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Meroë

Meroë is an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan 200 km north-east of Khartoum. Near the site are a group of villages called Bagrawiyah; this city was the capital of the Kingdom of Kush for several centuries. The Kushitic Kingdom of Meroë gave its name to the Island of Meroë, the modern region of Butana, a region bounded by the Nile, the Atbarah and the Blue Nile; the city of Meroë was on the edge of Butana and there were two other Meroitic cities in Butana: Musawwarat es-Sufra and Naqa. The first of these sites was given the name Meroë by the Persian king, Cambyses, in honor of his sister, called by that name; the city had borne the ancient appellation Saba, named after the country's original founder. The eponym Saba, or Seba, is named for one of the sons of Cush; the presence of numerous Meroitic sites within the western Butana region and on the border of Butana proper is significant to the settlement of the core of the developed region.

The orientation of these settlements exhibit the exercise of state power over subsistence production. The Kingdom of Kush which housed the city of Meroë represents one of a series of early states located within the middle Nile, it is one of most impressive states found south of the Sahara. Looking at the specificity of the surrounding early states within the middle Nile, one's understanding of Meroë in combination with the historical developments of other historic states may be enhanced through looking at the development of power relation characteristics within other Nile Valley states; the site of the city of Meroë is marked by more than two hundred pyramids in three groups, of which many are in ruins. They have proportions of Nubian pyramids. Meroë was the south capital of the Napata/Meroitic Kingdom, that spanned the period c. 800 BCE – c. 350 CE. According to deciphered Meroitic texts, the name of the city was Medewi or Bedewi. Excavations revealed evidence of important, high ranking Kushite burials, from the Napatan Period in the vicinity of the settlement called the Western cemetery.

The culture of Meroë developed from the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, which originated in Kush. The importance of the town increased from the beginning of the Meroitic Period from the reign of Arakamani when the royal burial ground was transferred to Meroë from Napata. In the fifth century BCE, Greek historian Herodotus described it as "a great city...said to be the mother city of the other Ethiopians." The city of Meroë was located along the middle Nile, of much importance due to the annual flooding of the Nile river valley and the connection to many major river systems such as the Niger which aided with the production of pottery and iron characteristic to the Meroitic kingdom that allowed for the rise in power of its people. Rome's conquest of Egypt led to border incursions by Meroë beyond the Roman borders. In 23 BCE the Roman governor of Egypt, Publius Petronius, to end the Meroitic raids, invaded Nubia in response to a Nubian attack on southern Egypt, pillaging the north of the region and sacking Napata before returning home.

In retaliation, the Nubians crossed the lower border of Egypt and looted many statues from the Egyptian towns near the first cataract of the Nile at Aswan. Roman forces reclaimed many of the statues intact, others were returned following the peace treaty signed in 22 BCE between Rome and Meroë under Augustus and Amanirenas, respectively. One looted head though, from a statue of the emperor Augustus, was buried under the steps of a temple, it is now kept in the British Museum. The next recorded contact between Rome and Meroë was in the autumn of 61 CE; the Emperor Nero sent a party of Praetorian soldiers under the command of a tribune and two centurions into this country, who reached the city of Meroë where they were given an escort proceeded up the White Nile until they encountered the swamps of the Sudd. This marked the limit of Roman penetration into Africa; the period following Petronius' punitive expedition is marked by abundant trade finds at sites in Meroë. L. P. Kirwan provides a short list of finds from archeological sites in that country.

However, the kingdom of Meroë began to fade as a power by the 1st or 2nd century CE, sapped by the war with Roman Egypt and the decline of its traditional industries. Meroë is mentioned succinctly in the 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: 2. On the right-hand coast next below Berenice is the country of the Berbers. Along the shore are the Fish-Eaters, living in scattered caves in the narrow valleys. Farther inland are the Berbers, beyond them the Wild-flesh-Eaters and Calf-Eaters, each tribe governed by its chief. A stele of Ge'ez of an unnamed ruler of Aksum thought of as Ezana was found at the site of Meroë. While some authorities interpret these inscriptions as proof that the Axumites destroyed the kingdom of Meroe, others note that archeological evidence points to an economic and political decline in Meroe around 300. Moreover, some view the stele as military aid from Aksum to Meroe to quell down the revolt and rebellion by the Nuba. However, conclusive evidence and proof to which view is correct is not present.

Hebrew oral tradition

Charlie Carter (cricketer)

Charles Edward Peers Carter, born at Richmond-upon-Thames, Surrey, on 7 August 1947, played regular first-class cricket for Somerset for little more than a season in the late 1960s. A wicket-keeper and a tail-end right-handed batsman, Charlie Carter was educated at Radley College and was a successful schoolboy cricketer, appearing in the Marylebone Cricket Club's schools cricket festival for top performers in 1965. In 1967, he was playing services cricket for the Army and the Combined Services cricket teams, while appearing in second eleven matches for Somerset. Carter moved into Somerset's first team for the final two matches of the 1968 season following the decision of regular wicket-keeper Dickie Brooks not to continue a first-class cricket career. Though Carter scored only one run in his four innings that season, he was handed a contract for 1969 and played in all 24 County Championship matches in the 1969 season, though Trevor Holmes was picked for the other first-class fixture against the West Indians.

In an unsuccessful season for Somerset – the county finished bottom of the Championship table for the first time since 1955 – Carter was singled out for praise in Wisden. He was, it said, "extremely enthusiastic" and had "developed into a most capable performer", he appeared less in one-day cricket: the 1969 season was the first season of the new John Player League, a 40-over competition played on Sundays, but Carter played in only a few matches, Somerset preferring the more reliable batting of Roy Virgin, who could keep wicket adequately. At the end of the season, Carter went into business and did not play first-class cricket again

Petra Mathers

Petra Mathers is a German-born American writer and illustrator of children's picture books. Petra Mathers was born in the Black Forest in Germany at the end of the second World War. Instead of University, she opted for a three year apprenticeship in the book business. "Wanting to see the world", she and her husband came to the United States and settled in Portland, Oregon. Working first as a waitress in a children's bookstore, she started painting by making pictures for her son's room. In time she showed in galleries in Washington. In 1983, she got her first job illustrating a children's book for Harper & Row, in 1985 she wrote and illustrated the first book of her own, she has illustrated over 40 books, 12 of which she wrote. She lives in Oregon. Mathers is a self-taught artist and has a distinct artistic style. Critic H. Nichols B. Clark describes her formal aesthetic, explaining that Mathers " simplified forms that comprise flat shapes, she assembles a articulated formal arrangement whose visual dynamics are as integral to the production as the pictorial narrative."

Linnea Hendricks explains that Mathers' picturebooks "combine a flat, folklike style with wit and a strong sense of design" and are "praised for their freshness, originality and genuine feeling." Petra Mathers' work has earned much acclaim, including the following accolades: 1985—Ezra Jack Keats Award for Maria Theresa 1986—New York Times Best Illustrated Children's Book of the Year for Molly's New Washing Machine. 1988—New York Times Best Illustrated Children's Book of the Year for Theodor and Mr. Balbini. 1990—New York Times Best Illustrated Children's Book of the Year for I'm Flying. 1991—Boston Globe-Horn Book Award for Sophie and Lou. 1995—Society of Illustrators Silver Medal: for Kisses from Rosa. 1999—New York Times Best Illustrated Children's Book of the Year for Lottie's New Friend. 1999—Boston Globe-Horn Book Honor Award for Illustration for Lottie's New Friend. 1999—Society of Illustrators Silver Medal for Lottie's New Friend. Children's Literature Independent Information and Reviews Petra Mathers at Library of Congress Authorities, with 40 catalogue records