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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. Its orbit around the Sun takes the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System, it is named after the messenger of the gods. Like Venus, Mercury orbits the Sun within Earth's orbit as an inferior planet, its apparent distance from the Sun as viewed from Earth never exceeds 28°; this proximity to the Sun means the planet can only be seen near the western horizon after sunset or eastern horizon before sunrise in twilight. At this time, it may appear as a bright star-like object, but is far more difficult to observe than Venus; the planet telescopically displays the complete range of phases, similar to Venus and the Moon, as it moves in its inner orbit relative to Earth, which recurs over its synodic period of 116 days. Mercury rotates in a way, unique in the Solar System, it is tidally locked with the Sun in a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, meaning that relative to the fixed stars, it rotates on its axis three times for every two revolutions it makes around the Sun.

As seen from the Sun, in a frame of reference that rotates with the orbital motion, it appears to rotate only once every two Mercurian years. An observer on Mercury would therefore see only one day every two Mercurian years. Mercury's axis has the smallest tilt of any of the Solar System's planets, its orbital eccentricity is the largest of all known planets in the Solar System. Mercury's surface appears cratered and is similar in appearance to the Moon's, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years. Having no atmosphere to retain heat, it has surface temperatures that vary diurnally more than on any other planet in the Solar System, ranging from 100 K at night to 700 K during the day across the equatorial regions; the polar regions are below 180 K. The planet has no known natural satellites. Two spacecraft have visited Mercury: Mariner 10 flew by in 1974 and 1975; the BepiColombo spacecraft is planned to arrive at Mercury in 2025. Mercury appears to have a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid, iron sulfide outer core layer, a deeper liquid core layer, a solid inner core.

Mercury is one of four terrestrial planets in the Solar System, is a rocky body like Earth. It is the smallest planet in the Solar System, with an equatorial radius of 2,439.7 kilometres. Mercury is smaller—albeit more massive—than the largest natural satellites in the Solar System and Titan. Mercury consists of 70% metallic and 30% silicate material. Mercury's density is the second highest in the Solar System at 5.427 g/cm3, only less than Earth's density of 5.515 g/cm3. If the effect of gravitational compression were to be factored out from both planets, the materials of which Mercury is made would be denser than those of Earth, with an uncompressed density of 5.3 g/cm3 versus Earth's 4.4 g/cm3. Mercury's density can be used to infer details of its inner structure. Although Earth's high density results appreciably from gravitational compression at the core, Mercury is much smaller and its inner regions are not as compressed. Therefore, for it to have such a high density, its core must be rich in iron.

Geologists estimate. Research published in 2007 suggests. Surrounding the core is a 500–700 km mantle consisting of silicates. Based on data from the Mariner 10 mission and Earth-based observation, Mercury's crust is estimated to be 35 km thick. One distinctive feature of Mercury's surface is the presence of numerous narrow ridges, extending up to several hundred kilometers in length, it is thought that these were formed as Mercury's core and mantle cooled and contracted at a time when the crust had solidified. Mercury's core has a higher iron content than that of any other major planet in the Solar System, several theories have been proposed to explain this; the most accepted theory is that Mercury had a metal–silicate ratio similar to common chondrite meteorites, thought to be typical of the Solar System's rocky matter, a mass 2.25 times its current mass. Early in the Solar System's history, Mercury may have been struck by a planetesimal of 1/6 that mass and several thousand kilometers across.

The impact would have stripped away much of the original crust and mantle, leaving the core behind as a major component. A similar process, known as the giant impact hypothesis, has been proposed to explain the formation of the Moon. Alternatively, Mercury may have formed from the solar nebula before the Sun's energy output had stabilized, it would have had twice its present mass, but as the protosun contracted, temperatures near Mercury could have been between 2,500 and 3,500 K and even as high as 10,000 K. Much of Mercury's surface rock could have been vaporized at such temperatures, forming an atmosphere of "rock vapor" that could have been carried away by the solar wind. A third hypothesis proposes that the solar nebula caused drag on the particles from which Mercury was accreting, which meant that lighter particles were lost from the accreting material and not gathered by Mercury; each hypothesis predicts a different surface composition, there are two space missions set to make observations.

MESSENGER

John Waddell (engineer)

John Waddell was a Scottish railway contractor based in Edinburgh. He was born in the parish of New Monkland on 16 August 1828, the son of George Waddell and his wife Elizabeth Shanks, of the farm of Gain or Gane, he married Margaret Donald on 15 June 1852. He ran the enterprising and respected firm John Waddell & Sons and went on to complete many routes during the rise of the railways across England during the late 19th century for the NER. Notable examples of his work include the rebuilding of Putney Bridge in London, the Scarborough & Whitby Railway, completion of the Whitby Redcar and Middlesbrough Union Railway and the Mersey Railway tunnel, his company built part of the approaches to the Forth Bridge. On 17 February 1883 an agreement was reached with John Waddell to construct a tunnel under the River Thames between Tilbury and Gravesend, work which would have carried trains through to Dover for a potential Channel tunnel, although that proposal was dropped, he died at his home, 4 Belford Park, Edinburgh on 17 January 1888, aged 60.

He left three sons - George and John, who carried on his business after his death - and six daughters, Elizabeth, Agnes Russell MB, Jane and Janet. He is buried on a prominent corner on the west side of Dean Cemetery opposite "Lords Row"

I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do

"I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do" was a hit single for Swedish pop group ABBA, was their next major worldwide hit after "Waterloo". It was the second single to be released from their ABBA album, one of the last songs to be recorded for the album; the song was written by Benny Andersson, Björn Ulvaeus and their manager Stig Anderson, was released in April 1975 with "Rock Me" as the B-side. The song was recorded on 21 February 1975 at Glen Studio, was inspired by the European schlager music of the 1950s, as well as the saxophone sound of'50s American orchestra leader Billy Vaughn; the song's release came shortly after their previous single, "So Long", performed disappointingly in terms of charts and sales. After the release of "Waterloo", ABBA were having difficulty establishing themselves as an act with longevity. "I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do", in many cases, put ABBA back in the spotlight. With a rousing saxophone tune and homage to 1950s Schlager music, "I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do" became a significant improvement on the international charts, although it made little impact in Britain.

The song's popularity was boosted by the release of a promo clip shown on television. The song because of its title as much as the sentiment, is popular at weddings and was featured in the film Muriel's Wedding, when the ABBA-mad title character gets married. "I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do" was a sizeable hit in a number of countries, was the song that sparked "ABBA-mania" in Australia, becoming ABBA's first chart-topper there. With "Mamma Mia" and "SOS" to follow, this gave the group a run of 14 consecutive weeks at the top of the Australian charts. "I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do" topped the charts in France, New Zealand and South Africa and hit the Top 5 in Norway, the Netherlands and Rhodesia. The song reached No.15 in the United States in early 1976. A notable exception to the song's success was in the UK Singles Chart, a market that ABBA was aiming to conquer, where the single stalled at No.38. Thus, the musical direction taken in the song was not used again for some time; this marked the only time.

In 1975, ABBA would find success in the UK with SOS, which would cement the group's success in Australia and elsewhere. Despite the song's UK chart performance, on 5 December 2010 in a British poll of The Nations Favourite ABBA song, the song was placed at #23. A. "I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do" b. "Rock Me" ABBA Agnetha Falkstog – lead and backing vocals Anni-Frid Lyngstad – lead and backing vocals Björn Ulvaeus – backing vocals, rhythm guitar Benny Andersson – backing vocals, keyboardsAdditional musicians and production staffLasse Wellander - lead guitar Mike Watsonbass Roger Palmdrums Ulf Andersson – saxophones The saxophone arrangement early made the song an ideal for several dansband covers, like Ingmar Nordströms on the 1975 album Saxparty 2. In 1975, Seija Simola released the song as a single, rendered in Finnish as "Vai Niin, Vai Niin, Vai Niin, Vai Niin, Vai Niin" – vai niin translates as "I see". Under the title "Vai Niin" this rendering was recorded by Lea Laven for her album Lea.

In 1978, a Swedish country band called Nashville Train covered the song in 1977 on their album ABBA Our Way, released on the Polar Music label in Sweden. In 2000, Swedish band The Black Sweden recorded a version for their tribute album Gold; this version includes a riff from the ZZ Top song "Tush". The song is sung in second act of the Mamma Mia! musical. In the context of the musical and Sophie call off the wedding; the song is used when Sam and Donna get married instead, after he explains that he is divorced and professes his love for Donna. Although it is one of several songs featured in the 2008 Mamma Mia! movie adaptation, it was not included on the official soundtrack. Studio 99 performed a cover on their Studio 99 Perform A Tribute To ABBA, Vol. 1 album. A cover of the song can be found on the tribute album ABBAration. A dance version of this song produced by Dr. Octavo can be found on the ABBA cover album Cardio Pulse. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics