Yom Kippur known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism. Its central themes are repentance. Jewish people traditionally observe this holy day with an approximate 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer spending most of the day in synagogue services. Yom means "day" in Hebrew and Kippur comes from a root that means "to atone". Yom Kippur is expressed in English as "Day of Atonement". Yom Kippur is "the tenth day of seventh month" and is regarded as the "Sabbath of Sabbaths". Rosh Hashanah is the first day of that month according to the Hebrew calendar. On this day forgiveness of sins is asked of God. Yom Kippur completes the annual period known in Judaism as the High Holy Days or Yamim Nora'im that commences with Rosh Hashanah. According to Jewish tradition, God inscribes each person's fate for the coming year into a book, the Book of Life, on Rosh Hashanah, waits until Yom Kippur to "seal" the verdict. During the Days of Awe, a Jew tries to amend his or her behavior and seek forgiveness for wrongs done against God and against other human beings.
The evening and day of Yom Kippur are set aside for public and private petitions and confessions of guilt. At the end of Yom Kippur, one hopes; the Yom Kippur prayer service includes several unique aspects. One is the actual number of prayer services. Unlike a regular day, which has three prayer services, or a Shabbat or Yom Tov, which have four prayer services, Yom Kippur has five prayer services; the prayer services include private and public confessions of sins and a unique prayer dedicated to the special Yom Kippur avodah of the Kohen Gadol in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. As one of the most culturally significant Jewish holidays, Yom Kippur is observed by many secular Jews who may not observe other holidays. Many secular Jews attend synagogue on Yom Kippur—for many secular Jews the High Holy Days are the only times of the year during which they attend synagogue—causing synagogue attendance to soar. Erev Yom Kippur is the day preceding Yom Kippur, corresponding to the ninth day of the Hebrew month of Tishrei.
This day is commemorated with additional morning prayers, asking others for forgiveness, giving charity, performing the kapparot ritual, an extended afternoon prayer service, two festive meals. Leviticus 16:29 mandates establishment of this holy day on the 10th day of the 7th month as the day of atonement for sins, it calls it the Sabbath of a day upon which one must afflict one's soul. Leviticus 23:27 decrees. Five additional prohibitions are as detailed in the Jewish oral tradition; the number five is a set number, relating to: In the Yom Kippur section of the Torah, the word soul appears five times. The soul is known by five separate names: soul, spirit, living one and unique one. Unlike regular days, which have three prayer services, Yom Kippur has five- Maariv, Mussaf and Neilah The Kohen Gadol rinsed himself in the mikveh five times on Yom Kippur; the traditions are as follows: No eating and drinking No wearing of leather shoes No bathing or washing No anointing oneself with perfumes or lotions No marital relationsA parallel has been drawn between these activities and the human condition according to the Biblical account of the expulsion from the garden of Eden.
Refraining from these symbolically represents a return to a pristine state, the theme of the day. By refraining from these activities, the body can still survive; the soul is considered to be the life force in a body. Therefore, by making one’s body uncomfortable, one’s soul is uncomfortable. By feeling pain one can feel; this is the purpose of the prohibitions. Total abstention from food and drink as well as keeping the other traditions begins at sundown, ends after nightfall the following day. One should add a few minutes to the beginning and end of the day, called tosefet Yom Kippur, lit. "addition to Yom Kippur". Although the fast is required of all healthy men over 13 or women over 12, it is waived in the case of certain medical conditions. All Jewish holidays involve meals, but since Yom Kippur involves fasting, Jewish law requires one to eat a large and festive meal on the afternoon before Yom Kippur, after the Mincha prayer; this meal is meant to make up for the inability to eat a large meal on the day of Yom Kippur instead, due to the prohibition from eating or drinking.
Wearing white clothing, is traditional to symbolize one's purity on this day. Many Orthodox men immerse themselves in a mikveh on the day before Yom Kippur. In order to gain atonement from God, one must: Pray Repent of one's sins Give to charity Before sunset on Yom Kippur eve, worshipers gather in the synagogue; the Ark is opened and two people take from it two Sifrei Torah. They take their places, one on each side of the Hazzan, the three recite: In the tribunal of Heaven and the tribunal of earth, we hold it lawful to pray with transgressors; the cantor chants the Kol Nidre prayer. It is recited in Aramaic, its name "Kol Nidre" is taken fro
Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in classical antiquity that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture. Until the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the early Muslim conquests of the eastern Mediterranean, the main centers of Hellenistic Judaism were Alexandria and Antioch, the two main Greek urban settlements of the Middle East and North Africa area, both founded at the end of the fourth century BCE in the wake of the conquests of Alexander the Great. Hellenistic Judaism existed in Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period, where there was conflict between Hellenizers and traditionalists; the major literary product of the contact of Second Temple Judaism and Hellenistic culture is the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic to Koine Greek Jewish Koiné Greek. Mentionable are the philosophic and ethical treatises of Philo and the historiographical works of the other Hellenistic Jewish authors; the decline of Hellenistic Judaism started in the second century and its causes are still not understood.
It may be that it was marginalized by absorbed into or became progressively the Koine-speaking core of Early Christianity centered on Antioch and its traditions, such as the Melkite Greek Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch. The conquests of Alexander in the late fourth century BCE spread Greek culture and colonization—a process of cultural change called Hellenization—over non-Greek lands, including the Levant; this gave rise to the Hellenistic period, which sought to create a common or universal culture in the Alexandrian empire based on that of fifth-century Athens, along with a fusion of Near Eastern cultures. The period is characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa, the most famous being Alexandria in Egypt. New cities were established composed of colonists who came from different parts of the Greek world, not from a specific metropolis as before; these Jews living in countries west of the Levant formed the Hellenistic diaspora.
The Egyptian diaspora is the most well-known of these. It witnessed close ties, indeed the firm economic integration, of Judea with the Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled from Alexandria, the friendly relations which existed between the royal court and the leaders of the Jewish community; this was a diaspora of choice, not of imposition. Information is less robust regarding diasporas in other territories, it suggests. Jewish life in both Judea and the diaspora was influenced by the language of Hellenism; the Greeks viewed Jewish culture favorably, while vice versa, Hellenism gained adherents among the Jews. While Hellenism has sometimes been presented, as a threat of assimilation diametrically opposed to Jewish tradition, Adaptation to Hellenic culture did not require compromise of Jewish precepts or conscience; when a Greek gymnasium was introduced into Jerusalem, it was installed by a Jewish High Priest. And other priests soon engaged in wrestling matches in the palaestra, they plainly did not reckon such activities as undermining their priestly duties.
The main religious issue dividing Hellenized Jews from traditional Jews was the application of biblical laws in a Hellenistic empire. Under the suzerainty of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the Seleucid Empire, Judea witnessed a period of peace and protection of its institutions. For their aid against his Ptolemaic enemies, Antiochus III the Great promised his Jewish subjects a reduction in taxes and funds to repair the city of Jerusalem and the Second Temple. Relations deteriorated under Antiochus's successor Seleucus IV Philopator, for reasons not understood, his successor Antiochus IV Epiphanes drastically overturned the previous policy of respect and protection, banning key Jewish religious rites and traditions in Judea and sparking a traditionalist revolt against Greek rule. Out of this revolt was formed an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonean dynasty, which lasted from 165 BCE to 63 BCE; the Hasmonean Dynasty disintegrated due to civil war, which coincided with civil wars in Rome.
The Hasmonean civil war began when the High Priest Hyrcanus II was overthrown by his younger brother, Aristobulus II. A third faction, consisting of Idumeans from Maresha, led by Antipater and his son Herod, re-installed Hyrcanus, according to Josephus, was Antipater's puppet. In 47 BCE, Antigonus, a nephew of Hyrcanus II and son of Aristobulus II, asked Julius Caesar for permission to overthrow Antipater. Caesar ignored him, in 42 BCE Antigonus, with the aid of the Parthians defeated Herod. Antigonus ruled for only three years, until Herod, with the aid of Rome, overthrew him and had him executed. Antigonus was the last Hasmonean ruler; the major literary product of the contact of Judaism and Hellenistic culture is the Septuagint, as well as the Book of Wisdom, Sirach and pseudepigraphic apocalyptic literature dating to the period. Important sources are Philo of Flavius Josephus; some scholars consider Paul of Tarsus to be a Hellenist as well though he himself claimed to be a Pharisee. Philo of Alexandria was an important apologist of Judaism, presenting it as a tradition of venerable antiquity that, far from being a barbarian cult o
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright reddish yellow, soft and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a group 11 element, it is solid under standard conditions. Gold occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, in alluvial deposits, it occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less it occurs in minerals as gold compounds with tellurium. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test. Gold dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. A rare element, gold is a precious metal, used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was implemented as a monetary policy, but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2015; the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, 10% in industry. Gold's high malleability, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine; as of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes per year.
Gold is the most malleable of all metals. It can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, stretched about twice before it breaks; such nanowires distort via formation and migration of dislocations and crystal twins without noticeable hardening. A single gram of gold can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent; the transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold reflects yellow and red. Such semi-transparent sheets strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, in sun-visors for spacesuits. Gold is a good conductor of electricity. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3 identical to that of tungsten at 19.25 g/cm3. By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3, that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588±0.015 g/cm3. Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is reddish-yellow; this color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range for most metals but in the visible range for gold due to relativistic effects affecting the orbitals around gold atoms.
Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium. Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Fourteen-karat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, both may be used to produce police and other badges. White gold alloys can be made with nickel. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron, purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium. Less addition of manganese, aluminium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications. Colloidal gold, used by electron-microscopists, is red. Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, its only occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205.
The most stable of these is 195Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. The least stable is 171Au. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, β+ decay; the exceptions are 195Au, which decays by electron capture, 196Au, which decays most by electron capture with a minor β− decay path. All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β− decay. At least 32 nuclear isomers have been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 188Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198m2Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177m2Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184m1Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric
Ark of the Covenant
The Ark of the Covenant known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments. According to various texts within the Hebrew Bible, it contained Aaron's rod and a pot of manna. Hebrews 9:4 describes: "The ark of the covenant covered on all sides with gold, in, a golden jar holding the manna, Aaron's rod which budded, the tablets of the covenant."The biblical account relates that one year after the Israelites' exodus from Egypt, the Ark was created according to the pattern given to Moses by God when the Israelites were encamped at the foot of biblical Mount Sinai. Thereafter, the gold-plated acacia chest was carried by its staves while en route by the Levites 2,000 cubits in advance of the people when on the march or before the Israelite army, the host of fighting men; when carried, the Ark was always hidden under a large veil made of skins and blue cloth, always concealed from the eyes of the priests and the Levites who carried it.
God was said to have spoken with Moses "from between the two cherubim" on the Ark's cover. When at rest the tabernacle was set up and the holy Ark was placed in it under the veil of the covering, the staves of it crossing the middle side bars to hold it up off the ground. According to the Book of Exodus, God instructed Moses on Mount Sinai during his 40-day stay upon the mountain within the thick cloud and darkness where God was and he was shown the pattern for the tabernacle and furnishings of the Ark to be made of shittim wood to house the Tablets of Stone. Moses instructed Oholiab to construct the Ark.. In Deuteronomy, the Ark is said to have been built by Moses himself without reference of Bezalel or Oholiab; the Book of Exodus gives detailed instructions on. It is to be 21⁄2 cubits in length, 11⁄2 in breadth, 11⁄2 in height, it is to be gilded with gold, a crown or molding of gold is to be put around it. Four rings of gold are to be attached to its four corners, two on each side—and through these rings staves of shittim-wood overlaid with gold for carrying the Ark are to be inserted.
A golden lid, the kapporet, covered with 2 golden cherubim, is to be placed above the Ark. Missing from the account are instructions concerning the thickness of the mercy seat and details about the cherubim other than that the cover be beaten out the ends of the Ark and that they form the space where God will appear; the Ark is to be placed under the veil of the covering. The biblical account continues that, after its creation by Moses, the Ark was carried by the Israelites during their 40 years of wandering in the desert. Whenever the Israelites camped, the Ark was placed in a separate room in a sacred tent, called the Tabernacle; when the Israelites, led by Joshua toward the Promised Land, arrived at the banks of the Jordan river, the Ark was carried in the lead preceding the people and was the signal for their advance. During the crossing, the river grew dry as soon as the feet of the priests carrying the Ark touched its waters, remained so until the priests—with the Ark—left the river after the people had passed over.
As memorials, twelve stones were taken from the Jordan at the place. In the Battle of Jericho, the Ark was carried round the city once a day for seven days, preceded by the armed men and seven priests sounding seven trumpets of rams' horns. On the seventh day, the seven priests sounding the seven trumpets of rams' horns before the Ark compassed the city seven times and, with a great shout, Jericho's wall fell down flat and the people took the city. After the defeat at Ai, Joshua lamented before the Ark; when Joshua read the Law to the people between Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, they stood on each side of the Ark. We next hear of the Ark in Bethel where it was being cared for by the priest Phineas the grandson of Aaron. According to this verse it was consulted by the people of Israel when they were planning to attack the Benjaminites at the battle of Gibeah. However, the Ark was kept at Shiloh, another religious centre some 16 km north of Bethel, at the time of the prophet Samuel's apprenticeship, where it was cared for by Hophni and Phinehas, two sons of Eli.
A few years the elders of Israel decided to take the Ark out onto the battlefield to assist them against the Philistines, after being defeated at the battle of Eben-Ezer. They were, however defeated with the loss of 30,000 men; the Ark was captured by the Philistines and Hophni and Phinehas were killed. The news of its capture was at once taken to Shiloh by a messenger "with his clothes rent, with earth upon his head." The old priest, fell dead when he heard it. The mother of the child Ichabod died at his birth; the Philistines took the Ark to several places in their country, at each place misfortune befell them. At Ashdod it was placed in the temple of Dagon; the next morning Dagon was found prostrate, bowed down, before it. The people of Ashdod were smitten with tumors; the affliction of boi
A cherub is one of the unearthly beings who directly attend to God according to Abrahamic religions. The numerous depictions of cherubim assign to them many different roles. In Jewish angelic hierarchy, cherubim have the ninth rank in Maimonides' Mishneh Torah, the third rank in Kabbalistic works such as Berit Menuchah. De Coelesti Hierarchia places them in the highest rank alongside Thrones. In the Book of Ezekiel and Christian icons, the cherub is depicted as having two pairs of wings, four faces: that of a lion, an ox, a human, an eagle, their legs were straight, the soles of their feet like the hooves of a bull, gleaming like polished brass. Tradition ascribes to them a variety of physical appearances; some early midrashic literature conceives of them as non-corporeal. In Western Christian tradition, cherubim have become associated with the putto, resulting in depictions of cherubim as small, winged boys. In Islam, the cherubim are the angels closest to God. Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall noted Rūḥ as one of the most noble among the cherubim.
Others are the Bearers of the archangels. In Ismailism, there are seven cherubim, comparable to the Seven Archangels. Mythological hybrids are common in the art of the Ancient Near East. One example is the Babylonian lamassu or shedu, a protective spirit with a sphinx-like form, possessing the wings of an eagle, the body of a lion, the head of a king; this was adopted in Phoenicia. The wings, because of their artistic beauty, soon became the most prominent part, animals of various kinds were adorned with wings. Albright argued that "the winged lion with human head" found in Phoenicia and Canaan from the Late Bronze Age is "much more common than any other winged creature, so much so that its identification with the cherub is certain". A related source is the human-bodied Hittite griffin, unlike other griffins, appear always not as a fierce bird of prey, but seated in calm dignity, like an irresistible guardian of holy things; the traditional Hebrew conception of cherubim as guardians of the Garden of Eden is backed by the Semitic belief of beings of superhuman power and devoid of human feelings, whose duty it was to represent the gods, as guardians of their sanctuaries to repel intruders.
It has been suggested that the image of cherubim as storm winds explains why they are described as being the chariot of Yahweh in Ezekiel's visions, the Books of Samuel, the parallel passages in the Books of Chronicles, passages in the early Psalms: for example "and he rode upon a cherub and did fly: and he was seen upon the wings of the wind." In particular, in a scene reminiscent of Ezekiel's dream, the Megiddo Ivories depict an unknown king being carried on his throne by hybrid winged-creatures. Delitzch connects the name it with Assyrian karabu. Karppe glosses Babylonian karâbu as "propitious" rather than "mighty". Dhorme connected the Hebrew name to Assyrian kāribu, a term used to refer to intercessory beings that plead with the gods on behalf of humanity; the folk etymological connection to a Hebrew word for "youthful" is due to Abbahu. The cherubim are the most occurring heavenly creature in the Hebrew Bible, with the Hebrew word appearing 91 times. Despite these many references, the role of the cherubim is never explicitly elucidated.
While Hebrew tradition must have conceived of the cherubim as guardians of the Garden of Eden, they are depicted as performing other roles. The cherub who appears in the "Song of David", a poem which occurs twice in the Hebrew Bible, in 2 Samuel 22 and Psalm 18, participates in Yahweh's theophany and is imagined as a vehicle upon which the deity descends to earth from heaven in order to rescue the speaker. In Exodus 25:18-22, Yahweh tells Moses to make multiple images of cherubim at specific points around the Ark of the Covenant. Many appearances of the words cherub and cherubim in the Bible refer to the gold cherubim images on the mercy seat of the Ark, as well as images on the curtains of the Tabernacle and in Solomon's Temple, including two measuring ten cubits high. In Isaiah 37:16, Hezekiah prays, addressing Yahweh as "enthroned above the cherubim". Cherubim feature at some length in the Book of Ezekiel. While they first appear in chapter one, in which they are transporting the throne of Yahweh by the river Chebar, they are not called cherubim until chapter 10.
In Ezekiel 1:5-11 they are described as having the likeness of a man, having four faces: that of a man, a lion, ox, an eagle. The four faces represent the four domains of God's rule: the man represents humanity; these faces peer out from the center of an array of four wings. Under their wing
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century. The translation was the work of Jerome, who in 382 had been commissioned by Pope Damasus I to revise the Vetus Latina Gospels in use by the Roman Church. Jerome, on his own initiative, extended this work of revision and translation to include most of the books of the Bible, once published, the new version was adopted and eclipsed the Vetus Latina; the Catholic Church affirmed the Vulgate as its official Latin Bible at the Council of Trent, though there was no authoritative edition at that time. The Clementine edition of the Vulgate of 1592 became the standard Bible text of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church and remained so until 1979 when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated; the Vulgate has a compound text, not the work of Jerome. While Jerome revised all the Gospels of the Vetus Latina from the Greek, it is unknown who revised the rest of the New Testament.
Several unrevised books of the Vetus Latina Old Testament commonly became included in the Vulgate. Medieval Vulgate Bibles might further include the Prayer of Manasses, 4 Esdras, the Epistle to the Laodiceans and Psalm 151. Jerome himself translated all books of the Jewish Bible from Hebrew; the Vulgate's components include: Independent translation from the Hebrew by Jerome: the books of the Hebrew Bible, including a translation of the Psalms from the Hebrew, found in early medieval Vulgate manuscripts but is supplanted by Jerome's Gallican version in bibles. This was completed in 405. Free translation from a secondary Aramaic version by Jerome: Tobias and Judith. Translation from the Greek of Theodotion by Jerome: The three additions to the Book of Daniel; the Song of the Three Children was retained within the narrative of Daniel, Susanna was moved by Jerome from before the beginning of Daniel to the end of the book along with Bel and the Dragon. These additions he marked with an obelus to distinguish them from the canonical text.
Translation from the Common Septuagint by Jerome: the Additions to Esther. Jerome gathered all these additions together at the end of the Book of Esther, marking them with an obelus. Translation from the Hexaplar Septuagint by Jerome: his Gallican version of the Book of Psalms. Jerome's Hexaplaric revisions of other books of Old Testament continued to circulate in Italy for several centuries, but only Job and fragments of other books survive. Revision of the Old Latin by Jerome: the Gospels, corrected with reference to the best Greek manuscripts Jerome considered available. Revision of the Old Latin: the Roman Psalter including Psalm 151, undertaken prior to Jerome but continuing in liturgical use, included in many medieval Vulgate Old Testaments and liturgical psalters. Revision of the Old Latin by a person or persons unknown, contemporary with Jerome: Acts, Pauline epistles, Catholic epistles and the Apocalypse. Old Latin, wholly unrevised: Epistle to the Laodiceans, Prayer of Manasses, 4 Esdras, Ecclesiasticus, 1 and 2 Maccabees.
The Book of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah were excluded by Jerome as non-canonical, but sporadically re-admitted into the Vulgate tradition from the Additions to the Book of Jeremiah of the Old Latin from the 9th century onwards. Independent translation, distinct from the Old Latin, he had been commissioned by Damasus I in 382 to revise the Old Latin text of the four Gospels from the best Greek texts. By the time of Damasus' death in 384, Jerome had completed this task, together with a more cursory revision from the Greek Common Septuagint of the Old Latin text of the Psalms in the Roman Psalter, a version which he disowned and is now lost. How much of the rest of the New Testament he revised is difficult to judge today, but none of his work survived in the Vulgate text of these books; the revised text of the New Testament outside the Gospels is the work of one or more other scholars. This unknown reviser worked more than Jerome had done using older Greek manuscript sources of Alexandrian text-type, had published a complete revised New Testament text by 410 at the latest, when Pelagius quoted from it in his commentary on the letters of Paul.
In 385, Jerome was forced out of Rome and settled in Bethlehem. There he was able to use a surviving manuscript of the Hexapla from the nearby Theological Library of Caesarea Maritima, a column
John Wycliffe, was an English scholastic philosopher, Biblical translator, English priest, a seminary professor at the University of Oxford. He became an influential dissident within the Roman Catholic priesthood during the 14th century and is considered an important predecessor to Protestantism. Wycliffe attacked the privileged status of the clergy, which had bolstered their powerful role in England, he attacked the luxury and pomp of local parishes and their ceremonies. Wycliffe advocated translation of the Bible into the vernacular. In 1382 he completed a translation directly from the Vulgate into Middle English – a version now known as Wycliffe's Bible, it is probable that he translated the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John. Wycliffe's Bible appears to have been completed by 1384, additional updated versions being done by Wycliffe's assistant John Purvey and others in 1388 and 1395. Wycliffe's followers, known as Lollards, followed his lead in advocating predestination and the notion of caesaropapism, while attacking the veneration of saints, the sacraments, requiem masses, transubstantiation and the existence of the Papacy.
Beginning in the 16th century, the Lollard movement was regarded as the precursor to the Protestant Reformation. Wycliffe was accordingly characterised as the evening star of scholasticism and as the morning star of the English Reformation. Wycliffe's writings in Latin influenced the philosophy and teaching of the Czech reformer Jan Hus, whose execution in 1415 sparked a revolt and led to the Hussite Wars of 1419–1434. Wycliffe was born in the village of Hipswell near Richmond in the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, in the mid-1320s, his family was long settled in Yorkshire. The family was quite large, covering considerable territory, principally centred on Wycliffe-on-Tees, about ten miles to the north of Hipswell. Wycliffe received his early education close to his home, it is not known when he first came to Oxford, with which he was so connected until the end of his life, but he is known to have been at Oxford around 1345. Thomas Bradwardine was the archbishop of Canterbury, his book On the Cause of God against the Pelagians, a bold recovery of the Pauline-Augustine doctrine of grace, would shape young Wycliffe's views, as did the Black Death which reached England in the summer of 1348.
From his frequent references to it in life, it appears to have made a deep and abiding impression upon him. According to Robert Vaughn, the effect was to give Wycliffe "Very gloomy views in regard to the condition and prospects of the human race." Wycliffe would have been at Oxford during the St Scholastica Day riot in which sixty-three students and a number of townspeople were killed. Wycliffe completed his arts degree at Merton College as a junior fellow in 1356; that same year he produced The Last Age of the Church. In the light of the virulence of the plague that had subsided only seven years Wycliffe's studies led him to the opinion that the close of the 14th century would mark the end of the world. While other writers viewed the plague as God's judgment on sinful people, Wycliffe saw it as an indictment of an unworthy clergy; the mortality rate among the clergy had been high, those who replaced them were, in his opinion, uneducated or disreputable. He was Master of Balliol College in 1361.
In this same year, he was presented by the college to the parish of Fillingham in Lincolnshire, which he visited during long vacations from Oxford. For this he had to give up the headship of Balliol College, though he could continue to live at Oxford, he is said to have had rooms in the buildings of The Queen's College. In 1362 he was granted a prebend at Aust in Westbury-on-Trym, which he held in addition to the post at Fillingham, his performance led Simon Islip, Archbishop of Canterbury, to place him in 1365 at the head of Canterbury Hall, where twelve young men were preparing for the priesthood. In December 1365 Islip appointed Wycliffe as warden but when Islip died the following year his successor, Simon Langham, a man of monastic training, turned the leadership of the college over to a monk. In 1367 Wycliffe appealed to Rome. In 1371 Wycliffe's appeal was decided and the outcome was unfavourable to him; the incident was typical of the ongoing rivalry between monks and secular clergy at Oxford at this time.
In 1368, he gave up his living at Fillingham and took over the rectory of Ludgershall, not far from Oxford, which enabled him to retain his connection with the university. In 1369 Wycliffe obtained a bachelor's degree in theology, his doctorate in 1372. In 1374, he received the crown living of St Mary's Church, Lutterworth in Leicestershire, which he retained until his death. In 1374 his name appears second, after a bishop, on a commission which the English Government sent to Bruges to discuss with the representatives of Gregory XI a number of points in dispute between the king and the pope, he was no longer satisfied with his chair as the means of propagating his ideas, soon after his return from Bruges he began to express them in tracts and longer works. In a book concerned with the government of God and the Ten Commandments, he attacked the temporal rule of the clergy, the collection of annates and simony, he entered the politics of the day with his great work De civili dominio. This called for the royal divestment of all church property.
His ideas on lordship and church wealth caused his first official condemnation in 1377 b