SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mesolithic

In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic. The term Epipaleolithic is used synonymously for outside northern Europe, for the corresponding period in the Levant and Caucasus; the Mesolithic has different time spans in different parts of Eurasia. It refers to the final period of hunter-gatherer cultures in Europe and Western Asia, between the end of the Last Glacial Maximum and the Neolithic Revolution. In Europe it spans 15,000 to 5,000 BP; the term is less used of areas further east, not at all beyond Eurasia and North Africa. The type of culture associated with the Mesolithic varies between areas, but it is associated with a decline in the group hunting of large animals in favour of a broader hunter-gatherer way of life, the development of more sophisticated and smaller lithic tools and weapons than the heavy chipped equivalents typical of the Paleolithic. Depending on the region, some use of pottery and textiles may be found in sites allocated to the Mesolithic, but indications of agriculture are taken as marking transition into the Neolithic.

The more permanent settlements tend to be close to the sea or inland waters offering a good supply of food. Mesolithic societies are not seen as complex, burials are simple; the terms "Paleolithic" and "Neolithic" were introduced by John Lubbock in his work Pre-historic Times in 1865. The additional "Mesolithic" category was added as an intermediate category by Hodder Westropp in 1866. Westropp's suggestion was controversial. A British school led by John Evans denied any need for an intermediate: the ages blended together like the colors of a rainbow, he said. A European school led by Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet asserted that there was a gap between the earlier and later. Edouard Piette claimed to have filled the gap with his naming of the Azilian Culture. Knut Stjerna offered an alternative in the "Epipaleolithic", suggesting a final phase of the Paleolithic rather than an intermediate age in its own right inserted between the Paleolithic and Neolithic. By the time of Vere Gordon Childe's work, The Dawn of Europe, which affirms the Mesolithic, sufficient data had been collected to determine that a transitional period between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic was indeed a useful concept.

However, the terms "Mesolithic" and "Epipalaeolitic" remain in competition, with varying conventions of usage. In the archaeology of Northern Europe, for example for archaeological sites in Great Britain, Scandinavia and Russia, the term "Mesolithic" is always used. In the archaeology of other areas, the term "Epipaleolithic" may be preferred by most authors, or there may be divergences between authors over which term to use or what meaning to assign to each. In the New World, neither term is used. "Epipaleolithic" is sometimes used alongside "Mesolithic" for the final end of the Upper Paleolithic followed by the Mesolithic. As "Mesolithic" suggests an intermediate period, followed by the Neolithic, some authors prefer the term "Epipaleolithic" for hunter-gatherer cultures who are not succeeded by agricultural traditions, reserving "Mesolithic" for cultures who are succeeded by the Neolithic Revolution, such as the Natufian culture. Other authors use "Mesolithic" as a generic term for hunter-gatherer cultures after the Last Glacial Maximum, whether they are transitional towards agriculture or not.

In addition, terminology appears to differ between archaeological sub-disciplines, with "Mesolithic" being used in European archaeology, while "Epipalaeolithic" is more common in Near Eastern archaeology. The Balkan Mesolithic begins around 15,000 years ago. In Western Europe, the Early Mesolithic, or Azilian, begins about 14,000 years ago, in the Franco-Cantabrian region of northern Spain and southern France. In other parts of Europe, the Mesolithic begins by 11,500 years ago, it ends with the introduction of farming, depending on the region between c. 8,500 and 5,500 years ago. Regions that experienced greater environmental effects as the last glacial period ended have a much more apparent Mesolithic era, lasting millennia. In northern Europe, for example, societies were able to live well on rich food supplies from the marshlands created by the warmer climate; such conditions produced distinctive human behaviors that are preserved in the material record, such as the Maglemosian and Azilian cultures.

Such conditions delayed the coming of the Neolithic until some 5,500 BP in northern Europe. The type of stone toolkit remains one of the most diagnostic features: the Mesolithic used a microlithic technology – composite devices manufactured with Mode V chipped stone tools, while the Paleolithic had utilized Modes I–IV. In some areas, such as Ireland, parts of Portugal, the Isle of Man and the Tyrrhenian Islands, a macrolithic technology was used in the Mesolithic. In the Neolithic, the microlithic technology was replaced by a macrolithic technology, with an increased use of polished stone tools such as stone axes. There is some evidence for the beginning of construction at sites with a ritual or astronomical significance, including Stonehenge, with a short row of large post holes aligned east-west, a possible "lunar calendar" at Warren Field in Scotland, with pits of post holes of varying sizes, thought to reflect the lunar phases. Both are dated to before c. 9,000 BP. As the "Neolithic package" (including farming, polished stone axes

New Toy

New Toy is the first extended play by English-American singer-songwriter Lene Lovich released in 1981 by Stiff Records. It was released outside the United Kingdom in three different versions, one featured six new songs, while the other two contained songs from her previous albums and Flex; the main single "New Toy", in which she makes fun of the consumer society, was released in February 1981 and became successful in charts, peaking at number 19 on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs number 53 on the UK Singles Chart, number 29 on the Australian Kent Music Report. It was written about his new Fairlight CMI synthesizer, he created the song for Lovich after seeing her perform live. The songs "Special Star" and "Savages" appeared on her third studio album, No Man's Land and all the songs from the EP appeared on the CD re-issue of the album. Lene Lovich - vocals, producer Les Chappell - songwriter, producer

Muratlı

Muratlı is a town and a district of Tekirdağ Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. It is located at 24 km north of the town of Tekirdağ and on the railway line from Istanbul to the Bulgarian border, it covers an area of 427 km², the population is about 20,000. The district has cold winters; the mayor is Nebi Tepe. Muratlı is on the road from Istanbul to Edirne, the border between Turkey and Bulgaria so innumerable armies have passed through here in the course of history. One of them was led by the Ottoman Sultan Murat I, who liked the area as a watering hole so much he camped here. Therefore, the place was named after him, "Murateli" that means "under protection of Murat". There have been settlements here for a long, long time and groundworks in the area turn up copper and pottery artefacts. Despite having good flat farmland watered by the River Ergene, the beginnings of industrial development too, Muratlı is insignificant and sandwiched between the larger towns of Tekirdağ and Çorlu; the town consists of a couple of banks and the railway station.

The town does have places selling the famous Tekirdağ köfte and plenty of locally produced wine can be found in the shops. The people live in cheaply built two-storey houses, the streets poorly paved; the population is the traditional Thracian rural mixture of the descendants of Turks that migrated from Bulgaria and Gypsies. Muratlı is three hours by two hours by bus from Istanbul; the railway station - built in 1870. İnanlı Çeşmesi - a fountain built in 1914 The house that Atatürk visited - in 1935 Atatürk ordered the construction of a settlement for Turkish refugees from Bulgaria and Romania. On 3 June 1936 he made a visit of inspection to one of the houses, commemorated by a plaque in the garden, which has "You lucky refugee don't forget 3rd of June, he became visitor to your house, he presented love to your all " written on it. Murateli. Net Muratlı Photo Gallery hüseyin