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Mercedes-Benz

Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. Mercedes-Benz is known for luxury vehicles, trucks, buses and ambulances; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the largest seller of premium vehicles in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz origins' come from Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first gasoline-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, a European automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.

Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.

Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced labourers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the labourers' families.

Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until December 2012, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. In November 2019, the Mercedes-Maybach GLS 600 SUV debuted. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.

In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beijing Benz is a joint venture with BAIC Group to produce Mercedes-Benz branded cars in China. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz apologized for inciting controversy in China by quoting the Dalai Lama on an Instagram post. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place.

On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability. In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars

Eduard Devrient

Eduard Devrient was a German baritone, playwright, theatre director, theatre reformer and historian. Devrient came from a theatrical family, his uncle was Ludwig Devrient and his brother Karl was the first husband of Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient. He was born and studied in Berlin and performed in a number of German opera houses between 1819 and 1834, when he lost his singing voice and turned his attention to writing and acting. From 1844-6 he worked in Dresden as actor/director, he directed the Hoftheater in Karlsruhe from 1852 until his retirement in 1870; as a singer, he performed in works by Gluck, Mozart and Weber, among others, sang in the première of Marschner's Hans Heiling. He sang in the 1831 Berlin premiere of Der Templer und die Jüdin, he took the part of Christ in the 1829 revival by his friend Felix Mendelssohn of J. S. Bach's St Matthew Passion, having sung the role of Carrasco in Mendelssohn's only publicly performed opera, Die Hochzeit des Camacho, he wrote a number of plays and two other opera librettos, Die Kirmes and Der Zigeuner, both set by Wilhelm Taubert.

In Karlsruhe, in the course of seventeen years, he not only raised it to a high position, but enriched its repertory by many noteworthy librettos. But his chief work is his history of Geschichte der deutschen Schauspielkunst. Eduard Devrient died in Karlsruhe, his son Otto Devrient worked in the theatre. Sadie, Stanley; the New Grove Dictionary of Opera. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-522186-2. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Warrack and Ewan West; the Oxford Dictionary of Opera. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-869164-5. Works by Eduard Devrient at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Eduard Devrient at Internet Archive

Porsche 356

The Porsche 356 is a sports car, first produced by Austrian company Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH, by German company Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH, it was Porsche's first production automobile. Earlier cars designed by the Austrian company include Cisitalia Grand Prix race car, the Volkswagen Beetle, Auto Union Grand Prix cars; the 356 is a lightweight and nimble-handling, rear-engine, rear-wheel drive, two-door available both in hardtop coupé and open configurations. Engineering innovations continued during the years of manufacture, contributing to its motorsports success and popularity. Production started in 1948 at Gmünd, where 50 cars were built. In 1950 the factory relocated to Zuffenhausen and general production of the 356 continued until April 1965, well after the replacement model 911 made its autumn 1964 debut. Of the 76,000 produced half survive; the original price in 1948 for the 356 coupe was US$3,750. The 356 cabriolet cost US$4,250. Prior to World War II Porsche designed and built three Type 64 cars for a 1939 Berlin-to-Rome race, cancelled.

In 1948 the mid-engine, tubular chassis 356 prototype called. This led to some debate as to the "first" Porsche automobile. Although the original Porsche 356 unit had a rear-mid engine placement, the rear-engined 356 is considered by Porsche to be its first production model; the 356 was created by Ferdinand "Ferry" Porsche, who founded the Austrian company with his sister, Louise. Like its cousin, the Volkswagen Beetle, the 356 is a four-cylinder, air-cooled, rear-engine, rear-wheel drive car with unitized pan and body construction; the chassis was a new design as was the 356's body, designed by Porsche employee Erwin Komenda, while certain mechanical components including the engine case and some suspension components were based on and sourced from Volkswagen. Ferry Porsche described the thinking behind the development of the 356 in an interview with the editor of Panorama, the PCA magazine, in September 1972. "... I had always driven speedy cars. I had an Alfa Romeo a BMW and others. …. By the end of the war I had a Volkswagen Cabriolet with a supercharged engine and, the basic idea.

I saw that if you had enough power in a small car it is nicer to drive than if you have a big car, overpowered. And it is more fun. On this basic idea we started the first Porsche prototype. To make the car lighter, to have an engine with more horsepower…that was the first two-seater that we built in Carinthia"; the first 356 was road certified in Austria on June 8, 1948, was entered in a race in Innsbruck, where it won its class. Porsche re-engineered and refined the car with a focus on performance. Fewer and fewer parts were shared between Porsche as the 1950s progressed; the early 356 automobile bodies produced at Gmünd were handcrafted in aluminum, but when production moved to Zuffenhausen, Germany, in 1950, models produced there were steel-bodied. The aluminum-bodied cars from that small company are what are now referred to as "prototypes". Porsche contracted Reutter to build the steel bodies and bought the Reutter company in 1963; the Reutter company retained the seat manufacturing part of the business and changed its name to "Recaro".

Little noticed at its inception by a small number of auto racing enthusiasts, the first 356s sold in Austria and Germany. It took Porsche two years, starting with the first prototype in 1948, to manufacture the first 50 automobiles. By the early 1950s the 356 had gained some renown among enthusiasts on both sides of the Atlantic for its aerodynamics and excellent build quality; the class win at Le Mans in 1951 was a factor. It was common for owners to race the car as well as drive them on the streets, they introduced the four-cam racing "Carrera" engine, a new design and unique to Porsche sports cars, in late 1954. Increasing success with its racing and road cars brought Porsche orders for over 10,000 units in 1964, by the time 356 production ended in 1965 76,000 had been produced; the 356 was built in four distinct series, the original, followed by the 356 A, 356 B, the 356 C. To distinguish among the major revisions of the model, 356s are classified into a few major groups; the 356 coupés and "cabriolets" built through 1955 are identifiable by their split or bent windscreens.

In late 1955 the 356 A appeared, with a curved windshield. The A was the first road going Porsche to offer the Carrera four-cam engine as an option. In late 1959 the T5 356 B appeared; the final version was the 356 C, little changed from the late T6 B cars but disc brakes replaced the drums. Prior to completion of 356 production, Porsche had developed a higher-revving 616/36 version of the 356's four-cylinder pushrod engine for installation in a new 912 model that commenced production in April 1965. Although the 912 used numerous 356 components, Porsche did not intend for the 912 to replace the 356; when the decision was made to replace the 356, the 901 was the road car designed to carry the Porsche name forward. The 912 was developed as the "standard version" of the 911 at the 17,500 DM price of a 356 1600 SC, while the complex but faster and heavier six-cylinder 911 was priced more than fifty percent higher. Customers purchased nearly 33,000 912 coupés and Targas powered by the Type 616 engine that had served Porsche so well during the 356 era.

From the earliest, 1,100 cc Gmünd beginnings, t