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Merle Haggard

Merle Ronald Haggard was an American country singer, songwriter and fiddler. Haggard was born in Oildale, during the Great Depression, his childhood was troubled after the death of his father, he was incarcerated several times in his youth. After being released from San Quentin State Prison in 1960, he managed to turn his life around and launch a successful country music career, he gained popularity with his songs about the working class that contained themes contrary to the prevailing anti-Vietnam War sentiment of much popular music of the time. Between the 1960s and the 1980s, he had 38 number-one hits on the US country charts, several of which made the Billboard all-genre singles chart. Haggard continued to release successful albums into the 2000s, he received many honors and awards for his music, including a Kennedy Center Honor, a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, a BMI Icon Award, induction into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, Country Music Hall of Fame and Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame.

He died on April 6, 2016 — his 79th birthday — at his ranch in Shasta County, having suffered from double pneumonia. Haggard's last recording, a song called "Kern River Blues," described his departure from Bakersfield in the late 1970s and his displeasure with politicians; the song was recorded February 9, 2016, features his son Ben on guitar. This record was released on May 12, 2016. Haggard's parents were Flossie Mae Haggard and James Francis Haggard, both were of Scottish descent; the family moved to California from their home in Checotah, during the Great Depression, after their barn burned in 1934. They settled with their two elder children and Lillian, in an apartment in Bakersfield, while James started working for the Santa Fe Railroad. A woman who owned a boxcar placed in Oildale, a nearby town, asked Haggard's father about the possibility of converting it into a house, he remodeled the boxcar, soon after moved in purchasing the lot, where Merle Ronald Haggard was born on April 6, 1937.

The property was expanded by building a bathroom, a second bedroom, a kitchen, a breakfast nook in the adjacent lot. His father died of a brain hemorrhage in 1945, an event that affected Haggard during his childhood and the rest of his life. To support the family, his mother worked as a bookkeeper; when Merle was 12, his brother, gave him his used guitar. Haggard learned to play alone, with the records he had at home, influenced by Bob Wills, Lefty Frizzell, Hank Williams; as his mother was absent due to work, Haggard became progressively rebellious. His mother sent him for a weekend to a juvenile detention center to change his attitude, but it worsened. Haggard committed a number of minor offenses, such as writing bad checks, he was sent to a juvenile detention center for shoplifting in 1950. When he was 14, Haggard ran away to Texas with his friend Bob Teague, he hitchhiked throughout the state. When he returned the same year, he and his friend were arrested for robbery. Haggard and Teague were released.

Haggard was sent to the juvenile detention center, from which he and his friend escaped again to Modesto, California. He worked a series of laborer jobs, including driving a potato truck, being a short order cook, a hay pitcher, an oil well shooter, his debut performance was with Teague in a Modesto bar named "Fun Center", for which he was paid US$5 and given free beer. He returned to Bakersfield in 1951 and was again arrested for truancy and petty larceny and sent to a juvenile detention center. After another escape, he was sent to the Preston School of a high-security installation, he was released 15 months but was sent back after beating a local boy during a burglary attempt. After Haggard's release, he and Teague saw Lefty Frizzell in concert. After hearing Haggard sing along to his songs backstage, Frizzell refused to sing unless Haggard was allowed to sing first, he sang songs. Because of this positive reception, Haggard decided to pursue a career in music. While working as a farmhand or in oil fields, he played in nightclubs.

Married and plagued by financial issues, he was arrested in 1957 shortly after he tried to rob a Bakersfield roadhouse. He was sent to Bakersfield Jail, after an escape attempt, was transferred to San Quentin Prison on February 21, 1958. While in prison, Haggard learned that his wife was expecting another man's child, which pressed him psychologically, he was fired from a series of prison jobs, planned to escape along with another inmate nicknamed "Rabbit" but was convinced not to escape by fellow inmates. While at San Quentin, Haggard started a brewing racket with his cellmate. After he was caught drunk, he was sent for a week to solitary confinement where he encountered Caryl Chessman, an author and death-row inmate. Meanwhile, "Rabbit" had escaped, only to shoot a police officer and be returned to San Quentin for execution. Chessman's predicament, along with the execution of "Rabbit," inspired Haggard to change his life, he soon earned a high school equivalency diploma and kept a steady job in the prison's textile plant.

He played for the prison's country music band, attributing a performance by Johnny Cash at the prison on New Year's Day 1959 as his main inspiration to join it. He was released from San Quentin on parole in 1960. In 1972, after Haggard had become an established country music star, then-California governor Ronald Reagan granted Haggard a full and unconditional pardon for his past crimes. Upon his release from San Quentin in 1960, Haggard started diggin

Nicola de Marco

Nicola de Marco is an Italian racing driver. After a six-year karting career, de Marco moved up to the Formula Azzurra championship with the Durango team in 2006, was mightily impressive in his one and only Azzurra campaign. Nicola won three races en route to third in the championship, finishing behind Giuseppe Termine and fellow FIA Formula Two Championship racer Mirko Bortolotti, he competed in the Formula Renault 2.0 Italia Winter Series, finishing joint ninth in the championship with Daniel Zampieri. After only one year at a junior single-seater level, de Marco moved up to the Italian Formula Three Championship with Lucidi Motors, finished the 2007 season with six podiums and a pole position at Vallelunga, he ended up sixth in the championship, but was outperformed by team-mate Paolo Maria Nocera, who would go on to lift the title. A change to the Spanish Formula Three Championship for 2008 was hoped to see de Marco progress and earn more experience. Driving for the RP Motorsport team, de Marco won races at Spa and Albacete on his way to fourth in the championship, losing out on third to fellow F2 racer Natacha Gachnang by a solitary point.

Nicola drove in the relaunched FIA Formula Two Championship in 2009, driving car number 10 in the series. He finished in tenth position, with his best result coming in the final race at Circuit de Catalunya, where he finished second to Andy Soucek, he will return to the series in 2010. Nicola de Marco career details at

Sarabhai family

The Sarabhai family is a prominent Indian family active in several fields. The patriarch, Ambalal Sarabhai, was a leading industrialist. While he created significant wealth, his children interested themselves in a wide variety of other endeavours, the family is better known for those activities, rather than for industrial enterprise, now all but defunct; the Sarabhai family are major business family of India belonging to the Shrimal Jain community. Its twentieth century doyen Sheth Ambalal Sarabhai, was a Gujarati industrialist, he had five daughters and three sons who were involved in the family business as well as the Indian independence movement. After India's freedom, the family remained involved in developmental tasks undertaken by the government of India. Ambalal Sarabhai was a prominent mill-owner and interested in philanthropic activities, his wife Sarladevi Sarabhai was impressed by the Maria Montessori philosophy and in the year 1922, Montessori sent E. M. Standing to India for the homeschooling of Sarabhai children.

Sarabhai Enterprises branched out after India's independence and many pioneer ventures were made in fields dominated by foreign companies. The manufacture of drugs and pharmaceuticals and intermediates, dyes and pigments and household detergents and cosmetics, industrial packaging and containers, engineering and electronic products. Prominent members of the Sarabhai family include: Ambalal Sarabhai. Patriarch of the family. Born into a family of tradesmen, he invested the family wealth into various industrial enterprises in the early 1900s, including Sarabhai Textile Mills at Ahmedabad, one of the largest in India at that time. Anasuya Sarabhai, a trade unionist and freedom fighter. Married young, she never cohabited with her husband. Saraladevi Sarabhai, devoted wife of Ambalal and the mother of his eight children Suhrid Sarabhai Sr. industrialist Suhrid Sarabhai Jr Sanjay Sarabhai Gautam Sarabhai and philanthropist Mana & Shyama, daughters of Gautam sarabhai Mridula Sarabhai, freedom fighter and Indian politician.

Mrinalini Sarabhai. Wife of Vikram Sarabhai and herself a noted danseuse. Kartikeya Sarabhai and environmentalist Mallika Sarabhai, noted danseuse and activist, she is married to Madanmohan Mangaldas Girdhardas, noted industrialist Kamal Mangaldas, noted architect Gira Sarabhai, unmarried. M. Institute of Mental Health - Gautam Sarabhai The Physcotherapy Study Group - Gautam Sarabhai National Institute of Design - Gautam Sarabhai and his sister Giraben Sarabhai Darpana Academy of Performing Arts - Mrinalini & Vikram Sarabhai Calico Museum of Textiles - Giraben Sarabhai Ambalal Sarabhai Enterprises, Baroda - Gautam Sarabhai, a commercial venture Centre for Environment Education - Kartikeya Sarabhai VIKSAT - Kartikeya Sarabhai CHETNA - Kartikeya Sarabhai Sangeet Kendra - Geeta Mayor Darpana for Development - Mallika Sarabhai Mapin Publishing - Mallika Sarabhai and her husband Bipin Shah No.4 was renamed as the Vikram A. Sarabhai Community Science Centre after Dr. Sarabhai’s death in 1971. No.18 & 19 were merged under the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre after Dr. Sarabhai’s death in 1971.

Nos.21,22,23,24,25 and 26 were merged under the Space Applications Centre after Dr. Sarabhai’s death in 1971. No. 31 was renamed as Vikram Earth Station after Dr. Sarabhai’s death in 1971. Anusyabehn Sarabhai Jainism Swaminathan family Maria Montessory In India

Heinrich Marschner

Heinrich August Marschner was the most important composer of German opera between Weber and Wagner. Marschner was born in Zittau and was intended for a legal career. After a meeting with Beethoven around 1815–16, he decided to devote himself to music and became a private music teacher in Bratislava. From 1821 he worked as a stage composer and conductor at the municipal theatres in Dresden and the Court Theatre at Hanover, where the opera Hans Heiling established his name among the leading German opera composers of the time, he died in Hanover. Marschner was regarded as one of the most important composers in Europe from about 1830 until the end of the 19th century, he was friend of Beethoven and Mendelssohn. His operas contain thematic material based on folksong, this folk-influenced genre had begun with Weber's Der Freischütz; the last of his operas, was first staged in 1852. It was not well received, the renowned Wagner overshadowed him. Robert Schumann praised Marschner's piano trios lavishly.

Marschner did not just toss off these works as an afterthought, but devoted considerable time and effort to writing them. He gave the title "Grand Trio" to each of his works for piano and cello, indicative of the importance he attached to them. In these pieces, one finds all of the emotions prevalent in the Romantic movement during the mid-19th century. To the extent that Marschner is still remembered, it is for his operas Hans Heiling, Der Vampyr and Der Templer und die Jüdin popular in his lifetime. Marschner's ability to depict supernatural horror by musical means is evident in the first two operas as well as in some of his ballads, such as "Die Monduhr". Next to his operas, Marschner's most significant musical contribution is to the Lied; the best of his works in this form are comparable with those by Carl Loewe. He wrote a considerable amount of chamber music, including seven piano trios, as well as unaccompanied male choruses that were popular in the nineteenth century. While Marschner's operas influenced Wagner, his chamber music and his cantata Klänge aus Osten were admired by Schumann, whose cantata Paradise and the Peri shows the older composer's influence.

Marschner's Bagatelles for guitar have been taken up by some guitarists, some of his chamber music is still occasionally played. Among his operas, Hans Heiling and Der Vampyr have been adapted and revived in recent years with considerable success. Prinz Friedrich von Homburg, Op. 56 to the play by Kleist Schön Ella, Op. 27 to a play by Johann Friedrich Kind Der Goldschmied von Ulm to a play by Salomon Hermann Mosenthal Die Hermannsschlacht to the play by Kleist Piano trio No. 1 in A minor, Op. 29 Piano trio No. 2 in G minor, Op. 111 Piano trio No. 3 in F minor, Op. 121 Piano trio No. 4 in D major, Op. 135 Piano trio No. 5 in D minor, Op. 138 Piano trio No. 6 in C minor, Op. 148 Piano trio No. 7 in F major, Op. 167 Piano quartet No. 1 in B-flat major, Op. 36 Piano quartet No. 2 in G major, Op. 158 Douze Bagatelles pour la Guitarre, Op. 4 Some of the information on this page appears on the website of Edition Silvertrust but permission has been granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.

Heinrich Marschner Biography. Hughes, Derek. "Wie die Hans Heilings: Weber and Thomas Mann's Doktor Faustus". Cambridge Opera Journal. 10: 179–204. Doi:10.1017/S0954586700004924. Meyer, Stephen. "Marschner's Villains and the Fantasy of Deviance". Cambridge Opera Journal. 12: 109–34. Doi:10.1017/S0954586700001099. Münzer, Georg. Heinrich Marschner. Berühmte Musiker. Berlin: Harmonie, Verlagsgesellschaft für Literatur und Kunst. Palmer, Allen Dean: Heinrich August Marschner, 1795–1861, his life and stage works. Ann Arbor 1980 Weber, Brigitta: Heinrich Marschner. Königlicher Hofkapellmeister in Hannover. Hannover: Niedersächsische Staatstheater 1995. ISBN 3-931266-01-X Von der Lucretia zum Vampyr. Neue Quellen zu Marschner. Dokumente zur Entstehung und Rezeption der Lucretia. Vollständige Edition des Reise-Tagebuchs von 1826 bis 1828. Anmerkungen zu Marschners journalistischem Wirken. Hrsg. Und kommentiert von Till Gerrit Waidelich. Tutzing: Schneider 1996. ISBN 3-7952-0837-8 Heinrich August Marschner. Bericht über das Zittauer Marschner-Symposium.

Ein Symposium des Instituts für Kulturelle Infrastruktur Sachsen. Hrsg. von Allmuth Behrendt und Matthias Theodor Vogt. Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag 1998. ISBN 3-931922-22-7 Reclams Opernführer. Reclam-Verlag 1994, ISBN 3-15-010406-8 | Biography Edition Silvertrust, Heinrich Marschner Free scores by Heinrich Marschner at the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Heinrich Marschner in the Choral Public Domain Library

Behind the Sun (Chicane album)

Behind the Sun is the second studio album by British electronic music artist Chicane. It was released on 27 March 2000 through Xtravaganza Recordings; the album features collaborations with Tracy Ackerman, Máire Brennan, Justine Suissa, Bryan Adams, including its singles "Saltwater", "Don't Give Up", "No Ordinary Morning" / "Halcyon", "Autumn Tactics". Upon release, it charted at number 10 in the United Kingdom, 7 in New Zealand, 15 in Australia, was certified gold in the UK; the album is described by Chicane in the liner notes as a reflection on "a year in the life of Chicane". On 24 May 1999, "Saltwater", was released to commercial success; the song included a revision of the vocals from Clannad's "Theme from Harry's Game" provided by the original and featured singer, Máire Brennan. The single reached number six on number one on the UK Dance Singles Chart. On 6 March 2000, the album's second single, "Don't Give Up", was released, it features Canadian singer Bryan Adams, was a commercial success, reaching number one on the UK Singles Chart, number three in the United States Dance Club Songs chart, certifying silver and gold in the United Kingdom and Australia respectively.

It remains Chicane's most commercially successful single to date. The album's other singles include "No Ordinary Morning" / "Halcyon" on 10 July 2000, with the A-side featuring Tracy Ackerman; the album's final single, "Autumn Tactics", was released on 16 October 2000 and features Justine Suissa. On 27 March 2000, the album was released through Xtravaganza Recordings in the United Kingdom. In the United States, it was distributed by C2 Records, as part of a newly signed distribution deal between Xtravaganza and the now defunct imprint of Columbia Records. After its release, the album reached number 10 in the United Kingdom, 7 in New Zealand, 15 in Australia; the album saw success throughout Continental Europe, charting in Germany, Finland and the Netherlands. On 16 June 2000, the album was certified gold in the United Kingdom. On 22 November 2013, a remastered deluxe edition of the album was released by Armada Music. Upon release, the album charted on the UK Dance Albums Chart. Upon release, Behind the Sun received positive reviews from critics.

William Ruhlmann from AllMusic gave the album a positive review rating it three stars out of five. He claimed that " a strong pop sense to go with his taste for ambient and trance dance tracks", praised how "he cleverly hooks up with some established names looking to extend their appeal into the dance field". An issue of Billboard described the album as "a sublime musical journey". Trance Critic gave the album a mixed to positive review, claiming that the album veers away from traditional trance music, they stated that " seems to act in opposition to every convention of trance music yet, in bizarre and spectacular style, Chicane has reversed the trend by being better on the downtempo works". However, they wrote that " album is far from perfect", but rated it four stars out of five


The IJtunnel, opened on 30 October 1968, is an automobile tunnel under the IJ that connects the centre of Amsterdam with Amsterdam-Noord. The tunnel is part of a route across Amsterdam that connects the Ringweg North with the Ringweg South near Duivendrecht, via Nieuwe Leeuwarderweg, Valkenburgerstraat, Weesperstraat and Gooiseweg; the total length of the tunnel, including on off-ramps, is 1682 metres. The covered part is 1039 metres long; the deepest point of the tunnel lies 20.32 metres below sea-level. The tunnel was built of sections of rectangular concrete constructions of 24.8 x 8.75 metres, subdivided into two tubes for automobile traffic and in between tubes for cables and pipes. Ventilators, located in two ventilation buildings on the banks of the IJ, blow clean air into the traffic areas via tubes under the surface of the road and openings in the tunnel walls, suck polluted air out. At the entrance on the north side there are sun-blocking lattices over the road; these lattices are missing on the south side.

The traffic in the tunnel is monitored by 22 closed-circuit cameras. A heating system prevents the forming of ice on the surface of the road, a computer regulates the intensity of light at the beginning and the end of the tunnel, so that a gradual transition from tunnel light to daylight takes place; the route through the IJtunnel is an urban avenue, formed out of two divided tunnels, each with two lanes of traffic. This four-lane road continues to the A10 in the north and to the Prins Hendrikkade in the south, where it is reduced to two lanes, one in each direction; the IJtunnel is a class D tunnel under the ADR treaty. The classification means that no one may use the tunnel to transport dangerous goods that may cause a large explosion, or a large toxic release, or a large fire; the tunnel is an entry point to Amsterdam’s low emission zone, there is a height limit of 4 meters. Pedestrians, agricultural vehicles and mopeds are not allowed to use the IJtunnel. However, the ban on pedestrians and mopeds may be temporarily lifted if public transport and ferry services across the IJ are suspended: such a situation occurred in 1993, 1997, 2005 and 28 May 2019.

There was a special open day on 26 October 1968, to mark the opening of the tunnel