed leaders, in particular Andreas Karlstadt, Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin, encouraged the removal of religious images by invoking the Decalogue's prohibition of idolatry and the manufacture of graven images of God; as a result, individuals attacked images. However, in most cases, civil authorities removed images in an orderly manner in the newly Reformed Protestant cities and territories of Europe. Calvinist Iconoclasm during the Reformation Significant iconoclastic riots took place in Basel, Copenhagen, Münster, Augsburg, Scotland and Saintes and La Rochelle. Calvinist iconoclasm in Europe "provoked reactive riots by Lutheran mobs" in Germany and "antagonized the neighbouring Eastern Orth
Inverkeithing is a town and a royal burgh, parish, in Fife, located on the Firth of Forth. According to population estimates, the town has a population of 5,265; the port town was given burgh status by King David I of Scotland in the 12th century and is situated about 9 miles north from Edinburgh Airport and about 4 miles from the centre of Dunfermline. Modern Inverkeithing is continuous with Rosyth and Dalgety Bay. Inverkeithing is a developing town and has many new housing sites including one next to the town's railway station, it is a busy commuter town, with a major railway station that trains to and from several large towns and cities call at. The town is home to the Ferrytoll Park & Ride, is served by many buses; the civil parish has a population of 8,090. The name is of Inbhir Céitein. Inbhir means ` inflow' thus ` mouth of the Keithing/Ceitein; the Keithing burn that runs through the southern part of the town. Taylor notes that the name Keithing contains the Pictish *coet,'wood', so the Keithing burn would have meant'burn that runs through or past or issues from woodland'.
The parish church of St. Peter stands in its large churchyard on the east side of Church Street; the main part of the church is a large plain neo-Gothic'preaching box' of 1826-27, but the western tower is 14th century. The traceried belfry openings are unusual. Built of soft sandstone, the tower is weathered, has been refaced, it is crowned by a lead spire with over-emphatic gabled dormers housing clock-faces. The church's roomy interior is graced by a little-known treasure, one of the finest medieval furnishings to survive in any Scottish parish church; this is the large well preserved, grey sandstone font of c 1398, rediscovered buried under the church, having been concealed at the Reformation. Its octagonal bowl is decorated with angels holding heraldic shields; these include the royal arms of the King of Scots, of Queen Anabella Drummond, the consort of Robert III. The high quality of the carving is explained by it being a royal gift to the parish church, Inverkeithing being a favourite residence of Queen Anabella.
The town was the last place that Alexander III was seen before he fell off his horse at Kinghorn. Some texts have said. Although there is no cliff at the site where his body was found there is a steep rocky embankment - which would have been fatal in the dark; the town museum is housed in a late medieval building, part of the claustral ranges of the town's Franciscan friary. This is one of the few remnants of a house of the Greyfriars to have survived in Scotland. In the garden behind the museum, some stone vaults survive which were storage cellars associated with the friary; the Battle of Inverkeithing was fought on two sites in the area, one north of the town close to Pitreavie Castle, the other to the south on and around the peninsula of North Queensferry and the isthmus connecting it to Inverkeithing. The battle took place during Oliver Cromwell's invasion of the Kingdom of Scotland following the Third English Civil War, it was an attempt by the English Parliamentarian forces to outflank the army of Scottish Covenanters loyal to Charles II at Stirling and get access to the north of Scotland.
This was the last major engagement of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and led to Scotland passing into Cromwell's control. Cromwell's troops crushed the Scots, forcing them to abandon Stirling and march south to support Charles II. Of the estimated 800 Maclean clansmen who fought in the battle, only 35 were said to have survived; the Pinkerton Burn was said to have run red with blood for days afterwards. This was a significant episode in the history of Clan MacLean, the 20th century poet Sorley MacLean mentions Inverkeithing in one of his poems. Inverkeithing is famous for its shipbreaking at's yard; the second RMS Mauretania and the hull of the RMS Olympic were dismantled here. David Spence, recipient of the Victoria Cross The Russian admiral Samuel Greig was a native of Inverkeithing Sir Duncan McDonald FRSE industrialist Inverkeithing forms part of the Dunfermline and West Fife Westminster constituency held by Douglas Chapman MP for the Scottish National Party. For the Scottish Parliament Inverkeithing forms part of the Cowdenbeath constituency which falls within the Mid Scotland and Fife electoral region.
The constituency is represented by Alex Rowley for the Labour Party. The heart of the medieval town is around the High Church Street. On the High Street is the category A listed building, the Hospitium of the Grey Friars, the best surviving example of a friary building left in Scotland; the remains date either from after the Reformation or the restoration between 1932 and 1934. The building is now used as a social community centre; the town contains one of the finest examples remaining of a mercat cross in Scotland. The cross is said to have been built as a memorial for the marriage of the Duke of Rothesay with the daughter of the Earl of Douglas; the cross stood on the north end of the High Street, before moving to face the tolbooth and to its present site at the junction between Bank Street and High Street, further up the road. The core of the mercat cross is said to date from the late 14th century with the octangonal shaft from the 16th century. Two of the shields on the cross bear the arms of the Douglas family.
A unicorn and a shield depicting the St Andrew's Cross were added in 1688, the work of John Boyd of Sout
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy, entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop; some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. One, ordained deacon and bishop is understood to hold the fullness of the priesthood, given responsibility by Christ to govern and sanctify the Body of Christ, members of the Faithful. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishops in shepherding a flock.
The term epískopos, meaning "overseer" in Greek, the early language of the Christian Church, was not from the earliest times distinguished from the term presbýteros, but the term was clearly used in the sense of the order or office of bishop, distinct from that of presbyter in the writings attributed to Ignatius of Antioch.. The earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In Acts 11:30 and Acts 15:22, we see a collegiate system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just, according to tradition the first bishop of the city. In Acts 14:23, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia; the word presbyter was not yet distinguished from overseer, as in Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5–7 and 1 Peter 5:1. The earliest writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the Didache and the First Epistle of Clement, for example, show the church used two terms for local church offices—presbyters and deacon.
In Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Titus in Crete to oversee the local church. Paul commands Titus to exercise general oversight. Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches; the head or "monarchic" bishop came to rule more and all local churches would follow the example of the other churches and structure themselves after the model of the others with the one bishop in clearer charge, though the role of the body of presbyters remained important. As Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to minister each congregation, acting as the bishop's delegate. Around the end of the 1st century, the church's organization became clearer in historical documents. In the works of the Apostolic Fathers, Ignatius of Antioch in particular, the role of the episkopos, or bishop, became more important or, rather was important and being defined.
While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who don't recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city. "Blessed be God, who has granted unto you, who are yourselves so excellent, to obtain such an excellent bishop." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 1:1 "and that, being subject to the bishop and the presbytery, ye may in all respects be sanctified." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 2:1 "For your justly renowned presbytery, worthy of God, is fitted as to the bishop as the strings are to the harp." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 4:1 "Do ye, beloved, be careful to be subject to the bishop, the presbyters and the deacons."
— Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 5:1 "Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6:1. "your godly bishop" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:1. "the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1. "Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7:1. "Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of spirit." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13:2. "In like manner let all men respe
A fair known as a funfair, is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with scheduled times lasting from an afternoon to several weeks. Variations of fairs include: Street fair, a fair that celebrates the character of a neighborhood and merchant oriented; as its name suggests, it is held on the main street of a neighborhood. Fête, an elaborate festival, party, or celebration. Festival, an event ordinarily coordinated and/or celebrated by a community or group with a theme e.g. music, season and/or on some characteristic or aspect of a community, or the region i.e beach, local harvest, etc. or state the community is in. This can include history, an prevalent ethnicity, religion, or a national holiday, e.g.. The Fourth of July. County fair or agricultural show, a public event exhibiting the equipment, animals and recreation associated with agriculture and animal husbandry. State fair, an annual competitive and recreational gathering of a U.
S. state's population held in late summer or early fall. It is a larger version of a county fair including only exhibits or competitors that have won in their categories at the more local county fairs. Trade fair, an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, study activities of rivals, examine recent market trends and opportunities. Traveling carnival simply called a carnival, an amusement show made up of amusement rides, food vendors, merchandise vendors, games of chance and skill, thrill acts, animal acts. Traveling funfair, a small to medium-sized traveling show composed of stalls and other amusements; the Roman fairs were holidays. In the Roman provinces of Judea and Syria Palaestina, Jewish rabbis prohibited Jews from participating in fairs in certain towns because the religious nature of the fairs contravened the prescribed practice of Judaism. In the Middle Ages, many fairs developed as temporary markets and were important for long-distance and international trade, as wholesale traders travelled, sometimes for many days, to fairs where they could be sure to meet those they needed to buy from or sell to.
Fairs were tied to special Christian religious occasions, such as the Saint's day of the local church. Stagshaw in England, is documented to have held annual fairs as early as 1293 consisting of the sales of animals. Along with the main fair held on 4 July, the city hosted smaller fairs throughout the year where specific types of animals were sold, such as one for horses, one for lambs, one for ewes; the Kumbh Mela, held every twelve years, at Allahabad, Haridwar and Ujjain is one of the largest fairs in India, where more than 60 million people gathered in January 2001, making it the largest gathering anywhere in the world. Kumbha means Mela means fair in Sanskrit. In the United States, fairs draw in as many as 150 million people each summer. Children's competitions at an American fair range from breeding small animals to robotics, whilst the organization 4-H has become a traditional association; because of the great numbers of people attracted by fairs they were the scenes of riots and disturbances, so the privilege of holding a fair was granted by royal charter.
At first, they were allowed only in towns and places of strength, or where there was a bishop, sheriff or governor who could keep order. In time various benefits became attached to certain fairs, such as granting people the protection of a holiday and allowing them freedom from arrest in certain circumstances; the officials were authorized to mete out justice to those. The chaotic nature of the Stagshaw Bank Fair with masses of people and animals and stalls inspired the Newcastle colloquialism "like a Stagey Bank Fair" to describe a general mess; the American county fair is featured in E. B. White's Charlotte's Web. Art exhibition Lists of festivals "Fair". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. 1911
In architecture the capital or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column. It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface; the capital, projecting on each side as it rises to support the abacus, joins the square abacus and the circular shaft of the column. The capital may be convex, as in the Doric order; these form the three principal types. The Composite order, established in the 16th century on a hint from the Arch of Titus, adds Ionic volutes to Corinthian acanthus leaves. From the visible position it occupies in all colonnaded monumental buildings, the capital is selected for ornamentation; the treatment of its detail may be an indication of the building's date. The two earliest Egyptian capitals of importance are those based on the lotus and papyrus plants and these, with the palm tree capital, were the chief types employed by the Egyptians, until under the Ptolemies in the 3rd to 1st centuries BC, various other river plants were employed, the conventional lotus capital went through various modifications.
Many motifs of Egyptian ornamentation are symbolic, such as the scarab, or sacred beetle, the solar disk, the vulture. Other common motifs include palm leaves, the papyrus plant, the buds and flowers of the lotus; some of the most popular types of capitals were the Hathor, lotus and Egyptian composite. Most of the types are based on vegetal motifs. Capitals of some columns were painted in bright colors; some kind of volute capital is shown in the Assyrian bas-reliefs, but no Assyrian capital has been found. In the Achaemenid Persian capital the brackets are carved with two decorated back-to-back animals projecting right and left to support the architrave; the bull is the most common, but there are lions and griffins. The capital extends below for further than in most other styles, with decoration drawn from the many cultures that the Persian Empire conquered including Egypt and Lydia. There are double volutes at the top and, bottom of a long plain fluted section, square, although the shaft of the column is round, fluted.
The earliest Aegean capital is. Capitals of the second, concave type, include the richly carved examples of the columns flanking the Tomb of Agamemnon in Mycenae: they are carved with a chevron device, with a concave apophyge on which the buds of some flowers are sculpted; the orders, structural systems for organising component parts, played a crucial role in the Greeks' search for perfection of ratio and proportion. The Doric capital is the simplest of the five Classical orders: it consists of the abacus above an ovolo molding, with an astragal collar set below, it was developed in the lands occupied by the Dorians, one of the two principal divisions of the Greek race. It became the preferred style of the western colonies. In the Temple of Apollo, the echinus moulding has become a more definite form: this in the Parthenon reaches its culmination, where the convexity is at the top and bottom with a delicate uniting curve; the sloping side of the echinus becomes flatter in the examples, in the Colosseum at Rome forms a quarter round.
In versions where the frieze and other elements are simpler the same form of capital is described as being in the Tuscan order. Doric reached its peak in the mid-5th century BC, was one of the orders accepted by the Romans, its characteristics are masculinity and solidity. The Doric capital consists of a cushion-like convex moulding known as an echinus, a square slab termed an abacus. In the Ionic capital, spirally coiled volutes are inserted between the ovolo; this order appears to have been developed contemporaneously with the Doric, though it did not come into common usage and take its final shape until the mid-5th century BC. The style prevailed in Ionian lands, centred on the coast of Asia Aegean islands; the order's form was far less set with local variations persisting for many decades. In the Ionic capitals of the archaic Temple of Artemis at Ephesus the width of the abacus is twice that of its depth the earliest Ionic capital known was a bracket capital. A century in the temple on the Ilissus, the abacus has become square.
Acording to the Roman architect Vitruvius, the Ionic order's main characteristics were beauty and slenderness, derived from its basis on the proportion of a woman. The volutes of an Ionic capital rest on an echinus invariably carved with egg-and-dart. Above the scrolls was an abacus, more shallow than that in Doric examples, again ornamented with egg-and-dart, it has been suggested that the foliage of the Greek Corinthian capital was based on the Acanthus spinosus, that of the Roman on the Acanthus mollis. Not all architectural foliage is as realistic; the leaves are carved in two "ranks" or bands, like one leafy cup set within another. One of the most beautiful Corinthian capitals is t
Egg-and-dart or egg-and-tongue is an ornamental device carved in wood, stone, or plaster quarter-round ovolo mouldings, consisting of an egg-shaped object alternating with an element shaped like an arrow, anchor or dart. Egg-and-dart enrichment of the ovolo molding of the Ionic capital is found in ancient Greek architecture at the Erechtheion and was used by the Romans; the motif has been common in neoclassical architecture. Lewis, Philippa. Dictionary of Ornament. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 0-394-50931-5. Media related to Egg and dart at Wikimedia Commons