Merneferre Ay

Merneferre Ay was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the mid 13th Dynasty. The longest reigning pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty, he ruled a fragmented Egypt for over 23 years in the early to mid 17th century BC. A pyramidion bearing his name shows that he completed a pyramid located in the necropolis of Memphis. Merneferre Ay is the last pharaoh of the 13th dynasty to be attested outside Upper Egypt. In spite of his long reign, the number of artefacts attributable to him is comparatively small; this may point to problems in Egypt at the time and indeed, by the end of his reign, "the administration seems to have collapsed". It is possible that the capital of Egypt since the early Middle Kingdom, Itjtawy was abandoned during or shortly after Ay's reign. For this reason, some scholars consider Merneferre Ay to be the last pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt; the relative chronological position of Merneferre Ay as a king of the mid 13th Dynasty is well established by the Turin canon, a king list redacted during the early Ramesside period and which serves as the primary historical source for the Second Intermediate Period.

The king list records Ay's name on column 8 line 3 and establishes that Merneferre Ay was preceded by Wahibre Ibiau and succeeded by Merhotepre Ini, his son. The precise chronological placement of Merneferre Ay varies between scholars, with Jürgen von Beckerath and Aidan Dodson seeing him as the 27th king of the dynasty while Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker place him in the 32nd and 33rd positions, respectively; the absolute datation of Ay's reign is debated and varies by 17 years between Ryholt's 1701–1677 BC and Schneider's 1684–1661 BC. Until the duration of Merneferre Ay's reign, recorded in the Turin canon, was disputed by Jürgen von Beckerath who read the damaged figure on the papyrus fragment as 13 years while both Alan Gardiner and Kenneth Kitchen maintained it should be read as 23 years; the dispute was settled in the latest study of the Turin canon by Kim Ryholt who confirms that Merneferre Ay's reign length as recorded on the papyrus is "23 years, 8 months and 18 days". Ryholt insists that "the tick that distinguishes 30 from 10 is preserved and beyond dispute.

Accordingly, 23 years or, less 33 years must be read." This makes Merneferre Ay the longest-ruling pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty at a time when numerous short-lived kings ruled Egypt. As a king of the mid 13th Dynasty, Merneferre Ay reigned over Middle and Upper Egypt concurrently with the 14th Dynasty, which controlled at least the Eastern Nile Delta; the egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker contend that Mernferre usurped the throne at the expense of his predecessor Wahibre Ibiau. They base this conclusion on the total absence of filiative nomina, references to the name of his father on the artefacts attributable to him, they believe that this should have been the case had his father been a pharaoh, indeed a number of 13th Dynasty kings used filiative nomina. Little is known of Ay's consorts, he was married to Ineni whose scarabs are stylistically similar to those of Ay. Merneferre Ay is well attested; the rest of the scarabs of known provenance are from Abydos and Lisht, all localities being in Middle or Upper Egypt.

Other attestations of Ay include an obsidian globular jar now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, a ball dedicated to Sobek, an inscribed limestone block, part of a lintel, discovered in 1908 by Georges Legrain in Karnak and a pyramidion. The pyramidion was confiscated from robbers by the Egyptian police in 1911 at Faqus, close to the ancient city of Avaris, it is carved with the name of Ay and shows him offering to Horus "Lord of heaven", demonstrating that a pyramid was built for him during his long reign. The fact that the pyramidion was discovered by the robbers in modern-day Khatana, part of the ancient city of Avaris is important since it was the capital of the 14th Dynasty during Ay's lifetime. Egyptologists believe that the pyramidion originates in fact from Memphis, in the necropolis of which Ay's pyramid must be located. Accordingly, this suggests that the pyramid was looted at the time of the Hyksos invasion c. 1650 BC and the pyramidion taken to Avaris at this moment. This is vindicated by the "damaged text on the pyramidion invoked four gods" two of whom were Ptah and Re-Horus.

The cults of these gods were based in the Memphite necropolis, not in Avaris. Other objects which suffered the same fate include two colossal statues of the 13th Dynasty king Imyremeshaw. Though Merneferre Ay is well attested, the number of objects attributable to him is small given his nearly 24 year-long reign; this may point to serious problems in Egypt at the time and indeed Ryholt and others believe that by the end of Ay's reign "the administration seems to have collapsed". Merneferre Ay is the last Egyptian king of the 13th Dynasty, attested by objects from outside of Upper Egypt; this may indicate the abandonment of the old capital of the Middle Kingdom Itjtawy in favor of Thebes. Daphna Ben Tor believes that this event was triggered by the invasion of the eastern Delta and the Memphite region by Canaanite rulers. Indeed some egyptologists believe that by the end of Ay's reign the 13th dynasty had lost control of Lower Egypt, including the Delta re


The Božidarević was a noble family of the city of Dubrovnik, dating from the Republic of Ragusa. In 1450 the Božidarević family participated in the defense of Habsburg Croatia against the Ottoman Empire. Vlaho Božidarević, son of Miho Božidarević, was admitted to the council of Dubrovnik on 5 November 1666, who contributed with 5,000 ducats to the Republic treasury. On 30 July 1667 Božidar Božidarević was admitted to the council of Ragusa as a token of gratitude for community service in the period after the earthquake; the brother of Vlaho, moved to Ancona, founding the Ancona branch of the family with the name Bosdari. An Imperial Diploma of 4 July 1753 created the Bosdari of Ancona nobles; the family moved to Bologna. Republic of Ragusa Dubrovnik Dalmatia Post-Roman patriciates Historical Encyclopedia Nobiliare, Milan 1929, vol. II, pp. 152-153


1,2-Bisethane is an organophosphorus compound with the formula 2. It is a used bidentate ligand in coordination chemistry, it is a white solid, soluble in organic solvents. The preparation of dppe is by the alkylation of NaPPh2: P3 + 2 Na → NaP2 + NaC6H5NaP2, air-oxidized, is treated with 1,2-dichloroethane to give dppe: 2 NaP2 + ClCH2CH2Cl → 2PCH2CH2P2 + 2 NaCl The reduction of dppe by lithium to give PhHP2PHPh has been reported. Ph2P2PPh2 + 4 Li → PhLiP2PLiPh + 2 PhLiHydrolysis gives the bis: PhLiP2PLiPh + 2 PhLi + 4H2O → PhHP2PHPh + 4 LiOH + 2 C6H6 Treatment of dppe with conventional oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide, aqueous bromine, etc. produces dppeO in low yield as a result of non-selective oxidation. Selective mono-oxidation of dppe can be achieved by reaction with PhCH2Br to give dppeO. Hydrogenation of dppe gives the ligand bisethane. Many coordination complexes of dppe are known, some are used as homogeneous catalysts. Dppe is invariably chelating, although there are examples of monodentate and of bridging behavior.

The natural bite angle is 86°. 1,2-Bisethane Bismethane