A merchant navy or merchant marine or mercantile marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country. On merchant vessels, seafarers of various ranks and sometimes members of maritime trade unions are required by the International Convention on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping for Seafarers to carry Merchant Mariner's Documents. King George V bestowed the title of the "Merchant Navy" on the British merchant shipping fleets following their service in the First World War; the following is a partial list of the merchant navies or merchant marines of various countries. In many countries the fleet's proper name is the capitalized version of the common noun; the British Merchant Navy comprises the British merchant ships that transport cargo and people during times of peace and war. For much of its history, the merchant navy was the largest merchant fleet in the world, but with the decline of the British Empire in the mid-20th century it slipped down the rankings.
In 1939, the merchant navy was the largest in the world with 33% of total tonnage. By 2012, the merchant navy—still remaining one of the largest in the world—held only 3% of total tonnage; as of the year ending 2012, British Merchant Marine interests consists of 1,504 ships of 100 GT or over. This includes parent owned or managed by a British company; this amounts to: 59,413,000 GT or alternatively 75,265,000 DWT. This is according to the annual maritime shipping statistics provided by the British government and the Department for Transport. British shipping is globally by the UK Chamber of Shipping. Canada, like several other Commonwealth nations, created its own merchant navy in a large-scale effort in World War II. Established in 1939, the Canadian Merchant Navy played a major role in the Battle of the Atlantic bolstering the Allies' merchant fleet due to high losses in the British Merchant Navy. Thousands of Canadians served in the merchant navy aboard hundreds of Canadian merchant ships, notably the "Park Ship", the Canadian equivalent of the American "Liberty Ship".
A school at St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia, trained Canadian merchant mariners. "Manning pools", merchant navy barracks, were built in Canadian ports. The Greek maritime fleet is today engaged in commerce and transportation of goods and services universally, it consists of the merchant vessels owned by Greek civilians, flying either the Greek flag or a flag of convenience. Greece is a maritime nation by tradition, as shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks and a key element of Greek economic activity since ancient times. In 2015, the Greek Merchant Navy controlled the world's largest merchant fleet in terms of tonnage with a total DWT of 334,649,089 tons and a fleet of 5,226 Greek owned vessels, according to Lloyd's List. Greece is ranked regarding all types of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers; the birth of the modern Indian Merchant Navy occurred before independence from the United Kingdom, when in 1919 SS Loyalty sailed from India to Britain. Today, India ranks 15th in the world in terms of total DWT.
India supplies around 12.8% of officers and around 14.5% of ratings to the world seafaring community. This is one of the highest of any country. In December 1939, 3,000 seafarers were employed and 186 merchant vessels were on the New Zealand Registry; some foreign vessels were impressed, including Pamir. New Zealand, like several other Commonwealth nations, created a merchant navy. However, the "wartime Merchant Navy was neither a military force nor a single coherent body", instead it was "a diverse collection of private companies and ships". Although some ships were involved in the Atlantic and North Pacific trade this involved domestic and South Pacific cargos. New Zealand-owned ships were involved in trade with the United Kingdom and the majority of New Zealand seamen had served with the British Merchant Navy. Over the course of the war, 64 ships were sunk by enemy action on the New Zealand–UK route, 140 merchant seafarers lost their lives; the Pakistan Merchant Navy was formed in 1947. The Ministry of Port and Shipping, Mercantile Marine Department and Shipping Office established by the Government of Pakistan were authorized to flag the ships and ensured that the vessels were sea worthy.
All of the private shipping companies merged and formed the National Shipping Corporation and the Pakistan Shipping Corporation and as a result they had a common flag. Among these companies were the Muhammadi Steamship Company Limited and the East & West Steamship Company. In the Indo-Pak war of 1971 Pakistan suffered a great loss of its merchant vessels at the hands of Indians. On 1 January 1974, President of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto nationalized the National Shipping Corporation and Pakistan Shipping Corporation, formed the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation with the intent of reestablishing the Pakistan Merchant Navy; the company was incorporated under the provisions of the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation Ordinance of 1979 and the Companies Ordinance of 1984. Today, the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation is the national flag carrier; the corporation's head office is located in Karachi. A regional office based in Lahore caters for upcountry shipping requirements; the corporation has an extensive overseas network of agents looking after its worldwide shipping business.
The Pakistan National Sh
María Candelaria is a 1943 Mexican romantic film directed by Emilio Fernández and starring Dolores del Río and Pedro Armendáriz. It was the first Mexican film to be screened at the Cannes International Film Festival where it won the Grand Prix becoming the first Latin American film to do so. María Candelaria would win a Silver Ariel award for Best Cinematography; the film came to be regarded as one of Fernández's best works, in which he portrays the indigenous people of Mexico with innocence and dignity. Fernández has said that he wrote an original version of the plot on 13 napkins while sitting in a restaurant, he was anxious because he was dating Dolores del Río and could not afford to buy her a birthday present. The film was titled Xochimilco and the protagonist was named María del Refugio. Major themes in the film include melodrama, indigenousness and the beauty of Mexico. María Candelaria is one of Mexico's most beloved films of all time, it was ranked thirty-seventh among the top 100 films of Mexican cinema.
A young journalist presses an old artist to display the portrait of a naked indigenous woman that he has in his study. As the artist begins to tell the story behind the painting, the action becomes a flashback to Xochimilco, Mexico in 1909, right before the Mexican Revolution. Xochimilco is an area with beautiful landscapes inhabited by indigenous people; the woman in the painting is María Candelaria, a young indigenous woman shunned by her own people for being the daughter of a prostitute. She and her lover, Lorenzo Rafael, face, they are honest and hardworking, yet nothing goes right for them. Don Damián, a jealous Mestizo store owner who wants María for himself, prevents them from getting married and pursues Maria over a minor debt, he kills a piglet that María and Lorenzo planned to raise and sell for profit and refuses to buy flowers from them. When María contracts malaria, Don Damián refuses to give the couple the quinine necessary to fight the disease. Lorenzo takes a wedding dress for María.
Lorenzo goes to prison for stealing and María agrees to model for the painter to pay for his release. The artist begins painting her portrait and asks her to pose nude, which she refuses to do; the artist finishes the painting with the nude body of another woman. When the people of Xochimilco see the painting, they assume it is María Candelaria and stone her to death. Lorenzo escapes from prison to carry María's lifeless body through Xochimilco's Canal of the Dead. Dolores del Río as María Candelaria: A beautiful, indigenous Mexican woman who has many misfortunes befall her throughout the film. Pedro Armendáriz as Lorenzo Rafael: María Candelaria's lover and only consistent supporter. Alberto Galán as Painter: The narrator of the story and creator of the painting that leads to María's death; the character is based on muralist Diego Rivera. Margarita Cortés as Lupe: A young woman in the community, jealous of María because she wants to be with Lorenzo Rafael, she is instrumental in the mob of townspeople who stone María to death.
Miguel Inclán as don Damián: A store owner who exploits indigenous people and wants María for himself. Other characters Beatriz Ramos as Journalist Rafael Icardo as Priest Julio Ahuet as José Alfonso Lupe Inclán as Gossip Salvador Quiroz as Judge Nieves as Model Elda Loza as Model Lupe Garnica as Model Arturo Soto Rangel as Doctor David Valle González as Court secretary José Torvay as Police Enrique Zambrano as Doctor Alfonso Jiménez "Kilómetro" Irma Torres Lupe del Castillo María Candelaria benefited from a time of commercial success in the Mexican film industry in the 1940s and 1950s. Fernández and Figueroa had worked together and they shared a similar vision for the film. In addition to the experienced team of producers, the film benefited from Dolores del Río's success as an actress through the star system; the film was the gift that Emilio Fernández offered to Dolores del Río, to compensate for his mistreatment of del Río during their filming of Flor silvestre. Emilio's "bronco" temperament had surfaced on several occasions, the actress had nearly left the film.
The pleas of their co-workers, her high sense of professionalism, convinced del Río to return. However, her relationship with the director had become distant. On Good Friday 1943, del Río's birthday, was the occasion chosen by the filmmaker to find the desired reconciliation. In addition to needing her as an actress, Fernández began to love her as a woman. In his biographical account of the actress, writer David Ramón relates: "When it was Emilio Fernández's turn to give her his gift, he got close up to Dolores and took a bunch of napkins with writings, he threw them to her and said: This is your birthday present, a history of cinema. I hope you'll like it, it's your next film, it's called Xochimilco. It's yours, it's your property, if somebody wants to buy it, they'll buy it from you." With the generous gift and all, Dolores had her doubts. She said: "First a rural woman... And now, an Indian woman, you want me to play an indian? I... barefooted?" María Candelaria on IMDb
The Giant Dipper known as the Mission Beach Roller Coaster and by other names, is a historical wooden roller coaster located in Belmont Park, a small amusement park in the Mission Beach area of San Diego, California. Built in 1925, it and its namesake at the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk are the only remaining wooden roller coasters on the West Coast designed by noted roller coaster designers Frank Prior and Frederick Church, the only whose construction they supervised, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978. The Giant Dipper is located at the northeast corner of Belmont Park, a waterfront amusement park at the junction of Mission Boulevard and West Mission Bay Drive; the coaster occupies an irregular area about 100 by 500 feet in size, is accessed via a terminal structure on its west side. It has a track length of 2,800 feet, its highest hills, located at opposite ends of the area, reach 75 feet in height. A sign with the name "Belmont" is affixed to the wooden trestle structure at its northeast edge.
The coaster was built in 1925 as part of a major real estate development led by John D. and Adolph Spreckels to attract visitors and residents to the Mission Beach area. The Mission Beach Amusement Center was built at a cost of $2.5 million and opened in 1925, with this roller coaster as one of its main attractions. It was designed by Church and Prior, coaster designers based in Venice, who oversaw its construction; the Spreckelses bequeathed the attraction to the city. He renamed the park Belmont Park, after another park in Montreal; the roller coaster was damaged by fire in 1955, Ray subsequently declared bankruptcy. Threatened with demolition by the city in 1978, local citizens banded together to rescue it and a few surviving attractions of the defunct park, it underwent a full restoration in 1989–90. In 1997, the Giant Dipper held a coaster–riding marathon sponsored by local radio station, Star 100.7. The marathon consisted of eleven consecutive days riding the coaster for more than 12 hours per day.
The radio station arranged a second marathon in 1998, won by contestants who split a check for $50,000 in cash prize after riding the coaster for 70 days. Media related to Giant Dipper at Wikimedia Commons Official website