Mason Gross School of the Arts
Mason Gross School of the Arts is the arts conservatory at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It is named for the sixteenth president of Rutgers. Mason Gross offers the Bachelor of Fine Arts in Dance, Digital Filmmaking, Visual Arts, Bachelor of Music, Master of Fine Arts in Theater and Visual Arts, Master of Education in Dance, Master of Music, Doctor of Musical Arts, Artist Diploma in Music, MA and Ph. D. in composition and musicology. Mason Gross introduced a new program in the Visual Arts that offers a Bachelor of Design. Mason Gross was founded in 1976 as a school of the fine and performing arts within Rutgers and in 1976 became a separate degree-granting institution from the other Undergraduate colleges. All fine arts departments at the other Rutgers colleges were merged into Mason Gross in 1981 and as of 2005 has expanded to more than 20 buildings, including the spacious visual arts studios at the Livingston campus and the Civic Square Building in the center of New Brunswick and a variety of performing-arts spaces.
The buildings are all situated within Rutgers' Douglass College campus with the exception of the Civic Square Building in the city's Civic Square government and theatre district and the sculpture facilities. The Blanche and Irving Laurie Music Library houses 15,000 recordings and 30,000 monographs and scores, serving as a research and reference library at all levels. Studios and stages for the school will be located in the New Brunswick Performing Arts Center upon completion in 2019; the Mason Gross School of the Arts has more than 500 events taking place annually on campus, alongside classes and numerous recreational activities. Has an 18% application acceptance rate. Atif Akin Emma Amos Andrea Anders Alice Aycock Roger Bart Natalie Bookchin Bill Bowers Avery Brooks Kevin Chamberlin Melvin Edwards Michael Esper Paul Cohen Mike Colter Kristin Davis Mike Dawson Tim DeKay Angela Ellsworth, Calista Flockhart Brandon Flynn Derrick Gardner Nancy Gustafson Israel Hicks, stage director who presented August Wilson's entire 10-play Pittsburgh Cycle.
Sean Jones Jane Krakowski Allan Kaprow American painter, assemblagist and a pioneer in establishing the concepts of performance art Roy Lichtenstein Linda Lindroth Ardele Lister Raphael Montañez Ortíz Tarik O'Regan Nell Painter Marissa Paternoster Cristina Pato Tom Pelphrey Tara Platt William Pope. L Molly Price Sheryl Lee Ralph Charles Ray Harry Romero Martha Rosler Gary Schneider George Segal Katrín Sigurdardóttir Dave Sirulnick Joan Snyder Keith Sonnier Terell Stafford Sebastian Stan Aaron Stanford Arnold Steinhardt Terrell Tilford James Tupper Dietlinde Turban Maazel Stephen Westfall John Yau List of university and college schools of music Official website Design Area MGSA Sculpture Art Portal Rutgers University
New Jersey Institute of Technology
The New Jersey Institute of Technology is a public research university in Newark, New Jersey. Founded in 1881 with the support of local industrialists and inventors Edward Weston, NJIT opened as Newark Technical School in 1885 with 88 students; the school grew into a classic engineering college – Newark College of Engineering – and with the addition of a School of Architecture in 1973, into a polytechnic university that now hosts five colleges and one school. As of fall 2018, the university enrolls about 11,400 students. NJIT offers 66 graduate programs. Via its Honors College it offers professional programs in Healthcare and Law in collaboration with nearby institutions including Rutgers Medical School and Seton Hall Law School. NJIT offers cross-registration with Rutgers University-Newark which borders its campus; as of May 2018 the school's faculty and alumni include a Turing Award winner, a Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics winner, 2 members of the National Inventors Hall of Fame, 8 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 1 member of the National Academy of Sciences, an astronaut, a National Medal of Technology winner, a Congressional Gold Medal winner, multiple IEEE medalists, 6 members of the National Academy of Inventors.
To date NJIT graduates have won six Goldwaters, two Fulbrights, a Truman, two Whitakers, four Gilmans. NJIT is a member of the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities, a Sea Grant College, a member of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, it has participated in the McNair Scholars Program since 1999. With 19 varsity teams, the NCAA Division I "Highlanders" compete in the Atlantic Sun Conference; the New Jersey Institute of Technology has a history dating back to the 19th century. Introduced from Essex County on March 24, 1880 and revised with input from the Newark Board of Trade in 1881, an act of the New Jersey State Legislature drew up a contest to determine which municipality would become home to the state's urgently needed technical school; the challenge was straightforward: the state would stake "at least $3,000 and not more than $5,000" and the municipality that matched the state's investment would earn the right to establish the new school. The Newark Board of Trade, working jointly with the Newark City Council, launched a campaign to win the new school.
Dozens of the city's industrialists, along with other private citizens, eager for a work force resource in their home town, threw their support behind the fund-raiser. By 1884, the collaboration of the public and private sectors produced success. Newark Technical School was ready to open its doors; the first 88 students evening students, attended classes in a rented building at 21 West Park Street. Soon the facility became inadequate to house an expanding student body. To meet the needs of the growing school, a second fund-raiser—the institution's first capital campaign—was launched to support the construction of a dedicated building for Newark Technical School. In 1886, under the leadership of the school's dynamic first director, Dr. Charles A. Colton, the cornerstone was laid at the intersection of High Street and Summit Place for the three-story building to be named Weston Hall, in honor of the institution's early benefactor. A laboratory building to be called Colton Hall, was added to the campus in 1911.
Dr. Allan R. Cullimore led the institution from 1920 to 1949, transforming Newark Technical School into Newark College of Engineering. Campbell Hall was erected in 1925, but due to the Depression and World War II, only the former Newark Orphan Asylum, now Eberhardt Hall, was purchased and renovated by the college in the succeeding decades. Cullimore left an unpublished history of the institution dated 1955; as of 1946, about 75% of the freshman class had served in the U. S. Armed Forces. Cullimore Hall was built in 1958 and two years the old Weston Hall was razed and replaced with the current seven-story structure. Doctoral level programs were introduced and six years in 1966, an 18-acre, four building expansion was completed. With the addition of the New Jersey School of Architecture in 1973, the institution had evolved into a technological university, emphasizing a broad range of graduate and undergraduate degrees and dedicated to significant research and public service. President William Hazell, Jr. felt that the name of the school should communicate this dynamic evolution.
Alumni were solicited for suggestions to rename the institution, with the winning suggestion coming from Joseph M. Anderson'25. Anderson's suggestion – New Jersey Institute of Technology – cogently emphasized the increasing scope of educational and research initiatives at a preeminent New Jersey university; the Board of Trustees approved the transition to the new name in September 1974, Newark College of Engineering became New Jersey Institute of Technology on January 1, 1975. Anderson received the personal congratulations of President Hazell. At that time, the Newark College of Engineering name was retained for NJIT's engineering school; the establishment of a residential campus and the opening of NJIT's first dormitory in 1979 began a period of steady growth that continues today under the Landscape Master Plan. Two new schools were established at the university during the 1980s, the College of Science and Liberal Arts in 1982 and the School of Industrial Management in 1988; the Albert Dorman Honors College was established in 1994, the newest school, the College of Computing Sciences, was created in 2001.
On May 2, 2003 Robert A. Altenkirch was inaugurated as president, he succeeded Saul
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing - used for affection. The term hypocoristic is used to refer to a nickname of affection between those in love or with a close emotional bond, compared with a term of endearment, it is a form of amusement. As a concept, it is distinct from both pseudonym and stage name, from a title, although there may be overlap in these concepts. "Moniker" means a nickname or personal name.. The compound word ekename meaning "additional name", was attested as early as 1303; this word was derived from the Old English phrase eaca "an increase", related to eacian "to increase". By the 15th century, the misdivision of the syllables of the phrase "an ekename" led to its rephrasing as "a nekename". Though the spelling has changed, the pronunciation and meaning of the word have remained stable since. To inform an audience or readership of a person's nickname without calling them by their nickname, English nicknames are represented in quotes between the bearer's first and last names.
However, it is common for the nickname to be identified after a comma following the full real name or in the body of the text, such as in an obituary. The middle name is eliminated in speech. Like English, German uses quotation marks between the last names. Other languages may use other conventions; the latter may cause confusion because it resembles an English convention sometimes used for married and maiden names. In Viking societies, many people had heiti, viðrnefni, or kenningarnöfn which were used in addition to, or instead of the first name. In some circumstances, the giving of a nickname had a special status in Viking society in that it created a relationship between the name maker and the recipient of the nickname, to the extent that the creation of a nickname often entailed a formal ceremony and an exchange of gifts known in Old Norse as nafnfestr. Slaves have used nicknames, so that the master who heard about someone doing something could not identify the slave. In capoeira, a Brazilian martial art, the slaves had nicknames to protect them from being caught, as practising capoeira was illegal for decades.
In Anglo-American culture, a nickname is based on a shortening of a person's proper name. However, in other societies, this may not be the case. For example: "my nickname is farmer Phil" In Indian society, for example people have at least one nickname and these affection names are not related to the person's proper name. Indian nicknames often are a trivial word or a diminutive. In Hispanic culture, a nickname is used for a term of endearment and family love, for example: "Papi", it is a colloquial term for “daddy” in Spanish, but in many Spanish-speaking cultures in the Caribbean, it is used as a general term of affection for any man, whether it's a relative, friend, or love. In Australian society, Australian men will give ironic nicknames. For example, a man with red hair will be given the nickname'Blue' or'Bluey'. A tall man will be called ` an obese person ` Slim' and so on. In England, some nicknames are traditionally associated with a person's surname. A man with the surname'Clark' will be nicknamed'Nobby': the surname'Miller' will have the nickname'Dusty': the surname'Adams' has the nickname'Nabby'.
There are several other nicknames linked traditionally with a person's surname, including Chalky White, Bunny Warren, Tug Wilson, Spud Baker. Other English nicknames allude to a person's origins. A Scotsman may be nicknamed'Jock', an Irishman'Paddy' or'Mick', a Welshman may be nicknamed'Taffy'; some nicknames referred to a person's physical characteristics, such as'Lofty' for a short person, or'Curly' for a bald man. Traditional English nicknaming - for men rather than women - was common through the first half of the 20th century, was used in the armed services during World War I and World War II, but has become less common since then. In Chinese culture, nicknames are used within a community among relatives and neighbors. A typical southern Chinese nickname begins with a "阿" followed by another character the last character of the person's given name. For example, Taiwanese politician Chen Shui-bian is sometimes referred as "阿扁". In many Chinese communities of Southeast Asia, nicknames may connote one's occupation or status.
For example, the landlord might be known as Towkay to his tenants or workers while a bread seller would be called "Mianbao Shu" 面包叔. Among Cantonese-speaking communities, the character "仔" may be used in a similar context of "Junior" in Western naming practices. Many writers, performing artists, actors have nicknames, which may
Montclair State University
Montclair State University is a public research university in Montclair, New Jersey. Montclair State University is the second largest university in New Jersey; as of October 2018, there were 21,115 total enrolled students: 16,988 undergraduate students and 4,127 graduate students. The campus covers 500 acres, inclusive of the New Jersey School of Conservation in Stokes State Forest; the university offers more than 300 majors and concentrations. Plans for the State Normal school were initiated in 1903, required a year for the State of New Jersey to grant permission to build the school, it was established as New Jersey State Normal School at Montclair, a normal school, in 1908 5 years after the initial planning of the school. At the time, Governor John Franklin Fort attended the dedication of the school in 1908, the school was to have its first principal Charles Sumner Chapin that same year; the first building constructed was College Hall, it still stands today. At the time, the campus was around 25 acres, had 187 students.
The first graduating class, which numbered at 45 students, contained William O. Trapp, who would go on to win the Pulitzer Prize for journalism in 1929; the first dormitory was built five years in 1915, is known as Russ Hall. In 1924, Dr. Harry Sprague was the first president of Montclair, shortly afterwards the school began being more inclusive of extracurricular activities such as athletics. In 1927, after studies had emerged concerning the number of high school teachers in the state of New Jersey, the institution became Montclair State Teachers College and developed a four-year program in pedagogy, becoming the first US institute to do so. In 1937 it became the first teachers college accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. In 1943, during World War II, several students, with permission from the president, Harry Sprague, joined the US Navy as volunteers to train for the war, it was a time when students and faculty sold war bonds to support US American troops. In 1958 the school merged with the Panzer College of Physical Education and Hygiene to become Montclair State College.
The school became a comprehensive multi-purpose institution in 1966. The Board of Higher Education designated the school a teaching university on April 27, 1994, in the same year the school became Montclair State University, it has offered Master of Arts programs since 1932, Master of Business Administration since 1981, Master of Education since 1985, Master of Science since 1992, Master of Fine Arts since 1998, Doctor of Education since 1999. From 2008 onwards, the University started offering PhD degrees, first in Teacher Education and Teacher Development Environmental Management, Counselor Education, Family Studies, most Communications Sciences and Disorders. In 2018, Montclair State University graduated more than 30 doctoral students. In 2004, New Jersey Transit opened Montclair State University Station at Little Falls, which links the university to New York City; the building of the MSU Station cost $26 million to complete, including a 1,500-space parking deck. In 2015, the university established the School of Communication and Media and added two new buildings to its campus.
Partridge Hall was renovated and in 2016, became the new School of Nursing, which welcomed its inaugural class of students that fall. The new state-of-the-art home for the School of Communication and Media opened in fall 2017, followed in 2018 by the opening of the Center for Computing and Information Science in the former Mallory Hall, which underwent a complete renovation and expansion. In 2016, the university's classification was changed from a Masters to a Doctoral Research University, in 2019, was changed to R2: Doctoral University - High Research Activity. Montclair State University comprises six schools, each led by a Dean or Director; the colleges and schools organize and conduct academic programs within their units, work cooperatively to offer interdisciplinary programs. Beginning in fall 2018, University College will be an academic home for students to pursue interests that will lead them to their eventual academic concentration. University College will admit about one-third of incoming freshman, as well as 1,400 returning and transfer students who have yet to declare a major.
Once University College students have been admitted to their chosen majors, they will transition onto the college or school of that academic program. The John J. Cali School of Music is part of the College of the Arts; the Cali School of Music provides a wide range of study and performance opportunities for its undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professional certification programs in Music Education and Music Therapy, the Artist's Diploma and Performer's Certificate degrees in classical and jazz performance. In addition, the noted string quartet, the Shanghai Quartet, has been in residence at MSU since 2002. Included in the College of the Arts is the School of Communication and Media. A new facility for the School of Communication opened for the Fall 2017 semester; the new facility houses studios and academic facilities and connects existing Life Hall and Morehead Hall. The College of Education and Human Services houses the Center of Pedagogy, with oversees the Teacher Education program.
Majors across the university earning teacher credentials are administered jointly by the Center of Pedagogy and the department that houses the student's
A community college is a type of educational institution. The term can have different meanings in different countries: many community colleges have an “open enrollment” for students who have graduated from high school; the term refers to a higher educational institution that provides workforce education and college transfer academic programs. Some institutions maintain athletic dormitories similar to their university counterparts. In Australia, the term "community college" refers to small private businesses running short courses of a self-improvement or hobbyist nature. Equivalent to the American notion of community colleges are Tertiary and Further Education colleges or TAFEs. There are an increasing number of private providers, which are colloquially called "colleges". TAFEs and other providers carry on the tradition of adult education, established in Australia around the mid-19th century, when evening classes were held to help adults enhance their numeracy and literacy skills. Most Australian universities can be traced back to such forerunners, although obtaining a university charter has always changed their nature.
In TAFEs and colleges today, courses are designed for personal development of an individual and/or for employment outcomes. Educational programs cover a variety of topics such as arts, languages and lifestyle, they are scheduled to run two, three or four days of the week, depending on the level of the course undertaken. A Certificate I may only run for 4 hours twice a week for a term of 9 weeks. A full-time Diploma course might have classes 4 days per week for a year; some courses may be offered in the weekends to accommodate people working full-time. Funding for colleges may come from government grants and course fees. Many are not-for-profit organisations; such TAFES are located in metropolitan and rural locations of Australia. Education offered by TAFEs and colleges has changed over the years. By the 1980s many colleges had recognised a community need for computer training. Since thousands of people have increased skills through IT courses; the majority of colleges by the late 20th century had become Registered Training Organisations.
They offer individuals a nurturing, non-traditional education venue to gain skills that better prepare them for the workplace and potential job openings. TAFEs and colleges have not traditionally offered bachelor's degrees, instead providing pathway arrangements with universities to continue towards degrees; the American innovation of the associate degree is being developed at some institutions. Certificate courses I to IV, diplomas and advanced diplomas are offered, the latter deemed equivalent to an undergraduate qualification, albeit in more vocational areas; some TAFE institutes have become higher education providers in their own right and are now starting to offer bachelor's degree programs. In Canada, colleges are adult educational institutions that provide higher education and tertiary education, grant certificates and diplomas; as well, in Ontario, the 24 colleges of applied arts and technology have been mandated to offer their own stand-alone degrees as well as to offer joint degrees with universities through "articulation agreements" that result in students emerging with both a diploma and a degree.
Thus, for example, the University of Guelph "twins" with Humber College and York University does the same with Seneca College. More however, colleges have been offering a variety of their own degrees in business and technical fields; the academic and economic value of the college degree is still being tested in the marketplace. Each province has its own educational system, as prescribed by the Canadian federalism model of governance. In the mid-1960s and early 1970s, most Canadian colleges began to provide practical education and training for the emerging baby boom generation, for immigrants from around the world who were entering Canada in increasing numbers at that time. A formative trend was the merging of the separate vocational training and adult education institutions. Canadian colleges are either publicly funded or private post-secondary institutions. There are 150 institutions that are equivalent to the US community college in certain contexts, they are referred to as "colleges" since in common usage a degree-granting institution is exclusively a university.
In addition to graduate degrees, universities grant Associate's degrees and Bachelor's degrees, but in some regions and/or courses of study and universities collaborate so college students can earn transfer credits toward undergraduate university degrees. University degrees are attained through four years of study; the term associate degree is used in western Canada to refer to a two-year college arts or science degree, similar to how the term is used in the United States. In other parts of Canada the term advanced degree is used to indicate a 3- or 4-year college program. In the province of Quebec, three years is the norm for a university degree because a year of credit is earned in the CEGEP system; when speaking in English, people refer to all colleges as Cégeps, however the term is an acronym more applied to the French-language public system: Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel. The word College can refer to a private High School in Quebec. Canadian community college systemsList of colleges in Canada Colleges and Institutes Can
A music school is an educational institution specialized in the study and research of music. Such an institution can be known as a school of music, music academy, music faculty, college of music, music department, conservatory or conservatoire. Instruction consists of training in the performance of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship, as well as academic and research fields such as musicology, music history and music theory. Music instruction can be provided within the compulsory general education system, or within specialized children's music schools such as the Purcell School. Elementary-school children can access music instruction in after-school institutions such as music academies or music schools. In Venezuela El Sistema of youth orchestras provides free after-school instrumental instruction through music schools called núcleos; the term “music school” can be applied to institutions of higher education under names such as school of music, such as the Jacobs School of Music of Indiana University.
In other parts of Europe, the equivalents of higher school of music or university of music may be used, such as the Hochschule für Musik und Tanz Köln. Although music and music education may have been in existence for thousands of years, the earliest history is speculative; when history starts to be recorded, music is mentioned more than music education. Within the biblical tradition, Hebrew litany was accompanied with rich music, but the Torah or Pentateuch was silent on the practice and instruction of music in the early life of Israel. However, by I Samuel 10, Alfred Sendrey suggests that we find “a sudden and unexplained upsurge of large choirs and orchestras, consisting of organized and trained musical groups, which would be inconceivable without lengthy, methodical preparation.” This has led some scholars to believe that the prophet Samuel was the patriarch of a school which taught not only prophets and holy men, but sacred-rite musicians. The schola cantorum in Rome may be the first recorded music school in history, when Gregory the Great made permanent an existing guild dating from the 4th century.
The school consisted of monks, secular clergy, boys. Wells Cathedral School, England founded as a Cathedral School in 909 a.d. to educate choristers, continues today to educate choristers and teaches instrumentalists. However the school appears to have been refounded at least once. Saint Martial school, 10th to 12th century, was an important school of composition at the Abbey of Saint Martial, Limoges, it is known for the composition of tropes and early organum. In this respect, it was an important precursor to the Notre Dame School, it was the Notre Dame school, the earliest repertory of polyphonic music to gain international prestige and circulation. The school was a group of composers and singers working under the patronage of the great Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris. First records on Escolania de Montserrat, boys' choir linked to a music school, back to 1307 and still continues the musical education; the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia is one of the oldest musical institutions in the world, based in Italy.
It is based at the Auditorium Parco della Musica in Rome, was founded by the papal bull, Ratione congruit, issued by Sixtus V in 1585, which invoked two saints prominent in Western musical history: Gregory the Great, for whom the Gregorian chant is named, Saint Cecilia, the patron saint of music. It was founded as a "congregation" or "confraternity" – a religious guild, so to speak – and over the centuries, has grown from a forum for local musicians and composers to an internationally acclaimed academy active in music scholarship to music education to performance; the term conservatory has its origin in 16th-century Renaissance Italy, where orphanages were attached to hospitals. The orphans were given a musical education there, the term applied to music schools; these hospitals-conservatories were among the first secular institutions equipped for practical training in music. By the 18th century, Italian conservatories were playing a major role in the training of artists and composers. In the city of Naples, a conservatorio was a secular place for teaching and learning specializing in music education.
There were four conservatories in Naples active in the 17th and 18th century: I poveri di Gesù Cristo, founded in 1599 by Marcello Fossataro included in their official record a magister musicæ and magister lyræ in 1633.