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Mercedes-Benz W196

The Mercedes-Benz W196 was a Formula One racing car produced by Mercedes-Benz for the 1954 and 1955 F1 seasons. Successor to the W194, in the hands of Juan Manuel Fangio and Stirling Moss it won 9 of 12 races entered and captured the only two world championships in which it competed. Firsts included the use of desmodromic valves and Daimler-Benz developed mechanical direct fuel injection adapted from the DB 601 high-performance V12 used on the Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighter during World War II; the legendary 3-liter 300 SLR was derived from the W196 for the 1955 World Sportscar Championship season. Its crash at Le Mans that year ended not only its own short-lived domination on the WSC circuit but spelled the end for the W196, as Mercedes pulled out of competitive racing in 1955 and did not return for another three decades; the W196's delayed debut at the 1954 French Grand Prix saw the introduction of the aerodynamic closed-wheel aluminium "Type Monza" streamliner body for the high speed track at Reims.

Juan Fangio and Karl Kling claimed a 1–2 finish, Hans Herrmann posted the fastest lap. The same body was used only three more times: at the 1954 British Grand Prix at Silverstone, 1954 Italian Grand Prix at Monza, where it picked up its nickname in 1954, at Monza again at the 1955 Italian Grand Prix. In total the "Type Monza" won three races, all with Fangio at the wheel; these three Grand Prix have remained the only races won by a closed-wheel car in Formula One history. Attractive as the Monza was, its streamlined body was only suited to high-speed tracks made up of straights and slow corners, leading to defeat at its second race, the British Grand Prix at the high-speed corner dominated Silverstone circuit, where Fangio hit a number of oil barrels that marked out the circuit. A conventional open-wheel-version was introduced for the most important race on the calendar for Mercedes, the German Grand Prix at the twisty and long Nürburgring. Fangio, who had won the first two GPs of 1954 with a Maserati in his home city of Buenos Aires and at Spa, won this and the two following GPs in Switzerland and Italy, securing his 2nd World Championship.

At the Spanish Grand Prix in Barcelona, the last race of the 1954 season the low-mounted Mercedes air-intake clogged with leaves, costing the race to Mike Hawthorn in a Ferrari, leading to the intake's relocation atop the hood. In the shortened 1955 Formula One season, abbreviated after the Le Mans disaster, the W196 won every race except the Monaco Grand Prix, where Hans Herrmann crashed in practice and the other three team Mercedes cars failed to finish. A highlight for driver Stirling Moss was his finish 0.2 seconds ahead of stable mate Fangio at his home event, the British Grand Prix, his first GP win, a race where Mercedes romped home with a 1–2–3–4 finish. After capturing the two world championships it competed in, Mercedes withdrew from motorsport at the end of the 1955 season. Despite its strong reliability and good track performance, drivers Fangio and Moss described the car in MotorSport magazine as being "a bit difficult to drive, with a tendency for snap oversteer". Moss later said that "I'm surprised that the Merc wasn't a little bit easier to drive, because it wasn't.

It was a driver's car, but not an easy car to drive." Fangio shared similar feelings saying in MotorSport Magazine in 1979 that the car was "not so nice to drive as a Maserati 250F, but you were sure to finish. So the Mercedes was incredible in that way." 1970s/80s Formula One driver John Watson drove the W196 at Hockenheim, providing some insight as to why the car was difficult to drive. He said that "if you gave this car wider and grippier tyres and altered the suspension to suit the handling would be of a high order indeed." The W196 was so advanced and ahead of its time, that the narrow tyres available at the time could not handle the car's exceptional performance. The new 1954 Formula One rules allowed a choice of aspirated engines – up to 2.5 litres or 0.75 litres supercharged. The expected target range for competitive engines was 250 to 300 bhp. Mercedes' 1939 2-stage supercharged 1.5-litre 64.0×58.0 mm V8 gave 278 bhp at 8,250 rpm with about 2.7 atm pressure. Halving this would have only produced 139 bhp.

Studies by Mercedes showed that 390 bhp at 10,000 rpm could be achieved from 0.75 litres with a supercharger pressure of 4.4 atm, with 100 hp required to drive the supercharger. Fuel consumption of this 290 bhp net engine would have been 2.3 times higher than a aspirated one developing the same power. Since 115 bhp/l at 9,000 rpm was being developed by aspirated motorcycle racing engines, it was decided that a 2.5-litre engine was the correct choice. This was a significant change of philosophy, since all previous Mercedes-Benz Grand Prix engines since the 1920s had been supercharged. Mercedes' solution was to adapt direct fuel injection Daimler-Benz engineers had refined on the DB 601 high-performance V12 used on the Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighter. By its introduction at the 1954 French GP the 2,496.87 cc desmodromic valves straight 8 delivered 257 bhp. The W196 was the only F1 car with such advanced fuel technology, giving it a considerable advantage over the other carburetted engines. Variable length inlet tracts were experimented with and four wheel drive considered.

An eventual 340 bhp at 10,000 rpm was targeted for the 2.5-litre F1 motor. The W196 was front mid-engined, with its long longitudinally mounted engine placed just behind the front axles instead of over them to better balance

Health care in Poland

Health care in Poland is free and is delivered through a publicly funded health care system called the Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia, free for all the citizens of Poland provided they fall into the "insured" category. According to Article 68 of the Polish Constitution everyone has a right to have access to health care. Citizens are granted equal access to the publicly funded healthcare system. In particular, the government is obliged to provide free health care to young children, pregnant women, disabled people and to the elderly. However, private healthcare use is extensive in Poland. Patients who are uninsured have to pay the full cost of medical services. According to a study conducted by CBOS in 2016, out of 84% patients taking part in survey, 40% declared use of both private and public health services, 37% use only public health care and 7% use only private health services. 77% of all responders declared using private health care is caused by long waiting for public health care services. The main financing source is health insurance in the National Health Fund.

Citizens are obligated to pay insurance fee, 9% deducted from personal income. National budget covers around 5% of all health care expenses. Since 2007 emergency rescue services are financed in total from national budget. About 70% of health expenses in Poland are covered by the National Health Fund, with the remaining 30% coming from private health insurance; the management of the public health system is divided between the Minister of Health and three levels of territorial self-government. It has been suggested that this delays response to problems; the structure of the health system in Poland is regulated by these laws: The Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia is the National Health Fund of Poland. Health care units functioning as economic operators Self-sufficient public health care units: research institutes, foundations and church. Private health care: medical, birth attendant, dentistry Drug stores The basis of health care system is the primary care physician, most a specialist in family health, they are responsible for taking preventive actions for assigned patients.

If sickness requires the intervention of a specialist, the first contact doctor issues referral to hospital or other health care unit. Primary care surgeries are open from Monday to Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. At other times the Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia has contracts with 24 hour medical service units. Addresses and telephone numbers of units providing 24 hour-medical service are available in primary healthcare surgeries. Referral is not needed for oncology, psychiatry, dentistry or sexually transmitted diseases. Not all dental treatment is covered by the health insurance scheme. National Sanitary Inspection National Pharmacological Inspection Patients Ombudsman Voivodeship centres of public health Ministry of Health responsible for creating and executing national health programs and supervision on general health situation According to The Act 240 dated 27.08.2004 about Health Care Public Founding, access to health care services can be provided if patient is able to confirm having health insurance by presenting a document such as an Insurance card, an Insurance card for employee family members or a Pensionary card Referral is required to get access to: hospital treatment recovery treatment rehabilitation chronic disease careReferral is not required for patients: suffering from tuberculosis infected with HIV combatants, war invalids and repression victims blind civilians if they are victims of war privileged soldiers, veterans in case of treatment of injuries and infections during fulfilling duties outside country borders drugs and alcohol addicted taking medical examination for organ donation Emergency Medical Services in Poland are a service of public, pre-hospital emergency healthcare, including ambulance service, provided by the individual Polish cities and counties.

These services are provided by the local, publicly operated hospital, are funded by the government of Poland. In a number of cases, the hospitals contract these services to private operators. In addition to publicly funded services, there are a variety of private-for-profit ambulance services operating independently; the health care system in Poland has had problems for many years. According to the Euro health consumer index 2016, Poland was on 31st place out of 35; the main problems listed in Health Consumer Index 2016 are: difficult access to specialist physician and long time of waiting for health services: planned, serious surgery: more than 90 days, cancer treatment: more than 21 days, tomography: more than 7 days bad results in cancer treatment - no access to modern medicines and high level of mortality digital structure of health information: difficulties with electronic prescriptions and referrals, no access to examination results or list of authorised physicians

Kuala Kubu Bharu

Kuala Kubu Bharu, is the district capital of Hulu Selangor District, Malaysia. It was built after the town of Kuala Kubu was found to be unfit to continue as a town due to its severe flood problem when it was destroyed in a flood disaster in 1883. Kuala Kubu Bharu is located on the foothill of the famous Titiwangsa Mountain Range and well known as one of the vital water catchment area for the state of Selangor. Kuala Kubu Bharu is arguably the first garden township in Asia, planned by the first government town planner of British Federated Malay States, Charles Crompton Reade in 1925. Kuala Kubu Baru, or KKB as it is fondly known, is thought of by travelers as a sleepy town in Selangor, but a deeper look into its origins reveals a history, both enriching and charming, it is located 70 km from the capital city of Kuala Lumpur through Route 1 and is the main gateway for people heading to one of Malaysia's favourite hill stations, Fraser's Hill, a 45-minute drive away from KKB. KKB before its establishment in 1925, started off as the town of Kuala Kubu.

Well known as a mining town in the 18th century located between two tributaries of the Selangor River. In its heyday, it was the second biggest town in Selangor, it served as a fort for Raja Mahadi and Syed Mashor when they fought against Tengku Kudin's army during the Selangor Civil War from 1867 to 1874. A fortress was constructed in the area. During the part of the 19th century, Kuala Kubu was placed under administration of the Administrative Resident Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham, followed by JP Rodger and Edward Maxwell. At that time, Kuala Kubu was a gateway to the state of Pahang through what is today Route 55. However, tragedy struck in 1883 when a heavy downpour caused the Kuala Kubu dam to burst open and flood the town, affecting its tin mining activities and killing 33 people, including the District's Magistrate and Tax Collector Officer, Cecil Ranking. Thirty-eight homes were destroyed. Ranking had shot a white crocodile, regarded as the river guardian despite being told not to do so.

According to local beliefs, his act had caused the calamity to occur and all, left of him was his hand. Ranking's hand was interred in a grave at the Kuala Kubu Planter's Club House. Since the old town has been known as Ampang Pechah, locals termed the flooding as the Kuala Kubu Tragedy. After the incident, the British Federated Malay States government established a new town, calling it Kuala Kubu Bharu in an area located on the north of the old town of Kuala Kubu. Kuala Kubu Bharu formally became the administrative centre of Hulu Selangor district in 1931. Another tragedy struck in 1951 when Sir Henry Gurney, the British High Commissioner to Malaya, was assassinated by communist insurgents who ambushed his Rolls Royce along the Jalan Kuala Kubu Baru–Fraser's Hill road; the Hulu Selangor District Council was established on 1 January 1975 to administer the district of Hulu Selangor which included Kuala Kubu Bharu and the surrounding towns of Batang Kali and Serendah. On 15 January 1994, the Administrative Office of Hulu Selangor District Council moved to its present site at Jalan Bukit Kerajaan, replacing the former location in the former Old Market in Kuala Kubu Bharu town.

There was a town called Kuala Kubu nearby. In February 1883 the Kuala Kubu town was destroyed by a great flood caused by a broken dam near the town. Many of civilians were lost their home. 33 people were killed including the Magistrate and Tax Collector of Hulu Selangor during the British Malaya era, Cecil Ranking. However, the old town was flooded and most of the old town's facilities were damaged beyond repair. A Buddhist temple and a mosque survived the flood; the old town has since been known as Broken Dam in the Malay language. The tragedy was known as Tragedi Kuala Kubu by local civilians. After the tragedy, the British Federated Malay States government decided to build a new town near the remains of Kuala Kubu; the new town was named Kuala Kubu Bharu, with Bharu meaning "new" in the Malay language. The planning of this new site was undertaken by Charles Crompton Reade, the government town planner of the FMS in 1925 along the garden city ideas: with compact town centre encircled by a parkbelt.

This new town growth was hastened after 1931 after another major flood at the old town site. Reade's planning ideas of KKB along garden city lines has now been recognized as the first garden city in the country. Given this status much conservation work needs to be undertaken to retain as much as possible its original layout and history. Ampang Pechah is the original site of the Kuala Kubu located south from Kuala Kubu Bharu new town. A Buddhist temple, Cecil Ranking's gravestone and Masjid Al-Hidayah Ampang Pechah are the only remaining proof of Kuala Kubu existence and its tragedy in the past. KKB has retained most of its charm with its traditional and quaint shophouses, a 1930s clock tower and an old fire station. A Buddhist temple that survived the flood was refurbished in the 1980s, is another attraction, while Cecil Ranking's grave, presently within the compound of MRSM Kuala Kubu Bharu, might