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Meridian (geography)

A meridian is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude, as measured in angular degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian. The position of a point along the meridian is given by that longitude and its latitude, measured in angular degrees north or south of the Equator; each meridian is perpendicular to all circles of longitude. Each is the same length, being half of a great circle on the Earth's surface and therefore measuring 20,003.93 km. The first prime meridian was set by Eratosthenes in 200 BCE; this prime meridian was used to provide measurement of the earth, but had many problems because of the lack of latitude measurement. Many years around the 19th century there was still concerns of the prime meridian; the idea of having one prime meridian came from William Parker Snow, because he realized the confusion of having multiple prime meridian locations. Many of these geographical locations were traced back to the ancient Greeks, others were created by several nations.

Multiple locations for the geographical meridian meant that there was inconsistency, because each country had their own guidelines for where the prime meridian was located. The term meridian comes from the Latin meridies, meaning "midday"; the Sun crosses the celestial meridian at the same time. The same Latin stem gives rise to the terms a.m. and p.m. used to disambiguate hours of the day when utilizing the 12-hour clock. Because of a growing international economy, there was a demand for a set international prime meridian to make it easier for worldwide traveling which would, in turn, enhance international trading across countries; as a result, a Conference was held in 1884, in Washington, D. C. Twenty-six countries were present at the International Meridian Conference to vote on an international prime meridian; the outcome was as follows: there would only be a single meridian, the meridian was to cross and pass at Greenwich, there would be two longitude direction up to 180°, there will be a universal day, the day begins at the mean midnight of the initial meridian.

Toward the ending of the 12th century there were two main locations that were acknowledged as the geographic location of the meridian and Britain. These two locations conflicted and a settlement was reached only after there was an International Meridian Conference held, in which Greenwich was recognized as the 0° location; the meridian through Greenwich, called the Prime Meridian, was set at zero degrees of longitude, while other meridians were defined by the angle at the center of the earth between where it and the prime meridian cross the equator. As there are 360 degrees in a circle, the meridian on the opposite side of the earth from Greenwich, the antimeridian, forms the other half of a circle with the one through Greenwich, is at 180° longitude near the International Date Line; the meridians from West of Greenwich to the antimeridian define the Western Hemisphere and the meridians from East of Greenwich to the antimeridian define the Eastern Hemisphere. Most maps show the lines of longitude.

The position of the prime meridian has changed a few times throughout history due to the transit observatory being built next door to the previous one. Such changes had no significant practical effect; the average error in the determination of longitude was much larger than the change in position. The adoption of World Geodetic System 84" as the positioning system has moved the geodetic prime meridian 102.478 metres east of its last astronomic position. The position of the current geodetic prime meridian is not identified at all by any kind of sign or marking in Greenwich, but can be located using a GPS receiver, it was in the best interests of the nations to agree to one standard meridian to benefit their fast growing economy and production. The disorganized system they had before was not sufficient for their increasing mobility; the coach services in England had erratic timing before the GWT. U. S. and Canada were improving their railroad system and needed a standard time as well. With a standard meridian, stage coach and trains were able to be more efficient.

The argument of which meridian is more scientific was set aside in order to find the most convenient for practical reasons. They were able to agree that the universal day was going to be the mean solar day, they agreed that the days would begin at midnight and the universal day would not impact the use of local time. A report was submitted to the "Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada," dated 10 May 1894; the magnetic meridian is an equivalent imaginary line connecting the magnetic south and north poles and can be taken as the horizontal component of magnetic force lines along the surface of the earth. Therefore, a compass needle will be parallel to the magnetic meridian. However, a compass needle will not be steady in the magnetic meridian, because of the longitude from east to west being complete geodesic. Th

2012 Copa Bimbo

The 2012 Campeonato Internacional de Verano known as 2012 Copa Bimbo for sponsoring purposes, is the fourth edition of the Campeonato Internacional de Verano, an exhibition international club football competition that featured two clubs from Uruguay, one from Peru and one from Chile. It is played in Montevideo, Uruguay at the Estadio Centenario from 13 to 15 January 2012. Man of the match: Emiliano Albín Assistant referees: Carlos Pastorino Raúl Hartwig Fourth official: Gustavo Siegler 2 goals Emiliano Albín Santiago Silva David Llanos 1 goal Héber Arriola Sebastián Cristóforo Joaquín Boghossián Luis Perea Álvaro Recoba Matías Vecino Nicolás Canales

Barbary pirates

The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman and Berber pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based in the ports of Salé, Algiers and Tripoli. This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its ethnically Berber inhabitants, their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic seaboard and into the North Atlantic as far north as Iceland, but they operated in the western Mediterranean. In addition to seizing merchant ships, they engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns and villages in Italy, France and Portugal, but in the British Isles, the Netherlands, Iceland; the main purpose of their attacks was slaves for the Ottoman slave trade as well as the general Arab slavery market in North Africa and the Middle East. Slaves in Barbary could be black, brown or white, Protestant, Jewish or Muslim. While such raids had occurred since soon after the Muslim conquest of Iberia in the 8th century, the terms "Barbary pirates" and "Barbary corsairs" are applied to the raiders active from the 16th century onwards, when the frequency and range of the slavers' attacks increased.

In that period Algiers and Tripoli came under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, either as directly administered provinces or as autonomous dependencies known as the Barbary States. Similar raids were undertaken from other ports in Morocco. Barbary corsairs captured thousands of merchant ships and raided coastal towns; as a result, residents abandoned their former villages of long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy. Between 100,000 and 250,000 Iberians were enslaved by these raids; the raids were such a problem coastal settlements were undertaken until the 19th century. Between 1580 and 1680 corsairs were said to have captured about 850,000 people as slaves and from 1530 to 1780 as many as 1,250,000 people were enslaved. However, these numbers have been questioned by the historian David Earle; some of these corsairs were European converts such as John Ward and Zymen Danseker. Hayreddin Barbarossa and Oruç Reis, Turkish Barbarossa Brothers, who took control of Algiers on behalf of the Ottomans in the early 16th century, were notorious corsairs.

The European pirates brought advanced sailing and shipbuilding techniques to the Barbary Coast around 1600, which enabled the corsairs to extend their activities into the Atlantic Ocean. The effects of the Barbary raids peaked in the early to mid-17th century. Long after Europeans had abandoned oar-driven vessels in favor of sailing ships carrying tons of powerful cannon, many Barbary warships were galleys carrying a hundred or more fighting men armed with cutlasses and small arms; the Barbary navies were not battle fleets. When they sighted a European frigate, they fled; the scope of corsair activity began to diminish in the latter part of the 17th century, as the more powerful European navies started to compel the Barbary States to make peace and cease attacking their shipping. However, the ships and coasts of Christian states without such effective protection continued to suffer until the early 19th century. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15, European powers agreed upon the need to suppress the Barbary corsairs and the threat was subdued.

Occasional incidents occurred, including two Barbary wars between the United States and the Barbary States, until terminated by the French conquest of Algeria in 1830. In 1198 the problem of Berber piracy and slave-taking was so great that the Trinitarians, a religious order, were founded to collect ransoms and to exchange themselves as ransom for those captured and pressed into slavery in North Africa. In the 14th century Tunisian corsairs became enough of a threat to provoke a Franco-Genoese attack on Mahdia in 1390 known as the "Barbary Crusade". Morisco exiles of the Reconquista and Maghreb pirates added to the numbers, but it was not until the expansion of the Ottoman Empire and the arrival of the privateer and admiral Kemal Reis in 1487 that the Barbary corsairs became a true menace to shipping from European Christian nations. During the American Revolution the pirates attacked American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean. But, on December 20, 1777, Sultan Mohammed III of Morocco issued a declaration recognizing America as an independent country, that American merchant ships could enjoy safe passage into the Mediterranean and along the coast.

The relations were formalized with the Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship signed in 1786, which stands as the U. S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty with a foreign power. As late as 1798, an islet near Sardinia was attacked by the Tunisians, more than 900 inhabitants were taken away as slaves. From 1659, these African cities, although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, were in fact military republics that chose their own rulers and lived by war booty captured from the Spanish and Portuguese. There are several cases of Sephardic Jews, including Sinan Reis and Samuel Pallache, who upon fleeing Iberia turned to attacking the Spanish Empire's shipping under the Ottoman flag, a profitable strategy of revenge for the Inquisition's religious persecution. During the first period, the beylerbeys were admirals of the sultan, commanding great fleets and conducting war operations for political ends, they were slave-hunters and their methods were ferocious. After 1587, the sole object of their successors became plunder, on sea.

The maritime operations were conducted by the captains, or reises, who formed a class or a corporation. Cruisers were commanded by the reises. Ten percent of