A hacienda, in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar in form to a Roman villa. Some haciendas were mines or factories. Many haciendas combined these activities; the word is derived from the Spanish word "hacer" or "haciendo", which means: to make or be making, respectively. The term hacienda is imprecise, but refers to landed estates of significant size. Smaller holdings were termed estancias or ranchos that were owned exclusively by Spaniards and criollos and in rare cases by mixed-race individuals. In Argentina, the term estancia is used for large estates. In recent decades, the term has been used in the United States to refer to an architectural style associated with the earlier estate manor houses; the hacienda system of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, New Granada, Peru was a system of large land holdings. A similar system existed on a smaller scale in the Philippines and Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico, haciendas were larger than estancias, ordinarily grew either sugar cane, coffee, or cotton, exported their crops outside Puerto Rico.
Haciendas were developed as profit-making, economic enterprises linked to regional or international markets. Although the hacienda is not directly linked to the early grants of indigenous American labor, the encomienda, many Spanish holders of encomiendas did acquire land or develop enterprises where they had access to that forced labor. Though the private landed estates that constituted most haciendas did not have a direct tie to the encomienda, they are nonetheless linked. Encomenderos were in a position to retain their prominence economically via the hacienda. Since the encomienda was a grant from the crown, holders were dependent on the crown for its continuation; as the crown moved to eliminate the encomienda with its labor supply, Spaniards consolidated private landholdings and recruited free labor on a permanent or casual basis. The long term trend was the creation of the hacienda as secure private property, which survived the colonial period and into the 20th century. Estates were integrated into a market-based economy aimed at the Hispanic sector and cultivated crops such as sugar, wheat and vegetables and produced animal products such as meat, wool and tallow.
Haciendas originated in Spanish land grants, made to many conquistadors and crown officials, but many ordinary Spaniards could petition for land grants from the crown. The system is considered to have started in present-day Mexico, when the Spanish Crown granted to Hernán Cortés the title of Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca in 1529, it gave him a tract of land. Cortés was granted encomiendas, that gave him access to a vast pool of indigenous labor. In Spanish America, the owner of an hacienda was called the patrón. Most owners of large and profitable haciendas preferred to live in Spanish cities near the hacienda, but in Mexico, the richest owners lived in Mexico City, visiting their haciendas at intervals. Onsite management of the rural estates was by a paid administrator or manager, similar to the arrangement with the encomienda. Administrators were hired for a fixed term of employment, receiving a salary and at times some share of the profits of the estate; some administrators acquired landholdings themselves in the area of the estate they were managing.
The work force on haciendas varied, depending on the type of hacienda. In central Mexico near indigenous communities and growing crops to supply urban markets, there was a small, permanent workforce resident on the hacienda. Labor could be recruited from nearby indigenous communities on an as-needed basis, such as planting and harvest time; the permanent and temporary hacienda employees worked land that belonged to the patrón and under the supervision of local labor bosses. In some places small scale cultivators or campesinos worked small holdings belonging to the hacendado, owed a portion of their crops to him. In a number of places, the economy of the 18th century was a barter system, with little specie circulated on the hacienda. Stock raising was central to ranching haciendas, the largest of which were in areas without dense indigenous populations, such as northern Mexico, but as indigenous populations declined in central areas, more land became available for grazing. Livestock were animals imported from Spain, including cattle, horses and goats were part of the Columbian Exchange and produced significant ecological changes.
Sheep in particular had a devastating impact on the environment due to overgrazing. Mounted ranch hands variously called vaqueros and gauchos, among other terms worked for pastoral haciendas. Where the hacienda included working mines, as in Mexico, the patrón might gain immense wealth; the unusually large and profitable Jesuit hacienda Santa Lucía, near Mexico City, established in 1576 and lasting to the expulsion in 1767, has been reconstructed by Herman Konrad from archival sources. This reconstruction has revealed the nature and operation of the hacienda system in Mexico, its labor force, its systems of land tenure and its relationship to larger Hispanic society in Mexico; the Catholic Church and orders the Jesuits, acquired vast hacienda holdings or preferentially loaned money to the hacendados. As the hacienda owners' mortgage holders, the Church's interests were connected with the landholding class. In the history of Mexico and other Latin American countries, the
Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous Argentinian province. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be part of the province and the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880. Since in spite of bearing the same name, the province does not include the national capital city proper, though it does include all other localities of the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area surrounding it; the current capital of the province is the city of La Plata, founded in 1882. The province is the only within the whole Argentina to be divided into partidos and furtherly into localidades, borders the provinces of Entre Ríos to the northeast. Uruguay is just near the Atlantic Ocean to the east; the entire province is part of the Pampas geographical region. The province has a population of 39 % of Argentina's total population. Nearly 10 million people live in Greater Buenos Aires; the area of the province, 307,571 km2, makes it the largest in Argentina with around 11% of the country's total area.
The inhabitants of the province before the 16th century advent of Spanish colonisation were aboriginal peoples such as the Charrúas and the Querandíes. Their culture was lost over the next 350 years, they were subjected to Eurasian plagues from. The survivors joined other tribes or have been absorbed by Argentina's European ethnic majority. Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayre in 1536. Though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon became hostile; the city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay re-founded the settlement in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de los Buenos Aires. Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the centre of the economy of the territory. Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of meat and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires was the basis of the economic development of the region.
Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century, when the Salado River became the limit between both civilizations, despite frequent malones; the end to this situation came in 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert in which the aboriginals were completely exterminated. After the independence from Spain in 1816, the city and province of Buenos Aires became the focus of an intermittent Argentine Civil War with other provinces. A Federal Pact secured by Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas in 1831 led to the establishment of the Argentine Confederation and to his gaining the sum of public power, which provided a tenuous unity. Ongoing disputes regarding the influence of Buenos Aires, between Federalists and Unitarians, over the Port of Buenos Aires fueled periodic hostilities; the province was declared independent on September 1852, as the State of Buenos Aires.
Concessions gained in the 1859 Pact of San José de Flores and a victory at the Battle of Pavón led to its reincorporation into the Argentine Republic on December 17, 1861. Intermittent conflicts with the nation did not cease until 1880, when the city of Buenos Aires was formally federalized and, administratively separated from the province. La Plata was founded in 1882 by Governor Dardo Rocha for the purpose of becoming the provincial capital; the equivalent of a billion dollars of British investment and pro-development and immigration policies pursued at the national level subsequently spurred dramatic economic growth. Driven by European immigration and improved health, the province's population, like Argentina's, nearly doubled to one million by 1895 and doubled again by 1914. Rail lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province by 1914; this era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which caused a sharp drop in commodity prices and led to a halt in the flow of investment funds between nations.
The new Concordance and Perón governments funded ambitious lending and public works programs, visible in Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings, schools and massive regional hospitals. The province's population, after 1930, began to grow disproportionately in the suburban areas of Buenos Aires; these suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs were developed on consisted of wetlands and were prone to flooding. To address this, Governor Oscar Alende initiated the province's most important flood-control project to date, the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade in 1971, the reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities encouraged still more, more orderly, development of the Greater Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people, it did not address worsening pollution resulting from the area's industrial growth, which had made itself evident since aroun
A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a Spanish colonial, early post-colonial, administrative council which governed a municipality. Cabildos were sometimes appointed, sometimes elected; the colonial cabildo was the same as the one developed in medieval Castile. The cabildo was the legal representative of the municipality—and its vecinos—before the Crown, therefore it was among the first institutions established by the conquistadors themselves after, or before, taking over an area. For example, Hernán Cortés established La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz to free himself from the authority of the Governor of Cuba; the word cabildo has the same Latin root as the English word chapter, in fact, is the Spanish word for a cathedral chapter. The term ayuntamiento was preceded by the word excelentísimo as a style of office, when referring to the council; this phrase is abbreviated Exc.mo Ay.to The Castilian cabildo has some similarities to the ancient Roman municipium and civitas—especially in the use of plural administrative officers and its control of the surrounding countryside, the territorium—but its evolution is a uniquely medieval development.
With the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the establishment of the Visigothic Kingdom, the ancient municipal government vanished. In many areas, seeking to escape from the political instability around them, people entrusted themselves to large landholders, exchanging their service for the landholder's protection, in a process that led to feudalism. In areas where the old territoria survived, the Visigothic kings appointed a single officer, called either a comes or a iudice to replace the defunct municipia or civitates. After the Muslim conquest, the new rulers appointed various judicial officers to manage the affairs of the cities. Qadis heard any cases that fell under the purview of Sharia law and sahibs oversaw the administration of the various other areas of urban life, such as the markets and the public order; the cabildo proper began its slow evolution in the process of the Reconquista. As fortified areas grew into urban centers or older cities were incorporated into the expanding Christian kingdoms of Portugal, León and Castile, kings granted the cities various levels of self-rule and unique sets of laws and made them the administrative center of a large terminus or alfoz, analogous to the ancient territorium.
In general, municipal governments consisted of a council open to all the property-owning adult males of the city and a nobleman appointed to represent the king and organize the defense of the city and terminus. By the 13th century, these open councils proved unwieldy and were replaced by a smaller body, the cabildo or ayuntamiento consisting of set number of regidores elected by the property owners in the city; these new bodies took their permanent form by the end of the 14th century. As part of the same process, a municipal council with different attributes and composition evolved in the neighboring Kingdom of Aragon during this period. In theory, every municipality in the Spanish colonies in the Americas and the Spanish Philippines had a cabildo. Municipalities were not just the cities. All lands were assigned to a municipality; the cabildo made local laws and reported to the presidente of the audiencia, who in turn reported to the viceroy. The cabildo had judicial and administrative duties.
For this reason it was addressed with the formula, Justicia y Regimiento. The cabildo consisted of several types of officials. There were four depending on the size and importance of the municipality. Regidores, were not just deliberative officers, but all shared in the administration of the territory, dividing tasks among themselves; the regidores were elected by all the heads of household. In the late Middle Ages, these elections turned violent, with citizens forming bands to control elections and resorting to murder. To minimize this kings began to appoint a certain number of, or all of, the regidores in certain cities. By the modern era different cabildos had different mixes of elected and appointed regidores both on the Peninsula and overseas. To add another layer of control, the kings introduced corregidores to represent them directly and preside over the cabildos. Although many municipalities lost their right to elect all or some of their regidores as time went on, cities and cabildos gained new power with the development of the Castilian and Leonese parliaments because cities had a right to representation in them.
In addition to the council members, the cabildo had one or two magistrates, the alcaldes, whom the regidores elected every January 1. Alcaldes served as judges of first instance in all criminal and civil cases and acted as presiding officers of the cabildo, unless there was a corregidor. In provincial capitals the first alcalde would fill in for incapacitated governors. Other officers were the alférez real, who had a vote in cabildo deliberations and would substitute the alcalde if the latter could not carry out the functions of his office. After the Bou
Anthony of Padua
Saint Anthony of Padua, born Fernando Martins de Bulhões - known as Saint Anthony of Lisbon - was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order. He was born and raised by a wealthy family in Lisbon and died in Padua, Italy. Noted by his contemporaries for his powerful preaching, expert knowledge of scripture, undying love and devotion to the poor and the sick, he was one of the most canonized saints in church history, he was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on 16 January 1946. He is the patron saint of lost things. Fernando Martins de Bulhões was born in Portugal. While 15th-century writers state that his parents were Vicente Martins and Teresa Pais Taveira, that his father was the brother of Pedro Martins de Bulhões, the ancestor of the Bulhão or Bulhões family, Niccolò Dal-Gal views this as less certain, his wealthy and noble family arranged. At the age of 15, he entered the community of Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross at the Augustinian Abbey of Saint Vincent on the outskirts of Lisbon.
In 1212, distracted by frequent visits from family and friends, he asked to be transferred to the motherhouse of the congregation, the Monastery of the Holy Cross in Coimbra the capital of Portugal. There, the young Fernando studied Latin. After his ordination to the priesthood, Fernando was named guestmaster and placed in charge of hospitality for the abbey. While he was in Coimbra, some Franciscan friars arrived and settled at a small hermitage outside Coimbra dedicated to Saint Anthony of Egypt. Fernando was attracted to the simple, evangelical lifestyle of the friars, whose order had been founded only 11 years prior. News arrived that five Franciscans had been beheaded in Morocco, the first of their order to be killed. King Afonso ransomed their bodies to be buried as martyrs in the Abbey of Santa Cruz. Inspired by their example, Fernando obtained permission from church authorities to leave the Canons Regular to join the new Franciscan order. Upon his admission to the life of the friars, he joined the small hermitage in Olivais, adopting the name Anthony, by which he was to be known.
Anthony set out for Morocco, in fulfillment of his new vocation. However, he fell ill in Morocco and set sail back for Portugal in hope of regaining his health. On the return voyage, the ship was landed in Sicily. From Sicily, he made his way to Tuscany, where he was assigned to a convent of the order, but he met with difficulty on account of his sickly appearance, he was assigned to the rural hermitage of San Paolo near Forlì, Romagna, a choice made after considering his poor health. There, he had recourse to a cell one of the friars had made in a nearby cave, spending time in private prayer and study. One day in 1222, in the town of Forlì, on the occasion of an ordination, a number of visiting Dominican friars were present, some misunderstanding arose over who should preach; the Franciscans expected that one of the Dominicans would occupy the pulpit, for they were renowned for their preaching. In this quandary, the head of the hermitage, who had no one among his own humble friars suitable for the occasion, called upon Anthony, whom he suspected was most qualified, entreated him to speak whatever the Holy Spirit should put into his mouth.
Anthony objected, but was overruled, his sermon created a deep impression. Not only his rich voice and arresting manner, but the entire theme and substance of his discourse and his moving eloquence, held the attention of his hearers. Everyone was impressed with his knowledge of scripture, acquired during his years as an Augustinian friar. At that point, Anthony was sent by Brother Gratian, the local minister provincial, to the Franciscan province of Romagna, based in Bologna, he soon came to the attention of the founder of Francis of Assisi. Francis had held a strong distrust of the place of theological studies in the life of his brotherhood, fearing that it might lead to an abandonment of their commitment to a life of real poverty. In Anthony, however, he found a kindred spirit for his vision, able to provide the teaching needed by young members of the order who might seek ordination. In 1224, he entrusted the pursuit of studies for any of his friars to the care of Anthony; the reason St. Anthony's help is invoked for finding things lost or stolen is traced to an incident that occurred in Bologna.
According to the story, Anthony had a book of psalms, of some importance to him, as it contained the notes and comments he had made to use in teaching his students. A novice who had decided to leave took the psalter with him. Prior to the invention of the printing press, any book was an item of value. Upon noticing it was missing, Anthony prayed it would be returned; the thief was moved to return to the order. The stolen book is said to be preserved in the Franciscan friary in Bologna, he took another post, as a teacher, for instance, at the universities of Montpellier and Toulouse in southern France, but as a preacher Anthony revealed his supreme gift. According to historian Sophronius Clasen, Anthony preached the grandeur of Christianity, his method included symbolical explanation of Scripture. In 1226, after attending the general chapter of his order held at Arles and spreading the word of the lord in the French region of Provence, Anthony returned to Italy and wa
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p
Moreno, Buenos Aires
Moreno is a city in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It is the head town of Moreno Partido, it forms part of the Greater Buenos Aires urban conurbation and is located around 36 km to the west of the autonomous city of Buenos Aires. According to the 2001 census, the population was 148,290. Moreno is bordered by Paso del Rey and Cuartel V, Francisco Álvarez and Merlo and Reconquista River; the origin of the city goes back to 1860 when the Argentine railway company Camino de Hierro de Buenos Aires al Oeste opens a railway station in land donated by the politician and composer Amancio Jacinto Alcorta. The area has Deutsche Schule Moreno. Hebe Uhart and professor Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Municipal website
Mariano Acosta, Buenos Aires
Mariano Acosta is a city located in Merlo Partido, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Mariano Acosta was founded by the landholder and businessman Juan Posse in the earliest 20th century, for years the town was known as Villa Posse. Villa Posse changed its name to Mariano Acosta when the British-owned railway company Buenos Aires Western Railway Co. opens a railway station at its surroundings in 1910. The station was named after Mariano Acosta, Argentine lawyer and politician, former Vice-President of Argentina and governor of Buenos Aires. Mariano Acosta is bordered by Moreno and the Reconquista River, Parque San Martín and other localidades of Merlo and Marcos Paz. According to the 2001 census, the population was 54,081. Mariano Acosta Newspaper