1993 Long Island Rail Road shooting
On December 7, 1993, a Long Island Rail Road train pulled into the Merillon Avenue station in Garden City, New York, when passenger Colin Ferguson pulled out a 9mm pistol and started firing at other passengers. He wounded 19 others before being stopped by other passengers. Ferguson's trial was notable for a number of unusual developments, including his firing his defense counsel and insisting on representing himself and questioning his own victims on the stand. On February 17, 1995, Ferguson was convicted of the six murders, he was convicted of attempted murder for wounding 19 passengers. As of 2018, he is serving his sentence of 315 years and 8 months to life at the Upstate Correctional Facility in Franklin County, New York. On December 7, 1993, Colin Ferguson purchased a ticket for the 5:33 p.m. eastbound train at the Flatbush Avenue station in Brooklyn which stopped at the Jamaica station in Queens. He boarded the third car of the eastbound Long Island Rail Road commuter train from Penn Station to Hicksville, along with more than 80 other passengers.
He sat on the southwestern end of the car, carrying a Ruger P89 handgun and a canvas bag filled with 160 rounds of ammunition. As the train approached the Merillon Avenue station, Ferguson drew the gun, dropped several cartridges on the ground, stood up, opened fire at random. During the next three minutes, he killed six people and injured another 19; some passengers mistook the gunshots for caps or fireworks until a woman shouted, "He's got a gun! He's shooting people!" Ferguson walked east on the train, pulling the trigger about every half second. Several passengers tried to hide beneath their seats, while others fled to the eastern end of the train and tried to enter the next car. Ferguson walked down the aisle of the train and shot people to his right and left as he passed each seat facing each victim before firing; the New York Times wrote that the motions were "as methodical as if he were taking tickets". Ferguson said, "I'm going to get you," over as he walked down the aisle. Other passengers farther away in the train did not realize that a shooting had occurred until after the train stopped, as a crowd of panicked passengers fled from the third car into neighboring cars.
One man appeared annoyed by their unruliness and said, "Be calm", before they forced a train door open and fled into the station. Two people were injured in the stampede of passengers; the train's conductor was informed of the shooting, but he decided against opening the train doors right away because two of the cars were not yet at the platform. An announcement was made ordering conductors not to open the doors, but engineer Thomas Silhan climbed out the window of his cab and opened each door from the outside so that panicked passengers could escape. Ferguson had emptied two 15-round magazines during the shooting. While he was reloading his third magazine, somebody yelled, "Grab him!" Passengers Michael O'Connor, Kevin Blum, Mark McEntee tackled him and pinned him to one of the train's seats. Several other passengers ran forward to grab his arms and legs and help hold him pinned across a three-seat row with his head towards the window and legs towards the aisle. While he was pinned, Ferguson said, "Oh God, what did I do?
What did I do? I deserve whatever I get." He repeatedly pleaded with those holding him: "Don't shoot me. I'm sorry, I'm sorry." Five to six people continued to hold him pinned for some time. He was held down for several minutes. Six passengers died from their injuries: Amy Federici, a corporate interior designer from Mineola, New York James Gorycki, an account executive from Mineola Maria Theresa Tumangan Magtoto, a lawyer from Westbury, New York Dennis McCarthy, a 52-year-old office manager from Mineola, his son Kevin was injured. His wife Carolyn McCarthy was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1996. Richard Nettleton, a college student from Roslyn Heights, New York Mi Kyung Kim from New Hyde Park, New YorkThe wounded included Brendan Doyle, Mary Ann Phillips, Robert Giugliano. Ferguson was born in Kingston, Jamaica on January 14, 1958 to May Ferguson. Von Herman was a wealthy pharmacist and the managing director of the large pharmaceutical company Hercules Agencies, described by Time magazine as "one of the most prominent businessmen in Jamaica".
Ferguson attended the Calabar High School in Havendale from 1969 to 1974, where the principal described him as a "well-rounded student" who played cricket and soccer. He graduated in the top third of his class. Von Herman was killed in a car crash in 1978 when Ferguson was 20 years old, his funeral was attended by government and military luminaries. Ferguson's mother died from cancer soon afterward, the deaths destroyed the family's fortunes. Family friends said that this disturbed Ferguson, he moved to the United States in 1982 on a visitor's visa, his friends supposed that he had trouble dealing with racism in America and that he felt frustrated because he couldn't find work outside of menial jobs. Ferguson married Audrey Warren on May 13, 1986, a native of Southampton County, which qualified him for permanent U. S. residence. The couple moved to a house on Long Island where they fought, sometimes to the point that police intervention was required. On May 18, 1988, she obtained an uncontested divorce from Ferguson, claiming that the marriage ended because they had "differing social views".
Acquaintances said that she left Ferguson because he was "too aggressive or antagonistic" for her, that the divorce was a "crushing blow" to Ferguson
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, other characteristics illegal. In addition, unlike the Civil Rights Act, the ADA requires covered employers to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities, imposes accessibility requirements on public accommodations. In 1986, the National Council on Disability had recommended enactment of an Americans with Disabilities Act and drafted the first version of the bill, introduced in the House and Senate in 1988; the final version of the bill was signed into law on July 1990, by President George H. W. Bush, it was amended in 2008 and signed by President George W. Bush with changes effective as of January 1, 2009. ADA disabilities include both physical medical conditions. A condition does not need to be permanent to be a disability.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia. Other mental or physical health conditions may be disabilities, depending on what the individual's symptoms would be in the absence of "mitigating measures", during an "active episode" of the condition. Certain specific conditions that are considered anti-social, or tend to result in illegal activity, such as kleptomania, exhibitionism, etc. are excluded under the definition of "disability" in order to prevent abuse of the statute's purpose. Additionally, other specific conditions, such as gender identity disorders, are excluded under the definition of "disability".
See US labor law and 42 U. S. C. §§ 12111–12117. The ADA states that a "covered entity" shall not discriminate against "a qualified individual with a disability"; this applies to job application procedures, hiring and discharge of employees, job training, other terms and privileges of employment. "Covered entities" include employers with 15 or more employees, as well as employment agencies, labor organizations, joint labor-management committees. There are strict limitations on when a covered entity can ask job applicants or employees disability-related questions or require them to undergo medical examination, all medical information must be kept confidential. Prohibited discrimination may include, among other things, firing or refusing to hire someone based on a real or perceived disability and harassment based on a disability. Covered entities are required to provide reasonable accommodations to job applicants and employees with disabilities. A reasonable accommodation is a change in the way things are done that the person needs because of a disability, can include, among other things, special equipment that allows the person to perform the job, scheduling changes, changes to the way work assignments are chosen or communicated.
An employer is not required to provide an accommodation that would involve undue hardship, the individual who receives the accommodation must still perform the essential functions of the job and meet the normal performance requirements. An employee or applicant who engages in the illegal use of drugs is not considered qualified when a covered entity takes adverse action based on such use. There are many ways to discriminate against people based on disabilities, including psychological ones. Anyone known to have a history of mental disorders can be considered disabled. Employers with more than 15 employees must take care to treat all employees and with any accommodations needed; when an employee is doing a job exceptionally well, she or he is not no longer disabled. Part of Title I was found unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court as it pertains to states in the case of Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett as violating the sovereign immunity rights of the several states as specified by the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The Court determined. State employees can, file complaints at the Department of Justice or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, who can sue on their behalf. Title II prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities at the local level, e.g. school district, city, or county, at state level. Public entities must comply with Title II regulations by the U. S. Department of Justice; these regulations cover access to all services offered by the entity. Access includes physical access described in the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and programmatic access that might be obstructed by discriminatory policies or procedures of the entity. Title II applies to public transportation provided by public entities through regulations by the U. S. Department of Transportation, it includes the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, along with all other commuter au
Main Line (Long Island Rail Road)
The Main Line is a rail line owned and operated by the Long Island Rail Road in the U. S. state of New York. It begins as a two-track line at the Long Island City station in Long Island City and runs along the middle of Long Island about 95 miles to the Greenport station in Greenport, Suffolk County. A mile east of the Long Island City station, the four tracks of the East River Tunnels join the two tracks from Long Island City. Continuing east, five branches split from the Main Line. In order from west to east, they are: Port Washington Branch Hempstead Branch Oyster Bay Branch Port Jefferson Branch Central Branch —single non-electrified track with no stations, connecting the Main Line to the Montauk BranchThe Main Line contains four tracks between Harold and Queens Interlockings, two tracks to the west and east of these points. Public timetables refer to the Main Line east of Hicksville as the Ronkonkoma Branch; the Ronkonkoma Branch continues eastward as a two-track electrified branch to Ronkonkoma station, where it narrows to one non-electrified track.
Trains on the Main Line between Long Island City and Ronkonkoma are governed by Automatic Block and Interlocking Signals and by Automatic Train Control. East of Ronkonkoma, trains operate in non-signaled dark territory, with all train movements being governed by train orders and timetable authority. Several projects are underway to expand the Main Line's train capacity, including the Third-Track project between New Hyde Park station and Divide Interlocking; the Main Line has two tracks from just east of Long Island City to Harold Interlocking, where the four track Northeast Corridor from Penn Station in Manhattan joins the Main Line after passing through the East River Tunnels. East of HAROLD, the four-track Main Line runs adjacent to the two-track Port Washington Branch until, 0.7 miles southeast of the Woodside station, the Port Washington Branch turns northeastward. The Main Line continues southeast with four tracks to JAY Interlocking where it meets the Atlantic Branch and Montauk Branch at the west end of Jamaica station.
Eight platform tracks and two bypass tracks pass Jamaica station, along with a few yard tracks and two former freight tracks on the south side that can be used by trains bypassing Jamaica. At HALL Interlocking just east of the station there are eight through tracks: two westward tracks for Main Line and Montauk trains, two Atlantic Branch tracks that are about to duck under and turn southeast, two eastward Main Line/Montauk tracks, the two former freight tracks on the south side of Hall tower. Just east of there, Montauk Branch trains get their own two tracks in the center of the four Main Line tracks until the Montauk tracks fly over the other tracks and head southeast. At QUEENS Interlocking, just inside Nassau County between the Queens Village and Bellerose stations, the four-track Main Line splits into the two-track Main Line and the two-track Hempstead Branch; the two-track Main Line continues east to Mineola where the two track Oyster Bay Branch begins and curves to the north. The line continues east from Mineola to Hicksville where the two track Port Jefferson Branch begins and curves to the north.
To FARM Interlocking, the Main Line has two tracks to Ronkonkoma, except for some freight sidings along the route. The Main Line west of Jamaica to Harold Interlocking is the only line that can reach the East River Tunnels, so all trains bound for Penn Station use it; the portion between HAROLD and the Long Island City station is used by trains originating or terminating at Hunterspoint Avenue or Long Island City. East of Jamaica station, the Main Line is used by all trains on the Hempstead Branch, the Oyster Bay Branch, the Port Jefferson Branch, the Ronkonkoma Branch; some Montauk Branch trains use the Main Line on their way to Babylon via the Central Branch, diverging east of Bethpage. Only a few diesel shuttle trains, informally known as scoots, operate between Ronkonkoma and Greenport; the Main Line opened beyond Jamaica to Hicksville on March 1, 1837. Construction on the line to Greenport resumed in 1840, it was extended to Farmingdale on October 15, 1841, Deer Park on March 14, 1842, Brentwood on June 24, 1842, Central Islip on July 14, 1842 and Yaphank on June 26, 1844.
An opening excursion to Greenport was operated on July 27, 1844, revenue service began over the full line on July 29. The city of Brooklyn banned the LIRR from using steam propulsion within city limits effective July 1, 1851; the railroad refused to comply until early October, when they stopped freight and passenger trains at Jamaica, directing passengers to take Fulton Street stages to Bedford and transfer there to "Jamaica Line" stages. Laws passed on April 19, 1859 allowed for the appointment of commissioners, empowered to contract with the LIRR to close the Cobble Hill Tunnel, cease using
Mineola station (LIRR)
Mineola is a station on the Main Line of the Long Island Rail Road in the village of Mineola, New York. All trains for the Port Jefferson and Oyster Bay branches run through this station, as well as a few for the Montauk Branch; as of May 2011, 145 trains stop at this station every weekday, more than any other station east of Jamaica. It is the eighth-busiest station on the LIRR in terms of weekday boardings, with 10,348 boardings per day in 2006. Mineola lies in the center of the town of the same name, it is situated to the west of Mineola Boulevard between Station Road to the south and Front Street to the north. As one of the LIRR's busiest stations and near the center of Nassau County, the Village of Mineola Planning Committee created a master plan for the town meant to encourage transit-oriented development within a few blocks' radius of the station. Much of the plan involves creating links in the surrounding street grid, streetscape improvements, pedestrian zones; the Long Island Index, which aggregates data and plans about the island, has listed Mineola as one of the most high-profile targets for smart growth, as of 2010 noting that the town is about halfway through the process of revitalization.
Mineola station was built on the south side of the tracks in 1837 as "Branch station" later renamed "Hempstead Branch station" when the Long Island Railroad was expanded to Hicksville. The station was renovated in June 1872, but a second depot was built between May and June 1883; this station was razed in 1923, the third one was relocated to the north side of the tracks on September 22, 1923. The enclosed shelter was built at the old station house's location. A reconstruction project took place in 2001. With its connection to the Oyster Bay Branch, the Mineola station has always been a major railroad junction, but more so in the 19th and much of the 20th Century. On the south side of the station, a wye existed between the power sub-station for a line that connected the West Hempstead Branch with the Oyster Bay Branch. Sometimes referred to as the Garden City Branch, the east branch of this wye began at Third Street crossed Main Street the main line itself before connecting with the Oyster Bay Branch until it was eliminated in 1928.
The rest of the line was eliminated in 1966. As part of the LIRR third track project, infrastructure around the Mineola station will be renovated starting in late 2018. Both platforms would be replaced, Platform B will be relocated. Canopies, benches and security cameras will be installed; the new platforms would be heated to facilitate snow removal. Amenities such as Wi-Fi, USB charging stations and digital information displays would be included in the renovation; the construction of a new parking structure at Harrison Avenue will begin in fall 2018, followed by the start of reconstruction on the station itself in early 2019. The Second Street parking lot will be expanded, a park and ride parking lot at Main Street would be built; the dangerous grade crossing at Main Street would be closed and replaced with a pedestrian overpass with two elevators. The construction of the third track would require the replacement of a substation at the intersection of Main and Front Streets. Mineola has both slightly-offset to accommodate 12 railway cars.
The main station house is at Front Street and Mineola Boulevard. The station is wheelchair accessible and has a crossover and a grade crossing for pedestrians at the east end. A smaller enclosed shelter is on the opposite side of the tracks; the Oyster Bay Branch splits away at a grade crossing just east of the pedestrian crossing. Nassau Inter-County Express, or NICE, operates bus service to the Mineola Intermodal Center on the south side of the station. Prior to the opening of the intermodal center on October 16, 2006, bus stops were located at Third Street, a block away from the station. Six NICE routes stop there, as well as local taxicab services. Mineola – LIRRMineola LIRR TimetableMineola Station and Vicinity NASSAU Interlocking Station House from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View Station House from Google Maps Street View
The Montauk Branch is a rail line owned and operated by the Long Island Rail Road in the U. S. state of New York. The branch runs the length of Long Island, 115 miles from Long Island City on the west to Montauk on the east. However, in LIRR maps and schedules for public use the term Montauk Branch refers to the line east of Babylon; the westernmost portion of the Montauk Branch in Queens, known as the "Lower Montauk", runs between Long Island City and Jamaica stations at street level with grade crossings. This portion had nine stations, four of which were closed by 1940; the remaining five stations were closed on March 13, 1998, due to low ridership and incompatibility with then-new C3 bi-level coach cars that can only use high platforms. After these stations closed, the LIRR continued to use the Lower Montauk to operate two express trains between Jamaica and Long Island City; these two trains were re-routed north to Hunterspoint Avenue in 2012 ceasing passenger train service on the Lower Montauk.
Soon after, full control of the Lower Montauk was transferred to the New York and Atlantic Railway for freight operations. The New York City Department of Transportation has periodically floated proposals to repurpose the Lower Montauk Branch for rapid transit operations. In 1984, the Department studied an option to connect the branch to the New York City Subway through a proposed connection to the IND 63rd Street Line in Long Island City; this proposal was unpopular in the communities surrounding the branch. In 2017, the Department studied a plan to operate light rail service on the Lower Montauk Branch. After Penn Station opened in 1910 the Lower Montauk became the freight route, when the present Jamaica station opened in 1913 the two Lower Montauk tracks continued past the south side of the station, south of Hall tower and the south Union Hall Street platform and on to Holban Yard; those two tracks now carry trains to/from the Hillside Facility. East from Jamaica the Montauk Branch runs between the Main Line tracks until it rises to cross above the other tracks at 40.70585°N 73.7845°W / 40.70585.
The Montauk Branch east of Jamaica is 0.7 mile longer than the Atlantic. The portion between Jamaica and Babylon stations has been electrified since 1925, electric trains to Babylon are identified as a separate service, the Babylon Branch, it is grade-separated on elevated structures. From Babylon east to Montauk, diesel-electric or dual-mode electric/diesel-electric locomotives haul trains of passenger coaches; the Montauk Line has heavy ridership and frequent service as far as Patchogue station and commuter service as far as Speonk station. In the summer, with travelers going out to The Hamptons, Fire Island and other beaches, additional service is operated to the far eastern terminal at Montauk, such as the Cannonball, a Friday afternoon train departing from Penn Station and running non-stop to Westhampton station in Westhampton; the Montauk Branch, along with the parallel Atlantic Branch, spawns three subsidiary branches: the West Hempstead Branch, Far Rockaway Branch, Long Beach Branch.
The electrified portion of the Montauk Branch ends in the village of Babylon. Some of the Montauk's diesel trains begin or end their runs at Babylon station, connecting with electric trains there. Other Montauk diesel trains operate to Jamaica station; the terminal stations in diesel territory, east of Babylon, are Patchogue and Montauk. The Montauk Branch is double-tracked from just east of Long Island City all the way through Babylon, becoming single track at Y Interlocking. Most Montauk Branch diesel trains operate west to NYC via the diesel-only Central Branch, joining the Main Line east of Bethpage station. Only a few run via the Montauk Branch west of Babylon, under normal conditions on the Main Line; the Montauk was home to the last tower in North America that used "hooping" train operations: PD Tower, in Patchogue. "Hooping" is the transfer of instructions to the engineer and conductor by attaching the folded orders to the "hoop", a rod several feet long with a loop at the end, passed from the ground to a moving train by catching the loop on one's arm.
The last train to get hooped at PD was train 2730 on May 6, 2006. The Montauk Branch intersects with the Bushwick Branch, Bay Ridge Branch, West Hempstead Branch, Central Branch, as well as the Main Line at Long Island City and Jamaica and the Atlantic Branch at Jamaica and Valley Stream. In the past, junctions existed with the Rockaway Beach Branch, Southern Hempstead Branch, Manorville Branch, Sag Harbor Branch. In early times, the Scoot ran between Greenport on the North Fork, "around the horn" on the Manorville Branch, east to Sag Harbor. In their day, both of those villages were v
A third rail is a method of providing electric power to a railway locomotive or train, through a semi-continuous rigid conductor placed alongside or between the rails of a railway track. It is used in a mass transit or rapid transit system, which has alignments in its own corridors or fully segregated from the outside environment. Third rail systems are always supplied from direct current electricity; the third-rail system of electrification is unrelated to the third rail used in dual gauge railways. Third-rail systems are a means of providing electric traction power to trains using an additional rail for the purpose. On most systems, the conductor rail is placed on the sleeper ends outside the running rails, but in some systems a central conductor rail is used; the conductor rail is supported on ceramic insulators or insulated brackets at intervals of around 10 feet. The trains have metal contact blocks called collector shoes which make contact with the conductor rail; the traction current is returned to the generating station through the running rails.
In the US, the conductor rail is made of high conductivity steel or steel bolted to aluminium to increase the conductivity. Elsewhere in the world, extruded aluminum conductors with stainless steel contact surface or cap, is the preferred technology due to its lower electrical resistance, longer life, lighter weight; the running rails are electrically connected using wire bonds or other devices, to minimise resistance in the electric circuit. Contact shoes can be positioned below, above, or beside the third rail, depending on the type of third rail used: these third rails are referred to as bottom-contact, top-contact, or side-contact, respectively; the conductor rails have to be interrupted at level crossings and substation gaps. Tapered rails are provided at the ends of each section, to allow a smooth engagement of the train's contact shoes; the position of contact between the train and the rail varies: some of the earliest systems used top contact, but developments use side or bottom contact, which enabled the conductor rail to be covered, protecting track workers from accidental contact and protecting the conductor rail from frost, ice and leaf-fall.
Because third rail systems present electric shock hazards close to the ground, high voltages are not considered safe. A high current must therefore be used to transfer adequate power, resulting in high resistive losses, requiring closely spaced feed points; the electrified rail threatens electrocution of anyone falling onto the tracks. This can be avoided by using platform screen doors, or the risk can be reduced by placing the conductor rail on the side of the track away from the platform, when allowed by the station layout; the risk can be reduced by having an insulated coverboard to protect the third rail from contact, although many systems do not use one. In some modern systems such as the ground-level power supply, the safety problem is avoided by splitting the power rail into small segments, each of, only powered when covered by a train. There is a risk of pedestrians walking onto the tracks at level crossings. In the US, a 1992 Supreme Court of Illinois decision affirmed a $1.5 million verdict against the Chicago Transit Authority for failing to stop an intoxicated person from walking onto the tracks at a level crossing in an attempt to urinate.
The Paris Metro has graphic warning signs pointing out the danger of electrocution from urinating on third rails, precautions which Chicago did not have. The end ramps of conductor rails present a practical limitation on speed due to the mechanical impact of the shoe, 160 km/h is considered the upper limit of practical third-rail operation; the world speed record for a third rail train is 174 km/h attained on 11 April 1988 by a British Class 442 EMU. In the event of a collision with a foreign object, the beveled end ramps of bottom running systems can facilitate the hazard of having the third rail penetrate the interior of a passenger car; this is believed to have contributed to the death of five passengers in the Valhalla train crash of 2015. Third rail systems using top contact are prone to accumulations of snow, or ice formed from refrozen snow, this can interrupt operations; some systems operate dedicated de-icing trains to deposit an oily fluid or antifreeze on the conductor rail to prevent the frozen build-up.
The third rail can be heated to alleviate the problem of ice. Unlike third rail systems, overhead line equipment can be affected by strong winds or freezing rain bringing the wires down and stopping all trains. Thunderstorms can disable the power with lightning strikes on systems with overhead wires, disabling trains if there is a power surge or a break in the wires; because of the gaps in the conductor rail a train can stop in a position where all of its power pickup shoes are in gaps, so that no traction power is available. The train is said to be "gapped". Another train must be brought up behind the stranded train to push it on to the conductor rail, or a jumper cable may be used to supply enough power to the train to get one of its contact shoes back on the third rail. Avoiding this problem requires a minimum length of trains that can be run on a line. Locomotives have either had the backup of an on-board diesel engine system, or have been connected to shoes on the rolling stock; the first idea for feeding elec