Belknap County, New Hampshire
Belknap County is a county in the U. S. state of New Hampshire. As of the 2010 census, the population was 60,088; the county seat is Laconia. It is located in New Hampshire's Lakes Region southeast of the state's geographic center. Belknap County comprises the Laconia, NH Micropolitan Statistical Area, which in turn constitutes a portion of the Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area. Belknap County was organized in 1840 by removing parts of northeastern Merrimack County and northwestern Strafford County, it is named for Dr. Jeremy Belknap, a renowned preacher and author of The History of New Hampshire; the first County Court was held within the town of Meredith, at a village known as Meredith Bridge on the Winnipesaukee River. In 1855, the town of Laconia was separated from Meredith. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 469 square miles, of which 400 square miles are land and 68 square miles are water, it is the second-smallest county in New Hampshire by area.
Most of the county's water area is part of Lake Winnipesaukee. Carroll County Strafford County Merrimack County Grafton County As of the census of 2000, there were 56,325 people, 22,459 households, 15,496 families residing in the county; the population density was 140 people per square mile. There were 32,121 housing units at an average density of 80 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.61% White, 0.29% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.55% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 1.06% from two or more races. 0.74% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.2% were of English, 13.6% Irish, 13.3% French, 12.2% French Canadian, 8.5% American, 6.9% Italian and 5.7% German ancestry. 95.0 % spoke 2.7 % French and 1.2 % Spanish as their first language. There were 22,459 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 3% were non-families.
24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.60% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 26.40% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,605, the median income for a family was $50,510. Males had a median income of $34,741 versus $25,445 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,758. About 4.50% of families and 6.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.60% of those under age 18 and 4.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 60,088 people, 24,766 households, 16,609 families residing in the county; the population density was 150.1 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 37,386 housing units at an average density of 93.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.6% white, 1.2% Asian, 0.5% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.8% were English, 20.7% were Irish, 8.5% were Italian, 8.0% were German, 7.1% were French Canadian, 6.6% were American. Of the 24,766 households, 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.9% were non-families, 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age was 44.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $54,929 and the median income for a family was $64,875. Males had a median income of $46,378 versus $34,690 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,517.
About 5.2% of families and 8.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.7% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. The Republican party is the majority political party in Belknap County, holding all 20 seats in the state legislature as of 2012. In the 2004 U. S. Presidential election, George W. Bush carried Belknap by an 11.9% margin over John Kerry, with Kerry winning statewide by 1.4%. But in 2008, the county voted for Barack Obama by a 1.2% margin over John McCain, with Obama carrying the Granite State by 9.6% over McCain. No Democrat has won a majority of the county since 1964, though Obama narrowly edged McCain in 2008, receiving 49.97% of the popular vote. The executive power of Belknap County's government is held by three county commissioners, each representing one of the three commissioner districts within the county. In addition to the County Commission, there are five directly-elected officials: they include County Attorney, Register of Deeds, County Sheriff, Register of Probate, County Treasurer.
The legislative branch of Belknap County is made up of all of the members of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from the county. In total, as of January 2019 there were 18 members from nine different districts. There are one city in Belknap County. Laconia Alton Belmont Meredith New Hampton Tilton Northfield National Register of Historic Places listings in Belknap County, New Hampshire Official website National Register of Historic Places listing for Belknap County
Worcester is a city in, the county seat of, Worcester County, United States. Named after Worcester, England, as of the 2010 Census the city's population was 181,045, making it the second most populous city in New England after Boston. Worcester is located 40 miles west of Boston, 50 miles east of Springfield and 40 miles north of Providence. Due to its location in Central Massachusetts, Worcester is known as the "Heart of the Commonwealth", thus, a heart is the official symbol of the city. However, the heart symbol may have its provenance in lore that the Valentine's Day card, although not invented in the city, was mass-produced and popularized by Esther Howland who resided in Worcester. Worcester was considered its own distinct region apart from Boston until the 1970s. Since Boston's suburbs have been moving out further westward after the construction of Interstate 495 and Interstate 290; the Worcester region now marks the western periphery of the Boston-Worcester-Providence U. S. Census Combined Greater Boston.
The city features many examples of Victorian-era mill architecture. The area was first inhabited by members of the Nipmuc tribe; the native people called the region built a settlement on Pakachoag Hill in Auburn. In 1673 English settlers John Eliot and Daniel Gookin led an expedition to Quinsigamond to establish a new Christian Indian "praying town" and identify a new location for an English settlement. On July 13, 1674, Gookin obtained a deed to eight square miles of land in Quinsigamond from the Nipmuc people and English traders and settlers began to inhabit the region. In 1675, King Philip's War broke out throughout New England with the Nipmuc Indians coming to the aid of Indian leader King Philip; the English settlers abandoned the Quinsigamond area and the empty buildings were burned by the Indian forces. The town was again abandoned during Queen Anne's War in 1702. In 1713, Worcester was permanently resettled for a third time by Jonas Rice. Named after the city of Worcester, the town was incorporated on June 14, 1722.
On April 2, 1731, Worcester was chosen as the county seat of the newly founded Worcester County government. Between 1755 and 1758, future U. S. president John Adams studied law in Worcester. In the 1770s, Worcester became a center of American revolutionary activity. British General Thomas Gage was given information of patriot ammunition stockpiled in Worcester in 1775. In 1775, Massachusetts Spy publisher Isaiah Thomas moved his radical newspaper out of British occupied Boston to Worcester. Thomas would continuously publish his paper throughout the American Revolutionary War. On July 14, 1776, Thomas performed the first public reading in Massachusetts of the Declaration of Independence from the porch of the Old South Church, where the 19th century Worcester City Hall stands today, he would go on to form the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester in 1812. During the turn of the 19th century Worcester's economy moved into manufacturing. Factories producing textiles and clothing opened along the nearby Blackstone River.
However, the manufacturing industry in Worcester would not begin to thrive until the opening of the Blackstone Canal in 1828 and the opening of the Worcester and Boston Railroad in 1835. The city transformed into a transportation hub and the manufacturing industry flourished. Worcester was chartered as a city on February 29, 1848; the city's industries soon attracted immigrants of Irish, French and Swedish descent in the mid-19th century and many immigrants of Lithuanian, Italian, Greek and Armenian descent. Immigrants moved into new three-decker houses which lined hundreds of Worcester's expanding streets and neighborhoods. In 1831 Ichabod Washburn opened the Moen Company; the company would become the largest wire manufacturing in the country and Washburn became one of the leading industrial and philanthropic figures in the city. Worcester would become a center of machinery, wire products and power looms and boasted large manufacturers, Washburn & Moen, Wyman-Gordon Company, American Steel & Wire, Morgan Construction and the Norton Company.
In 1908 the Royal Worcester Corset Company was the largest employer of women in the United States. Worcester would claim many inventions and firsts. New England Candlepin bowling was invented in Worcester by Justin White in 1879. Esther Howland began the first line of Valentine's Day cards from her Worcester home in 1847. Loring Coes invented the first monkey wrench and Russell Hawes created the first envelope folding machine. On June 12, 1880, Lee Richmond pitched the first perfect game in Major league baseball history for the Worcester Ruby Legs at the Worcester Agricultural Fairgrounds. On June 9, 1953 an F4 tornado touched down in Massachusetts northwest of Worcester; the tornado tore through 48 miles of Worcester County including a large area of the city of Worcester. The tornado killed 94 people; the Worcester Tornado would be the most deadly tornado to hit Massachusetts. Debris from the tornado landed as far away as Massachusetts. After World War II, Worcester began to fall into decline as the city lost its manufacturing base to cheaper alternatives across the country and overseas.
Worcester felt the national trends of movement away from historic urban centers. The city's population would drop over 20% from 1950 to 1980. In the mid-20th century large urban renewal projects were undertaken to try and reverse the city's decline. A huge area of downtown Worcester was demolished for new office towers and the 1,000,000 sq. ft. Wor
Pembroke, New Hampshire
Pembroke is a town in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 7,115 at the 2010 census. Pembroke includes part of the village of Suncook; the center of population of New Hampshire is located in Pembroke. First granted in 1728, the town was known as "Lovewell's Town", in honor of Captain John Lovewell, who built the stockade at Ossipee. Shortly afterward, the town took the name of "Suncook", the Pennacook Abenaki name for the river flowing through the area; when the town was incorporated in 1759 by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth, it was given the name "Pembroke" in honor of Henry Herbert, ninth Earl of Pembroke in southern Wales. Pembroke's early history is reflected in the various mills of the downtown area, located to use water power from the Suncook River; the better-known mills were the Pembroke Mills, Webster Manufacturing and China Manufacturing, all producing print cloth. Pembroke industries included brickmaking, with bricks manufactured from clay along the Merrimack River.
In 1852, the Concord and Portsmouth Railroad established a station in Pembroke. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 23.0 square miles, of which 22.8 sq mi is land and 0.2 sq mi is water, comprising 0.70% of the town. Pembroke is drained by the Suncook and Merrimack rivers; the highest point in town, Plausawa Hill, elevation 1,000 feet above sea level, is in the north. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,897 people, 2,661 households, 1,876 families residing in the town; the population density was 302.1 people per square mile. There were 2,734 housing units at an average density of 119.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.84% White, 0.38% African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.03% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.43% of the population. There were 2,661 households out of which 37.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families.
23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $49,494, the median income for a family was $57,106. Males had a median income of $37,786 versus $26,781 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,800. About 3.0% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. There are four public schools in Pembroke; the Village School is located in the village of first grade. The Hill School is attended by children in the second and fourth grades.
Three Rivers School, named after the three rivers that form most of the borders of the town, was built in the early 1990s and contains fifth through eighth grade. The town's high school is Pembroke Academy, founded in 1818 as a private school; the school today is public and takes students from Pembroke and from the neighboring towns of Allenstown, Epsom and Deerfield. With 1,000 students, the school is Class I in athletics, the second highest class, the mascot of the school is the Spartan. Robert E. Cochran, Alamo defender, born in Pembroke. S. Congressman Brian Foster, ice hockey goaltender, plays for the Stockton Thunder Thomas W. Knox and author, New York Herald correspondent during the American Civil War Megan McTavish, soap opera writer.
Rockingham County, New Hampshire
Rockingham County is a county in the U. S. state of New Hampshire. As of the 2010 census, the population was 295,223, making it the second-most populous county in New Hampshire; the county seat is Brentwood. Rockingham County constitutes a portion of the Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as of the greater Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area; the area that today is Rockingham County was first settled by Europeans moving north from the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts as early as 1623. The government was linked with Massachusetts until New Hampshire became a separate colony in 1679, but counties were not introduced until 1769. Rockingham was identified in 1769 as one of five original counties for the colony, it is named for Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, Prime Minister in 1765-1766. The county was organized with its county seat at Exeter. In 1844 its area was reduced by the formation of Belknap County to the northwest.
In 1997 the county court facilities were moved to Brentwood, a rural town adjacent to Exeter. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 795 square miles, of which 695 square miles is land and 100 square miles is water; the highest point in Rockingham County is Nottingham Mountain, at 1,340 feet, in the town of Deerfield. The county contains the entirety of New Hampshire's Atlantic coast, which, at 18 miles, is the shortest ocean coastline of any state in the nation. Strafford County York County, Maine Essex County, Massachusetts Hillsborough County Merrimack County Great Bay National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 277,359 people, 104,529 households, 74,320 families residing in the county; the population density was 399 people per square mile. There were 113,023 housing units at an average density of 163 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.80% White, 0.58% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.11% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.38% from other races, 0.92% from two or more races.
1.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.1% were of Irish, 14.6% English, 11.8% Italian, 10.5% French, 8.0% French Canadian, 6.0% German and 5.6% American ancestry. 94.3% spoke English, 1.8% French and 1.3% Spanish as their first language. There were 104,529 households out of which 35.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.90% were non-families. 22.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.40% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 32.80% from 25 to 44, 24.40% from 45 to 64, 10.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $58,150, the median income for a family was $66,345.
Males had a median income of $45,598 versus $30,741 for females. The per capita income for the county was $26,656. About 3.10% of families and 4.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.00% of those under age 18 and 6.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 295,223 people, 115,033 households, 79,832 families residing in the county; the population density was 425.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 126,709 housing units at an average density of 182.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.5% white, 1.7% Asian, 0.7% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.6% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.9% were Irish, 19.0% were English, 14.8% were Italian, 9.7% were German, 7.3% were French Canadian, 5.6% were Polish, 3.8% were American. Of the 115,033 households, 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families, 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age was 42.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $75,825 and the median income for a family was $90,463. Males had a median income of $61,443 versus $42,478 for females; the per capita income for the county was $35,889. About 3.0% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.9% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Rockingham County has had the distinction of being a Republican stronghold, with only two Democratic presidential nominees having captured the county since 1964. However, in recent years, it has become more competitive. Republicans have remained dominant at the local level, but communities like Portsmouth and Exeter have been known for their liberal voting patterns; the executive power of Rockingham County's government is held by three county commissioners, each representing one of the three commissioner districts within the county.
In addition to the County Commission, there are five directly-elected officials: they include County Attorney, Register of Deeds, County Sheriff, Register of Probate, County Treasurer. The legislative branch of Rockingham County is made up
Concord, New Hampshire
Concord is the capital city of the U. S. state of New Hampshire and the county seat of Merrimack County. As of the 2010 census, its population was 42,695. Concord includes the villages of Penacook, East Concord, West Concord; the city is home to the University of New Hampshire School of New Hampshire's only law school. It is the resting place of Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the United States; the area that would become Concord was settled thousands of years ago by Abenaki Native Americans called the Pennacook. The tribe fished for migrating salmon and alewives with nets strung across the rapids of the Merrimack River; the stream was the transportation route for their birch bark canoes, which could travel from Lake Winnipesaukee to the Atlantic Ocean. The broad sweep of the Merrimack River valley floodplain provided good soil for farming beans, pumpkins and maize. On January 17, 1725, the Province of Massachusetts Bay, which claimed territories west of the Merrimack River, granted the Concord area as the Plantation of Penacook.
It was settled between 1725 and 1727 by Captain Ebenezer Eastman and others from Haverhill, Massachusetts. On February 9, 1734, the town was incorporated as Rumford, from which Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford would take his title, it was renamed Concord in 1765 by Governor Benning Wentworth following a bitter boundary dispute between Rumford and the town of Bow. Citizens displaced by the resulting border adjustment were given land elsewhere as compensation. In 1779, New Pennacook Plantation was granted to Timothy Walker, Jr. and his associates at what would be incorporated in 1800 as Rumford, the site of Pennacook Falls. Concord grew in prominence throughout the 18th century, some of its earliest houses survive at the northern end of Main Street. In the years following the Revolution, Concord's central geographical location made it a logical choice for the state capital after Samuel Blodget in 1807 opened a canal and lock system to allow vessels passage around the Amoskeag Falls downriver, connecting Concord with Boston by way of the Middlesex Canal.
In 1808, Concord was named the official seat of state government. The 1819 State House is the oldest capitol in the nation in which the state's legislative branches meet in their original chambers; the city would become noted for granite quarrying. In 1828, Lewis Downing joined J. Stephens Abbot to form Downing, their most famous product was their Concord stagecoach used in the development of the American West. In the 19th century, Concord became a hub for the railroad industry, with Penacook a textile manufacturing center using water power from the Contoocook River. Today, the city is a center for health care and several insurance companies. Concord is located at 43°12′24″N 71°32′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 67.5 square miles. 64.2 square miles of it is land and 3.2 square miles of it is water, comprising 4.79% of the city. Concord is drained by the Merrimack River. Penacook Lake is in the west; the highest point in Concord is 860 feet above sea level on Oak Hill, just west of the hill's 970-foot summit in neighboring Loudon.
Concord lies within the Merrimack River watershed, is centered on the river, which runs from northwest to southeast through the city. Downtown is located on a low terrace to the west of the river, with residential neighborhoods climbing hills to the west and extending southwards towards the town of Bow. To the east of the Merrimack, atop a 100-foot bluff, is a flat, sandy plain known as Concord Heights, which has seen most of the city's commercial development since 1960; the eastern boundary of Concord is formed by a tributary of the Merrimack. The Turkey River winds through the southwestern quarter of the city, passing through the campus of St. Paul's School before entering the Merrimack River in Bow. In the northern part of the city, the Contoocook River enters the Merrimack at the village of Penacook. Other village centers in the city include East Concord; the city's neighboring communities are Bow to the south, Pembroke to the southeast, Loudon to the northeast, Canterbury and Webster to the north, Hopkinton to the west.
It is 16 miles north of Manchester, New Hampshire's largest city, 66 miles north of Boston. Concord, as with much of New England, is within the humid continental climate zone, with long, snowy winters warm summers, brief autumns and springs. In winter, successive storms deliver light to moderate snowfall amounts, contributing to the reliable snow cover. In addition, lows reach at least 0 °F on an average 15 nights per year, the city straddles the border between USDA Hardiness Zone 5b and 6a. However, thaws are frequent, with one to three days per month with 50 °F + highs from December to February. Summer can bring stretches of humid conditions as well as thunderstorms, there is an average of 12 days of 90 °F + highs annually; the window for freezing temperatures on average begins on September 27 and expires on May 14. The monthly daily average temperature range from 20.6 °F in January to 70.0 °F in July. Temperature extremes have ranged from −37 °F (−
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti