1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Putnam County, Missouri
Putnam County is a county located in North Central Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,979, its county seat is Unionville. The county was organized February 28, 1845 and named for Israel Putnam, a hero in the French and Indian War and a general in the American Revolutionary War. Putnam County was established February 1845 from parts of Adair and Sullivan counties; the following year a portion of Putnam was removed to form of Dodge County. Both Putnam and Dodge extended nearly nine miles further north until an 1851 ruling by the Supreme Court on a border dispute with Iowa assigned the contested land to Iowa. Both counties were left with less than the statutory minimum area for a county as set by the state legislature, so Dodge County was dissolved and its area added to Putnam. In its early years, the county seat changed often with contentious debate. Putnamville, Bryant Station, Hartford all served until a central location called Harmony renamed Unionville, was chosen. In the 1860 U.
S. Census Putnam County had 9,240 residents, with three flour mills. Coal had been an abundant since its earliest settlement. Following the arrival of the Burlington & Southwestern Railway in 1873, coal mining became a major industry in the east of the county. At one time three railroads crossed Putnam county: Milwaukee and St. Paul. Putnam County lost over two-thirds of its population between the years 1900 and 2000, when the United States changed from a rural to an urban country. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 520 square miles, of which 517 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. Wayne County, Iowa Appanoose County, Iowa Schuyler County Adair County Sullivan County Mercer County U. S. Route 136 Route 5 Route 129 Route 139 Route 149 As of the census of 2010, there were 4,979 people, 2,228 households, 1,517 families residing in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 2,914 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 99.14% White, 0.06% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.10% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. 0.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,228 households out of which 27.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.20% were married couples living together, 7.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.90% were non-families. 28.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.83. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 24.00% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 20.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 96.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,282, the median income for a family was $32,031.
Males had a median income of $22,957 versus $18,884 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,647. About 13.20% of families and 16.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.60% of those under age 18 and 12.80% of those age 65 or over. Pre-1900 data from A History of Northeast Missouri, Published 1913 Putnam County R-I School District – Unionville Putnam County Elementary School Putnam County Middle School Putnam County High School Putnam County Public Library The Republican Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Putnam County. Republicans hold all but one of the elected positions in the county. All of Putnam County is a part of Missouri’s 3rd District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Nate Walker. All of Putnam County is a part of Missouri’s 12th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Dan Hegeman. All of Putnam County is included in Missouri’s 6th Congressional District and is represented by Sam Graves in the U.
S. House of Representatives. Former Governor Mike Huckabee received more votes, a total of 253, than any candidate from either party in Putnam County during the 2008 presidential primary, he narrowly edged out former U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton for this title by just one vote. Unionville Livonia Lucerne Powersville Worthington Lemons National Register of Historic Places listings in Putnam County, Missouri Digitized 1930 Plat Book of Putnam County from University of Missouri Division of Special Collections and Rare Books
Livingston County, Missouri
Livingston County is a county located in the northwestern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,195, its county seat is Chillicothe. The county was organized January 6, 1837, named for U. S. Secretary of State Edward Livingston. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 539 square miles, of which 532 square miles is land and 6.2 square miles is water. Grundy County Linn County Chariton County Carroll County Caldwell County Daviess County U. S. Route 36 U. S. Route 65 Route 190 As of the 2010 census, there were 15,195 people, 5,871 households and 3,834 families residing in the county; the population density was 28 per square mile. There were 6,730 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.39% White, 2.42% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.38% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races. 1.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,871 households of which 29.59% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.29% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.70% were non-families. 29.94% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.43% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.90. Age distribution was 21.91% under the age of 18, 7.74% from 18 to 24, 25.34% from 25 to 44, 26.81% from 45 to 64, 18.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 81.02 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.47 males. The median household income was $39,683, the median family income was $53,325. Males had a median income of $38,282 versus $24,944 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,295. About 15.8% of families and 20.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.4% of those under age 18 and 18.4% of those age 65 or over.
Chillicothe R-II School District – Chillicothe Garrison Elementary School Dewey Elementary School Field Elementary School Central Elementary School Chillicothe Middle School Chillicothe High School Livingston County R-III School District – Chula Livingston County Elementary School Southwest Livingston County R-I School District – Ludlow Southwest Livingston County Elementary School Southwest Livingston County High School Bishop Hogan Memorial School – Chillicothe – Roman Catholic Livingston County Library The Democratic Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Livingston County. Democrats hold all but two of the elected positions in the county. All of Livingston County is a part of Missouri’s 7th District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Rusty Black. All of Livingston County is a part of Missouri’s 21st District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Denny Hoskins. All of Livingston County is included in Missouri’s 6th Congressional District and is represented by Sam Graves in the U.
S. House of Representatives. Former U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton received more votes, a total of 948, than any candidate from either party in Livingston County during the 2008 presidential primary. Bower Slack Broaddus, U. S. Federal Judge Courtney W. Campbell, U. S. Representative from Florida Ray and Faye Copeland, serial killers Claude B. Hutchison, botanist and Mayor of Berkeley, California Jerry Litton, U. S. Representative from Missouri Charles H. Mansur, U. S. Representative from Missouri Shirley Collie Nelson, country music artist/actress Henry Moses Pollard, U. S. Representative from Missouri John Quinn, Missouri State Representative William Y. Slack, brigadier general and politician Clarence Edwin Watkins, publisher Mike Lair, Missouri State Representative and former teacher Haun's Mill massacre Mormon War National Register of Historic Places listings in Livingston County, Missouri Livingston County Library Digitized 1930 Plat Book of Livingston County from University of Missouri Division of Special Collections and Rare Books
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Harrison County, Missouri
Harrison County is a county located in the northwest portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,957, its county seat is Bethany. The county was organized February 14, 1845 and named for U. S. Representative Albert G. Harrison of Missouri. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 726 square miles, of which 723 square miles is land and 3.9 square miles is water. Ringgold County, Iowa Decatur County, Iowa Mercer County Grundy County Daviess County Gentry County Worth County Interstate 35 U. S. Route 69 U. S. Route 136 Route 13 Route 46 Route 146 As of the 2010 census, there were 8,957 people, 3,669 households and 2,461 families residing in the county; the population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 4,407 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.55% White, 0.36% Native American, 0.33% Black or African American, 0.20% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.52% from other races and 0.93% from two or more races.
1.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,669 households out of which 29.79% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.51% were married couples living together, 8.29% had a female householder with no husband present and 32.92% were non-families. 28.26% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.31% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 7.18% from 18 to 24, 20.88% from 25 to 44, 26.44% from 45 to 64 and 20.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.6 years. For every 100 females there were 98.47 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.79 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,000 and the median income for a family was $47,788. Males had a median income of $33,105 versus $25,388 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,967.
About 10.3% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.9% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, evangelical Protestantism is the most common religion among adherents in Harrison County, although 37.69% of the population does not claim any religion. The most predominant denominations among residents in Harrison County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists, United Methodists and Disciples of Christ. Cainsville R-I School District - Cainsville Cainsville Elementary School Cainsville High School Gilman City R-IV School District - Gilman City Gilman City Elementary School Gilman City High School North Harrison County R-III School District - Eagleville North Harrison County Elementary School North Harrison County High School Ridgeway R-V School District - Ridgeway Ridgeway Elementary School Ridgeway High School South Harrison County R-II School District - Bethany South Harrison County Early Childhood Educational Center South Harrison County Elementary School South Harrison County High School Zadie Creek School - Eagleville - Amish Bethany Public Library The Republican Party controls politics at the local level in Harrison County.
Republicans hold all but one of the elected positions in the county. Harrison County is a part of Missouri's 2nd District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by J. Eggleston. Harrison County is a part of Missouri’s 12th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Dan Hegeman. Harrison County is included in Missouri’s 6th Congressional District and is represented by Sam Graves in the U. S. House of Representatives. Harrison County is carried by Republican candidates; the last time a Democratic candidate has won the county was in 1992 by Bill Clinton: however, the victory was of a margin of.7%. At the presidential level, Harrison County is reliably Republican. George W. Bush carried the county in 2000 and 2004. Bill Clinton was the last Democratic presidential nominee to carry Harrison County in 1992. Like many of the rural counties throughout Missouri, Harrison County favored John McCain over Barack Obama in 2008. Like most rural areas throughout northwest Missouri, voters in Harrison County adhere to and culturally conservative principles which tend to influence their Republican leanings.
In 2004, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to define marriage as the union between a man and a woman—it overwhelmingly won in Harrison County with 81% of the vote. The initiative passed. In 2006, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to fund and legalize embryonic stem cell research in the state—it failed in Harrison County with 56% voting against the measure; the initiative narrowly passed the state with 51% of support from voters as Missouri became one of the first states in the nation to approve embryonic stem cell research. Despite Harrison County's longstanding tradition of supporting conservative platforms, voters in the county have a penchant for advancing populist causes like increasing the minimum wage. In 2006, Missourians voted on a proposition to increase the minimum wage in the state to $6.50 an hour—it passed Harrison County with 61% of the vote. The proposition passed every single county in Missouri with 79% voting in favor. (During the same election, voters in five other states
The Honey War was a bloodless territorial dispute in 1839 between Iowa Iowa Territory, Missouri over their border. The dispute over a 9.5-mile wide strip running the entire length of the border, caused by unclear wording in the Missouri Constitution on boundaries, misunderstandings over the survey of the Louisiana Purchase, a misreading of Native American treaties, was decided by the United States Supreme Court in Iowa's favor. The decision was to affirm a nearly 30-mile jog in the nearly straight line border between extreme southeast Iowa and northeast Missouri at Keokuk, Iowa, now Iowa's southernmost point. Before the issue was settled, militias from both sides faced each other at the border, a Missouri sheriff collecting taxes in Iowa was incarcerated, three trees containing beehives were cut down. 1803: Louisiana Purchase 1804: Treaty of St. Louis – Sac and Fox tribes cede Missouri from the mouth of the Gasconade River through Illinois and Wisconsin 1808: Treaty of Fort Clark – Osage Nation cedes Missouri and Arkansas east of Fort Osage 1812–1815: War of 1812 – Tribes protesting the treaties side with the British in Missouri and Mississippi Valley skirmishes 1814: Treaty of Ghent ends the war and requires tribes to be treated as before the war 1815: Treaties of Portage des Sioux includes wording that the Osage and Fox agree to their earlier treaties 1816: John C. Sullivan surveys the Indian Boundary Line from the mouth of the Kansas River in modern-day Kansas City, Missouri to Sheridan and east to the Des Moines River near Farmington, Iowa 1818: Missouri considers various boundary options for statehood.
1820: Missouri enters the Union with its western boundary being the Indian Boundary Line and its northern boundary being the Sullivan Line. Wording in the Constitution refers to the rapids on the river Des Moines which some perceive as ambiguous since the Des Moines has no rapids but the Mississippi nearby has rapids called the Des Moines Rapids. 1824: Sac and Fox cede all remaining land in Missouri and ceded the land south of the Sullivan Line between the Des Moines and Mississippi as Half Breed Tract. Missouri makes no effort to extend its claim to Half Breed Tract. 1830: Indian Removal Act – Efforts begin to remove all tribes to west of the Indian Boundary Line 1832: Black Hawk War as tribes resist the removal order 1834: Congress opens up Half Breed Tract to settlement but Missouri again makes no claim on the territory. 1836: Iowa is removed from Michigan Territory to Wisconsin Territory 1836: The federal government in the Platte Purchase buys the land west of the Indian Boundary line and it is annexed to Missouri with its northern border being the Sullivan Line.
1838: Iowa Territory is organized 1839: According to legend a Missouri tax collector in Iowa cuts down three hollow trees containing honey bee hives to collect the honey in lieu of taxes. 1839: Clark County, Missouri sheriff Uriah S. Gregory is arrested by Van Buren County, Iowa sheriff while attempting to collect Missouri taxes in the disputed territory. 1839: Militias from both sides assemble at the border 1839: Matter is referred to the U. S. Supreme Court 1846: Iowa enters the Union 1849: Supreme Court issues an opinion that since Missouri never challenged its straight-line border ending at the Des Moines River for more than 10 years, the border was valid; the court further upholds the Sullivan Line as the correct border but orders it resurveyed to correct quirks in Sullivan's Line which had jogs. 2005: Following various disputes, the State of Missouri contracts to have the border resurveyed, which finds many of the markers from the Supreme Court survey of 1850. The first major Native American treaties following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 were the Treaty of St. Louis in 1804 in which the Sac and Fox ceded much of northeast Missouri as well as southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois and the Treaty of Fort Clark in 1808 in which the Osage Nation ceded most of Missouri and Arkansas.
The United States made no formal efforts to survey the land. During the War of 1812 Native Americans sided with the British; when the war turned out to be a stalemate, the Treaty of Ghent in 1815 required that the tribes be returned to the same status they had before the war. Various tribes met with United States representatives at Portage Des Sioux, Missouri, in 1815 to formally end the war. While most of the Treaties of Portage des Sioux were innocuous treaties with wording about lasting friendship, the treaties with the Sac and Osage included a paragraph indicating agreement to abide by the earlier treaties. With that in place, the United States began plans to survey its territory. In the Treaty of Fort Clark, the Osage had ceded all land east of Fort Clark near Missouri; the treaty permitted the United States to survey the new land and they were to "adjust" the boundaries for a starting point 23 miles west to the mouth of the Kansas River with the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri on the far bank opposite Kaw Point.
In 1816 United States surveyor John C. Sullivan was instructed to survey a line north from the mouth for 100 miles and proceed east to the Des Moines River. In addition to being a round number, the 100-mile line Indian Boundary Line lined up in the east with the 2.4 feet deep Des Moines Rapids on the Mississippi River just south of Fort Madison, the northern end of navigation on the Mississippi and it lined up with the westward adjusted boundary from the mouth of the Gasconade River the Sac had ceded in 1808. The land on the east side of the Des Moines River was the site of a Sac village which had not been ceded. Sullivan erected survey markers along the line; the northwest corner of Missouri was established in a ma
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t