Merlin is a legendary figure best known as an enchanter or wizard featured in Arthurian legend and medieval Welsh poetry. The standard depiction of the character first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written c. 1136, is based on an amalgamation of previous historical and legendary figures. Geoffrey combined existing stories of Myrddin Wyllt, a North Brythonic prophet and madman with no connection to King Arthur, with tales of the Romano-British war leader Ambrosius Aurelianus to form the composite figure he called Merlin Ambrosius. Geoffrey's rendering of the character was popular in Wales. Writers in France and elsewhere expanded the account to produce a fuller image, creating one of the most important figures in the imagination and literature of the Middle Ages. Merlin's traditional biography casts him as a cambion: born of a mortal woman, sired by an incubus, the non-human from whom he inherits his supernatural powers and abilities. Merlin matures to an ascendant sagehood and engineers the birth of Arthur through magic and intrigue.
Authors have Merlin serve as the king's advisor and mentor until he disappears from the story after having been bewitched and forever sealed or killed by the Lady of the Lake after falling madly in love with her. He is popularly said to be buried in the magical forest of Brocéliande; the name "Merlin" is derived from the Welsh Myrddin, the name of the bard, one of the chief sources for the legendary figure. Geoffrey of Monmouth Latinised the name to Merlinus in his works. Medievalist Gaston Paris suggests that Geoffrey chose the form Merlinus rather than the regular Merdinus to avoid a resemblance to the Anglo-Norman word merde for faeces. Other suggestions are that'Merlin' is an adjective, from the French merle meaning'blackbird', or that the'many names' deriving from Myrddin stem from the Welsh: myrdd: myriad. Clas Myrddin or Merlin's Enclosure is an early name for Great Britain stated in the Third Series of Welsh Triads. Celticist A. O. H. Jarman suggests that the Welsh name Myrddin was derived from the toponym Caerfyrddin, the Welsh name for the town known in English as Carmarthen.
This contrasts with the popular folk etymology. The name Carmarthen is derived from the town's previous Roman name Moridunum, in turn derived from Celtic Brittonic moridunon,'sea fortress'. Geoffrey's composite Merlin is based on the madman and seer Myrddin Wyllt, as well as on Emrys, a character based in part on the 5th-century historical war leader Ambrosius Aurelianus, mentioned in one of Geoffrey's primary sources, the early 9th-century Historia Brittonum. In British poetry, Myrddin was a bard driven mad after witnessing the horrors of war, who fled civilization to become a wild man of the wood in the 6th century; this madman known as Lailoken, who has parallels with the Irish Suibhne/Sweeney, roams the Caledonian Forest, until cured of his madness by Kentigern. Geoffrey had Myrddin in mind when he wrote his earliest surviving work, the Prophetiae Merlini, which he claimed were the actual words of the legendary poet and madman. Geoffrey's Prophetiae do not reveal much about Merlin's background.
He included the prophet in his next work, Historia Regum Britanniae, supplementing the characterisation by attributing to him stories about Aurelius Ambrosius, taken from Nennius' Historia Brittonum. According to Nennius, Ambrosius was discovered when the British king Vortigern was trying to erect a tower; the tower always collapsed before completion, his wise men told him that the only solution was to sprinkle the foundation with the blood of a child born without a father. Ambrosius was rumoured to be such a child but, when brought before the king, he revealed the real reason for the tower's collapse: below the foundation was a lake containing two dragons who fought a battle representing the struggle between the invading Saxons and the native Celtic Britons. Geoffrey retells this story in his Historia Regum Britanniæ with some embellishments, gives the fatherless child the name of the prophetic bard Merlin, he goes on to add new episodes that tie Merlin with his predecessors. Geoffrey keeps this new figure separate from Aurelius Ambrosius and, with regard to his changing of the original Nennian character, he states that Ambrosius was called'Merlin'—that is, Ambrosius Merlinus.
Geoffrey's account of Merlin Ambrosius' early life is based on the tale of Ambrosius in the Historia Brittonum. He adds his own embellishments to the tale, which he sets in Wales. While Nennius' Ambrosius reveals himself to be the son of a Roman consul, Geoffrey's Merlin is begotten on a king's daughter by an incubus demon; the name of Merlin's mother is not stated, but is given as Adhan in the oldest version of the Prose Brut. The story of Vortigern's tower is the same. At this point Geoffrey inserts a long section of Merlin's prophecies, taken from his earlier Prophetiae Merlini, he tells only two further tales of the character. In the first, Merlin creates Stonehenge as a burial place for Aurelius Ambrosius, bringing the stones from Ireland. In the second, Merlin's magic enables the new British king Uther Pendragon to enter into Tintagel Castle in disguise and father his son Arthur
This List of Mazda platforms describes following automobile platforms which have been used by Mazda since the 1980s. The company's platforms form the sixth characters of the VIN on post-1981 vehicles; the first character is a letter representing the platform family, while the second is a sequential letter for the revision of the platform. For example, the Mazda N platform used by the Mazda Miata started at NA and was updated in 1998 to NB and in 2006 to NC; the 2016 and newer MX-5s are designated ND. Mazda starts car platforms at the letter "A", but van and truck variants get different names starting at "V". Note: The US-built Mazda6 and Tribute do not use the Mazda platform code in the VIN. Instead of the platform code letter, position four in the VIN specifies the vehicle's safety systems, position five specifies the marque, due to being built in a multi-brand facility. Prior to 1981, Mazda used a different VIN platform naming scheme; the platforms were given two characters, the model a third, based on their names.
The following pre-1981 platforms are known: M1 - Familia S1 - Capella/Savanna SA2 - Savanna/RX-7 LA - Luce CD - Cosmo PA1/PA2 - ProceedThe next digit of the VIN specified the engine: 0 - 10A/10B 2 - 12A/12B 3 - 13A/13B DA/DL/DB/DW/DG/DY/DE/DJ - subcompact FWD SS/SR/SG - subcompact minivan FWD BD/BV/BF/BG/BA/BH/BW/BJ/BK/BL/BM - compact FWD EC - Sport Compact FWD CA/CB/CG/CP - mid-size FWD GC/GD/GV/GE/GF/GW/GG/GY/GH/GZ - mid-size FWD MA/MB - mid-size FWD TA - mid-size FWD HC/HD/HE - full-size RWD JC - full-size RWD LV/LW/LY - minivan FWD FB/FC/FD/SE - sports cars RWD NA/NB/NC/ND - sports cars RWD
WAZL is an AM broadcasting radio station licensed to the city of Hazleton, Pennsylvania with service area extending to the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton radio market. The station broadcasts a Catholic religious radio format, it broadcasts at a frequency of 1490 kHz with 1,000 watts of power using a non-directional antenna. WAZL is considered a Class C AM broadcasting station according to the Federal Communications Commission; the radio station has a rich and long broadcast history dating back to 1932 serving the city of Hazleton, Pennsylvania. WAZL started broadcasting at a frequency of 1420 kHz and had to time share the frequency with WILM in Wilmington, Delaware in 1932. In 1941, a nationwide frequency reassignment took place by the Federal government which assigned WAZL to 1450 kc. where it stayed until 1948 when the station switched to its current broadcast frequency of 1490 kc.. WAZL was an affiliate of the Mutual radio networks during its early history. From 1932 to 1994, studios were on the seventh floor in the Hazleton National Bank Building at 101 West Broad Street.
The station has struggled in recent years, going silent for a time until Route 81 Radio bought the station and put it back on the air in 2004 as a Full-Service operation serving the local Hazleton community. In mid-July 2008, Route 81 Radio went into foreclosure. WS2K Acquisition a 50% owner in Route 81 Radio, took over the license. Soon afterwards in August 2008, Hazleton Radio, Inc. a locally-owned corporation, took over management of the station under a LMA. On August 20, 2009, the Hazleton Standard Speaker reported the sale of WAZL to locally-owned Panorama Magazine. On April 25, 2011 the FCC approved the sale to WAZL Partners, LLP, switching to the music format to Classic Rock, before settling on Hot Adult Contemporary. In October 2012, WAZL entered into a local marketing agreement with KMCS Broadcasting, LLC, who started stunting Christmas music on November 1, 2012 and broadcasting an adult hits format on January 1, 2013; this sale fell through in April 2013. In May 2013, Geos Communications began an LMA with WAZL, changed the format to mainstream country, filed with the FCC to purchase the station.
On July 15, 2013, Geos Communications completed its purchase of WAZL, at a price of $30,000. Geos Communications was the licensee of WGMF/WZMF in Tunkhannock/Nanticoke, PA. On October 23, 2015, WAZL was sold to JMJ Radio, owners of WQOR AM 750 in Olyphant, broadcasting a Catholic religious format. On December 17, 2015, WAZL switched from a simulcast of classic hits-formatted WGMF 1460 AM to a simulcast of Catholic religious-formatted WQOR 750 AM Olyphant, as a result of a sale to J. M. J. Radio, Inc; the sale took effect on January 4, 2016. Query the FCC's AM station database for WAZL Radio-Locator Information on WAZL Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WAZLWAZL Signal Coverage Map According to Radio-Locator.com RecNet query