Mesha Stele

The Mesha Stele known as the Moabite Stone, is a stele set up around 840 BCE by King Mesha of Moab. Mesha tells how Chemosh, the god of Moab, had been angry with his people and had allowed them to be subjugated to Israel, but at length, Chemosh returned and assisted Mesha to throw off the yoke of Israel and restore the lands of Moab. Mesha describes his many building projects; some say it is written in the Phoenician alphabet, but others say it is written in the Old Hebrew script, related. The stone was discovered intact by Frederick Augustus Klein, an Anglican missionary, at the site of ancient Dibon, in August 1868. Klein was led to it by a local Bedouin. At that time, amateur explorers and archaeologists were scouring the Levant for evidence proving the Bible's historicity. News of the finding set off a race between France and Germany to acquire the piece. A "squeeze" had been obtained by a local Arab on behalf of Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau, an archaeologist based in the French consulate in Jerusalem.

The next year, the stele was smashed into several fragments by the Bani Hamida tribe, seen as an act of defiance against the Ottoman authorities who had pressured the Bedouins to hand over the stele so that it could be given to Germany. Clermont-Ganneau managed to acquire the fragments and piece them together thanks to the impression made before the stele's destruction; the Mesha Stele, the longest Iron Age inscription found in the region, constitutes the major evidence for the Moabite language, is a "corner-stone of Semitic epigraphy", history. The stele, whose story parallels, with some differences, an episode in the Bible's Books of Kings, provides invaluable information on the Moabite language and the political relationship between Moab and Israel at one moment in the 9th century BCE, it is the most extensive inscription recovered that refers to the kingdom of Israel. André Lemaire reconstructed a portion of line 31 to read "House of David" which would mean it might contain the earliest extra-Biblical witness to David.

Lemaire's reading is contested, with others now reading'Balak', a Moabite king mentioned at Numbers 22–24, in its place. It is one of four known contemporary inscriptions containing the name of Israel, the others being the Merneptah Stele, the Tel Dan Stele, the Kurkh Monolith, its authenticity has been disputed over the years, some biblical minimalists suggest the text was not historical, but a biblical allegory, but the stele is regarded as genuine and historical by the vast majority of biblical archaeologists today. The stele is on display in France at the Louvre museum, Jordan has demanded its return; the stele is a smoothed block of basalt about a meter tall, 60 cm wide, 60 cm thick, bearing a surviving inscription of 34 lines. On 8 February 1870, George Grove of the Palestine Exploration Fund announced the find of the stele in a letter to The Times, attributing the discovery to Charles Warren. On 17 February 1870, the 24-year-old Clermont-Ganneau published the first detailed announcement of the stele in the Revue de l’Instruction Publique.

This was followed a month by a note from Frederick Augustus Klein published in the Pall Mall Gazette, describing his discovery of the stele in August 1868:... I afterwards ascertained that assertion as to no European having, before me, seen the stone was true.... I am sorry to find that I was the last European who had the privilege of seeing this monument of Hebrew antiquity in its perfect state of preservation....... The stone was lying among the ruins of Dhiban free and exposed to view, the inscription uppermost....... The stone is, as appears from the accompanying sketch, rounded on both sides, not only at the upper end as mentioned by Monsieur Ganneau. In the lower corner sides there are not as many words of the inscription missing as would be the case if it were square at the bottom, as M. Ganneau was wrongly informed by his authority. According to my calculation, had thirty-four lines, for the two or three upper lines were much obliterated; the stone itself was in a most perfect state of preservation not one single piece being broken off, it was only from great age and exposure to the rain and sun, that certain parts the upper and lower lines, had somewhat suffered.

In November 1869 the stele was broken by the local Bedouin tribe after the Ottoman government became involved in the ownership dispute. The previous year the Bani Hamida had been defeated by an expedition to Balqa led by Reşid Pasha, the Wali of Damascus. Knowing that a demand to give up the stone to the German Consulate had been ordered by the Ottomans, finding that the ruler of Salt was about to put pressure upon them, they heated the stele in a bonfire, threw cold water upon it and broke it to pieces with boulders. A "squeeze" of the full stele had been obtained just prior to its destruction. Ginsberg's translation of the official report, "Über die Auffindung der Moabitischen Inschrift", stated that Ganneau sent an Arab named Yacoub Caravacca to obtain the squeeze as he "did not want to venture to undertake the costly journey" himself. Caravacca was injured by the local Bedouin while obtaining the squeeze, one of his two accompanying horsemen protected the squeeze by tearing it still damp from the stone in seven fragments before escaping.


Francesco Barbaro (patriarch of Aquileia)

Francesco Barbaro was a Venetian diplomat and an Italian Catholic bishop He was the great-grandson of Francesco Barbaro and son of Marcantonio Barbaro. From 1578 to 1581 he was ambassador at the court of Savoy, he served as Ambassador to Florence in 1585. When the Patriarch of Aquileia, Giovanni Grimani, asked Pope Sixtus V for an assistant, the Pope chose Francisco Barbaro for his experience in politics and diplomacy. On October 17, 1585, Barbaro was consecrated as the titular Archbishop of Tyre. On 3 October 1593, Grimani died and Francesco Barbaro was named to replace him, as Patriarch of Aquileia. In 1595 Barbaro opened the diocesan synod in the Castello di San Daniele; this synod was marked by conflict between the canons of Udine and Cividale over which of two locations was the most important. Barbaro decided. In the same year Francesco asked Pope Clement VIII to appoint his younger brother Ermolao Barbaro as his coadjutor. On February 12, 1596 the Pope appointed Ermolao Barbaro as archbishop of Tyre.

Francesco supported the Roman Rite of Pius V over the older Aquileian Rite. He persuaded Udine to adopt the Roman Rite at the provincial synod held on October 19–27, 1596. Barbaro did the same on 11 May 1600 at the provincial synod of Cividale and on 23 June 1602 with that of Gorizia. Patriarch Francesco had a new seminary for clerics; until that time the residence of the patriarchs had been on top of the hill, but as the Republic of Venice wanted to build a fortress there. Statues of the previous Patriarchs were set up in the new building and Barbaro donated his personal library, he is buried in the church of Sant'Antonio Abate di Udine, along with his brother who succeeded him to lead the Patriarchate under the name of Ermolao Barbaro II. Giuseppe Cappelletti, Le chiese d'Italia della loro origine sino ai nostri giorni, Vol. VIII, Venezia, 1851 Peruzzo Armando, L'opera pastorale di Mons. Francesco Barbaro, patriarca d'Aquileia, Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana, Roma, 1949 Giuseppe Trebbi, Francesco Barbaro: patrizio Veneto e patriarca di Aquileia, Casamassima, 1984 Giuseppe Trebbi, Il Friuli dal 1420 al 1797: la storia politica e sociale, Casamassima, 1998

Peggy Mitchell

Peggy Mitchell is a fictional character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders. Peggy was played by Jo Warne when she first appeared in the episode broadcast on 30 April 1991, featuring in 10 episodes. Peggy was reintroduced in 1994, recast to Barbara Windsor, who made her first appearance in the episode broadcast on 7 November 1994. Peggy became a regular character, Windsor played the role until she was forced to take a long break due to poor health and departed on 23 May 2003, she returned for two episodes broadcast on 16 and 17 September 2004, before rejoining as a regular character on 8 September 2005. Windsor announced in October 2009 that she would be leaving the show and departed on 10 September 2010. Windsor returned to the show for guest appearances on 20 September 2013, 25 September 2014, 17 February 2015 and 15 January 2016, she appeared in six episodes between 9 and 17 May 2016 and the character was killed-off. Her voice is last heard in the following episode, on 19 May 2016. Peggy's funeral aired on 4 July 2016.

Peggy is fiercely protective of her family and the Mitchell name, has become famous for her catchphrase "Get outta my pub!", used when ejecting people from The Queen Victoria, of which she is the landlady. Her storylines have seen her embark on a series of failed romances, including marriages to colleague Frank Butcher and brother-in-law Archie Mitchell, she has been central to several plot strands revolving around health issues, launching a hate campaign against the HIV positive character Mark Fowler, going on to make amends with him when she is diagnosed with breast cancer. Though she recovers from her cancer, it returns and leads to her suicide. Inside Soap named Peggy the UK's top soap matriarch in 2009. Peggy married Eric Mitchell. By the Eric grew to be a keen boxer, he worked for a gangland boss: Johnny Allen; this impacted the marriage as Johnny taunted Eric, making him do demeaning jobs because Eric was a better boxer than him. Eric fell in love with a glamorous woman called Maureen Loftus and planned to elope with her, but he changed his mind at the last minute - unable to desert his family, who he grew to resent.

Eric took his anger out on Peggy and was violent towards her and Phil. The abuse ended when Peggy told the police that Eric was involved in a Post Office robbery and he was sent to prison. Peggy considered leaving when her sons and Grant were teenagers, once tried to seduce Johnny, but he turned her down. Eric cheated on Peggy with Claudette Hubbard, who he intended to run away with, but he changed his mind again, leading to Claudette hating the entire family. Peggy turned to Eric's younger brother Archie because he was there for Peggy when Eric began to abuse her, she tried to save her marriage by having another child in 1975 – her only daughter Samantha. Her relationship with Eric improved, but only temporarily, when Kevin Masters employed Peggy to work at his minicab firm, where they began a secret affair; when Eric developed cancer, Peggy gave up work to care for him, but Kevin returned promptly after Eric's death in 1985 and Peggy's children took against him. Peggy makes her first appearance in Albert Square when her son, decides to reenlist with the army and returns when her daughter Sam's desire to escape from her family causes her to elope with Ricky Butcher, at the age of sixteen.

Peggy, along with Kevin, tries to persuade Sam that getting married at the age of sixteen will ruin her life, but she is unsuccessful. Peggy accepts Sam and Ricky's relationship and leaves, after giving the couple her blessing. Peggy is not seen for three years, she returns to Walford when her sons fall out after Phil's affair with Grant's wife, Sharon Mitchell, is revealed. Peggy blames Sharon for the affair. Peggy tries to force her out of Walford, resulting in Sharon signing over her share of the pub and leaving the Mitchell family as the sole owners, with Peggy in charge. Peggy starts dating businessman George Palmer, unaware that he is a criminal involved in illegal money laundering, she instigates a hate campaign against local resident Mark Fowler when she discovers he is HIV positive and begins a feud with his mother Pauline Fowler. Peggy realises she was wrong when she is diagnosed with breast cancer, she refuses surgery and ends things with George, fearing that he will not be able to handle her illness.

However, supported by George and her family, she has a lumpectomy. Peggy and George get engaged but their relationship ends when Phil reveals his criminal nature. Peggy goes on to date local car lot owner, Frank Butcher, they become engaged. Peggy has doubts about the wedding when her cancer returns and she has to have a mastectomy, but decides to go through with it. Tension develops between Peggy and Phil when Grant leaves for Rio de Janeiro after a violent fight with his brother. To spite Peggy, Phil sells Grant's share in the pub to local businessman Dan Sullivan for £5. Peggy loathes Dan, the two argue over the running of The Queen Vic, ending with Dan insulting Frank's daughter Janine Butcher, resulting in Frank punching Dan across the face, she and Phil call a truce and force Dan out of Walford. Peggy discovers Frank is planning to leave her for his