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Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant, massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals. The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, science and religion. Five planets in the Solar System are visible to the naked eye; these were regarded by many early cultures as emissaries of deities. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System; this definition is controversial because it excludes many objects of planetary mass based on where or what they orbit. Although eight of the planetary bodies discovered before 1950 remain "planets" under the current definition, some celestial bodies, such as Ceres, Pallas and Vesta, Pluto, that were once considered planets by the scientific community, are no longer viewed as planets under the current definition of planet.

Planets in astrology have a different definition. The planets were thought by Ptolemy to orbit Earth in epicycle motions. Although the idea that the planets orbited the Sun had been suggested many times, it was not until the 17th century that this view was supported by evidence from the first telescopic astronomical observations, performed by Galileo Galilei. About the same time, by careful analysis of pre-telescopic observational data collected by Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler found the planets' orbits were elliptical rather than circular; as observational tools improved, astronomers saw that, like Earth, each of the planets rotated around an axis tilted with respect to its orbital pole, some shared such features as ice caps and seasons. Since the dawn of the Space Age, close observation by space probes has found that Earth and the other planets share characteristics such as volcanism, hurricanes and hydrology. Planets in the Solar System are divided into two main types: large low-density giant planets, smaller rocky terrestrials.

There are eight planets in the Solar System. In order of increasing distance from the Sun, they are the four terrestrials, Venus and Mars the four giant planets, Saturn and Neptune. Six of the planets are orbited by one or more natural satellites. Several thousands of planets around other stars have been discovered in the Milky Way; as of 1 March 2020, 4,187 known extrasolar planets in 3,105 planetary systems, ranging in size from just above the size of the Moon to gas giants about twice as large as Jupiter have been discovered, out of which more than 100 planets are the same size as Earth, nine of which are at the same relative distance from their star as Earth from the Sun, i.e. in the circumstellar habitable zone. On December 20, 2011, the Kepler Space Telescope team reported the discovery of the first Earth-sized extrasolar planets, Kepler-20e and Kepler-20f, orbiting a Sun-like star, Kepler-20. A 2012 study, analyzing gravitational microlensing data, estimates an average of at least 1.6 bound planets for every star in the Milky Way.

Around one in five Sun-like stars is thought to have an Earth-sized planet in its habitable zone. The idea of planets has evolved over its history, from the divine lights of antiquity to the earthly objects of the scientific age; the concept has expanded to include worlds not only in the Solar System, but in hundreds of other extrasolar systems. The ambiguities inherent in defining planets have led to much scientific controversy; the five classical planets, being visible to the naked eye, have been known since ancient times and have had a significant impact on mythology, religious cosmology, ancient astronomy. In ancient times, astronomers noted how certain lights moved across the sky, as opposed to the "fixed stars", which maintained a constant relative position in the sky. Ancient Greeks called these lights πλάνητες ἀστέρες or πλανῆται, from which today's word "planet" was derived. In ancient Greece, China and indeed all pre-modern civilizations, it was universally believed that Earth was the center of the Universe and that all the "planets" circled Earth.

The reasons for this perception were that stars and planets appeared to revolve around Earth each day and the common-sense perceptions that Earth was solid and stable and that it was not moving but at rest. The first civilization known to have a functional theory of the planets were the Babylonians, who lived in Mesopotamia in the first and second millennia BC; the oldest surviving planetary astronomical text is the Babylonian Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, a 7th-century BC copy of a list of observations of the motions of the planet Venus, that dates as early as the second millennium BC. The MUL. APIN is a pair of cuneiform tablets dating from the 7th century BC that lays out the motions of the Sun and planets over the course of the year; the Babylonian astrologers laid the foundations of what would become Western astrology. The Enuma anu enlil, written during the Neo-Assyrian period in the 7th century BC, comprises a list of omens and their relationships with various celestial phenomena including the motions of the planets.

Venus and the outer planets Mars and Saturn were all identified by Babylonian astronomers. These would remain the only known planets until the invention of the telescope in early modern times; the ancient Greeks did

Panulirus ornatus

Panulirus ornatus is a large edible spiny lobster with 11 larval stages, bred in captivity. P. Ornatus has a wide geographical range in the Indo-Pacific, from the Red Sea and KwaZulu-Natal in the west to Japan and Fiji in the east. In most parts of its range, the lobster is netted or speared, while in Northeast Australia, a commercial fishery has existed since 1966 and the harvesting of the species is regulated by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority; the species now occurs in the Mediterranean, having invaded as a Lessepsian migrant through the Suez Canal. Panulirus cygnus, the "western rock lobster" Jasus edwardsii, the "southern rock lobster" Spiny lobster culture in Vietnam Data related to Panulirus ornatus at Wikispecies

Nevalı Çori

Newala Çorî was an early Neolithic settlement on the middle Euphrates, in Şanlıurfa Province, Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The site is known for having some of the world's oldest known communal buildings and monumental sculpture. Together with the earlier site of Göbekli Tepe, it has revolutionised scientific understanding of the Eurasian Neolithic period; the oldest domesticated Einkorn wheat was found there. The settlement was located about 490 m above sea level, in the foothills of the Taurus Mountains, on both banks of the Kantara stream, a tributary of the Euphrates; the site was examined from 1983 to 1991 in the context of rescue excavations during the erection of the Atatürk Dam below Samsat. Excavations were conducted by a team from the University of Heidelberg under the direction of Professor Harald Hauptmann. Together with numerous other archaeological sites in the vicinity, Newala Çorî has since been inundated by the damming of the Euphrates. Newala Çorî could be placed within the local relative chronology on the basis of its flint tools.

The occurrence of narrow unretouched Byblos-type points places it on Oliver Aurenche's Phase 3, i.e. early to middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. Some tools indicate continuity into Phase 4, similar in date to Late PPNB. An finer chronological distinction within Phase 3 is permitted by the settlement's architecture. In terms of absolute dates, four radiocarbon dates have been determined for Newala Çorî. Three are from Stratum II and date it with some certainty to the second half of the 9th millennium BC, which coincides with early dates from Çayönü and with Mureybet IVA and thus supports the relative chronology above; the fourth dates to the 10th millennium BC, which, if correct, would indicate the presence of an early phase of PPNB at Newala Çorî. The settlement had five architectural levels; the excavated architectural remains were of long rectangular houses containing two to three parallel flights of rooms, interpreted as mezzanines. These are adjacent to a rectangular ante-structure, subdivided by wall projections, which should be seen as a residential space.

This type of house is characterized by thick, multi-layered foundations made of large angular cobbles and boulders, the gaps filled with smaller stones so as to provide a even surface to support the superstructure. These foundations are interrupted every 1-1.5m by underfloor channels, at right angles to the main axis of the houses, which were covered in stone slabs but open to the sides. They may have served aeration or the cooling of the houses. 23 such structures were excavated, they are strikingly similar to structures from the so-called channeled subphase at Çayönü. An area in the northwest part of the village appears to be of special importance. Here, a cult complex had been cut into the hillside, it had three subsequent architectural phases, the most recent belonging to Stratum III, the middle one to Stratum II and the oldest to Stratum I. The two more recent phases possessed a terrazzo-style lime cement floor, which did not survive from the oldest phase. Parallels are known from Göbekli Tepe.

Monolithic pillars similar to those at Göbekli Tepe were built into its dry stone walls, its interior contained two free-standing pillars of 3 m height. The excavator assumes light flat roofs. Similar structures are only known from Göbekli Tepe so far. Soundings cut to examine the western side of the valley revealed rectilinear architecture in 2-3 layers; the local limestone was carved into numerous statues and smaller sculptures, including a more than life-sized bare human head with a snake or sikha-like tuft. There is a statue of a bird; some of the pillars bore reliefs, including ones of human hands. The free-standing anthropomorphic figures of limestone excavated at Newala Çorî belong to the earliest known life-size sculptures. Comparable material has been found at Göbekli Tepe. Several hundred small clay figurines, most of them depicting humans, have been interpreted as votive offerings, they were fired at temperatures between 500-600 °C, which suggests the development of ceramic firing technology before the advent of pottery proper.

A bas relief on a fragment of a limestone bowl depicts two humans and one tortoise-like creature dancing. Some of the houses contained depositions of incomplete skeletons. Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe: Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit. Vor 12.000 Jahren in Anatolien, Begleitbuch zur Ausstellung im Badischen Landesmuseum vom 20. Januar bis zum 17. Juni 2007. Theiss, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-2072-8. MediaCultura: Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit. Vor 12.000 Jahren in Anatolien. DVD-ROM. Theiss, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-2090-2. Hauptmann, H. Nevalı Çori: Architektur, Anatolica 15, 99-110. Hauptmann, H. Nevalı Çori: Eine Siedlung des akeramischen Neolithikums am mittleren Euphrat, Nürnberger Blätter 8/9, 15-33. Hauptmann, H. Ein Kultgebäude in Nevalı Çori, in: M. Frangipane u.a. Between the Rivers and over the Mountains, Archaeologica Anatolica et Mesopotamica Alba Palmieri dedicata, 37-69. Hauptmann, H. Frühneolithische Steingebäude in Südwestasien. In: Karl W. Beinhauer et al.

Studien zur Megalithik: Forschungsstand und ethnoarchäologische Perspektiven / The megalithic phenomenon: recent research and ethnoarchaeological approaches, Beiträge zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas 21. Morsch, M. Magic figurines? A view from Nevalı Çori, in: H. G. K. G