Mesopotamia is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent, in modern days corresponding to most of Iraq, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders. The Sumerians and Akkadians dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire, it fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire. Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthian Empire. Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with western parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control. In AD 226, the eastern regions of Mesopotamia fell to the Sassanid Persians; the division of Mesopotamia between Roman and Sassanid Empires lasted until the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia of the Sasanian Empire and Muslim conquest of the Levant from Byzantines.

A number of neo-Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1st century BC and 3rd century AD, including Adiabene and Hatra. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC, it has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history, including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops and the development of cursive script, mathematics and agriculture". The regional toponym Mesopotamia comes from the ancient Greek root words μέσος "middle" and ποταμός "river" and translates to " between rivers", it is used throughout the Greek Septuagint to translate the Aramaic equivalent Naharaim. An earlier Greek usage of the name Mesopotamia is evident from The Anabasis of Alexander, written in the late 2nd century AD, but refers to sources from the time of Alexander the Great. In the Anabasis, Mesopotamia was used to designate the land east of the Euphrates in north Syria.

The Aramaic term biritum/birit narim corresponded to a similar geographical concept. The term Mesopotamia was more applied to all the lands between the Euphrates and the Tigris, thereby incorporating not only parts of Syria but almost all of Iraq and southeastern Turkey; the neighbouring steppes to the west of the Euphrates and the western part of the Zagros Mountains are often included under the wider term Mesopotamia. A further distinction is made between Northern or Upper Mesopotamia and Southern or Lower Mesopotamia. Upper Mesopotamia known as the Jazira, is the area between the Euphrates and the Tigris from their sources down to Baghdad. Lower Mesopotamia is the area from Baghdad to the Persian Gulf and includes Kuwait and parts of western Iran. In modern academic usage, the term Mesopotamia also has a chronological connotation, it is used to designate the area until the Muslim conquests, with names like Syria and Iraq being used to describe the region after that date. It has been argued that these euphemisms are Eurocentric terms attributed to the region in the midst of various 19th-century Western encroachments.

Mesopotamia encompasses the land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, both of which have their headwaters in the Taurus Mountains. Both rivers are fed by numerous tributaries, the entire river system drains a vast mountainous region. Overland routes in Mesopotamia follow the Euphrates because the banks of the Tigris are steep and difficult; the climate of the region is semi-arid with a vast desert expanse in the north which gives way to a 15,000-square-kilometre region of marshes, mud flats, reed banks in the south. In the extreme south, the Euphrates and the Tigris empty into the Persian Gulf; the arid environment which ranges from the northern areas of rain-fed agriculture to the south where irrigation of agriculture is essential if a surplus energy returned on energy invested is to be obtained. This irrigation is aided by a high water table and by melting snows from the high peaks of the northern Zagros Mountains and from the Armenian Highlands, the source of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers that give the region its name.

The usefulness of irrigation depends upon the ability to mobilize sufficient labor for the construction and maintenance of canals, this, from the earliest period, has assisted the development of urban settlements and centralized systems of political authority. Agriculture throughout the region has been supplemented by nomadic pastoralism, where tent-dwelling nomads herded sheep and goats from the river pastures in the dry summer months, out into seasonal grazing lands on the desert fringe in the wet winter season; the area is lacking in building stone, precious metals and timber, so has relied upon long-distance trade of agricultural products to secure these items from outlying areas. In the marshlands to the south of the area, a complex water-borne fishing culture has existed since prehistoric times, has added to the cultural mix. Periodic breakdowns in the cultural system have occurred for a number of reasons; the demands for labor has from time to time led to population increases that push the limits of the ecological carrying capacity, should a period of climatic ins

The Penelopes

The Penelopes are a French indie pop/electronic band from Paris, consists of Axel Basquiat and Vincent T. They have relocated to London. Though the band is a duo, they have additional musicians on bass and drums for live performances; the Penelopes are remixers, DJ. The Penelopes’ danceable indie-pop style developed from a rare creative partnership and longstanding friendship; the duo had known each other since they were children in Northern Paris, discovering music throughout teenage years, listening to bands like Cocteau Twins, New Order and The Cure. In an interview with the Daily Star the band said, "we grew up in a cosmopolitan but poor suburb; the area was like Manchester. It was rainy and industrial, which might explains why we love dark British music so much". In juxtaposition to this, they told Wonderland Magazine, "the funk and rap music we heard growing up outside our windows was what influenced our dance approach." This explains why the band thanks the French Hip Hop band such as their neighbours, Suprême NTM in their albums.

Axel said to Artrocker, "we want to beautify our life. We are searching for a light. We're not like those spoiled kids. Our songs are about simple pleasures, about taking a trip, about the great escapes, about all kind of fantasies, about friendship and poverty, about searching for the light." Vincent went on to study law and Axel studied medicine, one of the reasons being they could stay as students for a longer while to avoid working in offices or factories. The two followed their passion and pursued careers in music. Axel and Vincent formed The Penelopes and started making music in the rock and electro scenes around Paris; the first deal was on DJ Hell's International DeeJay Gigolo Records. The Penelopes’ style is a mix of indie and dream pop, combined with disco and electro tight groove, layered with lush and melodies, their major influences are Cocteau Twins, The Cure, New Order, The Smiths, David Bowie, Joy Division and Happy Mondays. The band mentioned Ride, Slowdive or Prefab Sprout, which Axel considered it as "guilty pleasure".

The press references The Penelopes to Pixies, Daft Punk, M83, Air. Axel told Digital Spy about their sound, "It’s a difficult question – the background of The Penelopes are rock and new wave – we tried to incorporate disco and electronics. It’s disco rock music." And on lyrics, Axel explained, "we like to have twisted lyrics – the lyrics are more twisted than people think. They are more bizarre and we want people to dance to them". 1883 Magazine said about The Penelopes’ music, "with swirling layers of lush keyboard, punchy guitars and catchy hooks, their upbeat sound is just how you want to start and end your day". "Spacey and energetic and atmospheric" was the review from This Is Fake DIY. In 2007 the first album The Arrogance of Simplicity was released under Vitalic's label, Citizen Records. Rock Mag describes it as “a night club with feelings inside”. Les Inrockuptibles said “the duo gave their best in the delicate exercise of writing pop songs, with many influences ”; the band explained in Wonderland Magazine, “we love post-punk music in general but we didn’t want to copy our idols.

So we started to explore electronic music alongside other contemporary club music. We made our first album in our bedroom. We were naive and we wanted to experiment with sounds”; the single “Demian” was performed by the former singer of Ekova - Dierdre Dubois. The song was chosen for Perrier commercial. A year the album was re-released as a limited edition in Japan, under the title Choose: Arrogance, Simplicity or Both, it included a remixed version of "Demian" by Black Strobe and a cover of the Elli et Jacno track "Je t'aime tant", sung as a duet with the world-renowned French writer Chloé Delaume. The song was commissioned by French fashion designer agnès b. and formed a part of the "Les Jeunes Gens Modernes" exhibition. Agnes has become a long-term supporter of the band and they have gone on to perform at many fashion events and appear in a number of fashion shoots. Though The Penelopes won the Best Discovery 2007 Qwartz Electronic Music Award, they felt more like a rock band using electronic tools.

The side project Priceless Concrete Echoes was released in 2009, with major contributions from DJ Morpheus and produced by Black Strobe, again on Citizen Records. A US version was released, featuring an alternative track listing; the album was licensed by Sony BMG in Hong Kong. The video of single "Stuck in Lalaland" was featured on Pitchfork, the same song was remixed by Nouvelle Vague, in which Axel sang in duo with Elli Medeiros; the second single "Licked by Love" was remixed by I Monster. The cover Beastie Boys’ "Sabotage" was licensed by Ministry of Sound; the Penelopes formed Pour Le Monde Records. They felt, they explained to Wonderland Magazine, "In UK, we feel we are different from the other British bands, good. We have the same influences and approaches as others but we bring a disco edge and a continental electronic approach in our sound"; the album Never Live Another Yesterday has indie-pop infused sound. The first single was “Now Now Now”, followed by “Sally in the Galaxy”, “Summer Life”.

The album “Never Live Another Yesterday” was produced by Dan Grech-Marguerat, who produced for ac

Lost Boys: The Tribe

Lost Boys: The Tribe is a 2008 comedy horror film directed by P. J. Pesce, which serves as a stand-alone sequel to the 1987 film, The Lost Boys; the film stars Angus Sutherland, Autumn Reeser and Corey Feldman. The film is followed by Lost Boys: The Thirst. Chris Emerson, a young former surfing pro and his younger sister Nicole move to Luna Bay, following the death of their parents, to live in a house owned by their aunt Jillian. Chris leaves his address at the home of Edgar Frog, the town's surfboard shaper, in hopes of getting a job. Chris is approached at their new home by former pro surfer, Shane Powers, who invites him to a party that night. Chris and Nicole go to the party, where Shane and his friends Kyle and Jon are entertaining themselves with the human guests. Chris showers with a girl named Lisa and Shane gets Nicole alone, chats with her for a bit, tricks her into drinking his blood; when Chris learns that Nicole has been with Shane, he angrily, protectively, takes her home, where she begins to manifest vampiric strength and rage.

But before Nicole kills Chris, she is knocked out by Edgar, who reveals that he is a vampire hunter, Nicole has been infected with vampirism. Chris throws Edgar out of the house. Lisa shows up and pretends to chat with Chris for a bit before she tries to seduce and feed on him. In fending her off, he accidentally impales her on a mounted rack of antlers, killing her when she turns into stone and explodes. Convinced of the situation, remembering what Edgar said and believing that he was right, Chris seeks out Edgar's help. Edgar explains that Nicole is only half-vampire, will remain that way unless she feeds, she can be turned human again if they kill the head vampire before that. Chris interrupts her just before she can feed on Evan Monroe, a nice guy, courting her, explains what is happening to her, Nicole is surprised at what she did. However, Shane draws her to their lair and they have sex. Chris and Edgar—who lost an unnamed sibling to the vampires—plot for Chris to "join" the tribe of vampires in order to learn the location of their lair.

He drinks Shane's blood and begins to develop vampire traits, but when the tribe feed on a group of girls, he refuses, kills Jon by impaling him with a stick in self-defense. Edgar joins him and they go to the lair, killing Erik and Kyle. Chris impales Erik with a large drill and Edgar kills Kyle by making his head explode with a holy water balloon. Meanwhile, Shane goads Nicole to kill Evan, whom they have bound and gagged for her, but she refuses. With Chris' help, she impales Shane with a stake. Just as Shane attempts to pull Nicole onto the stake with him, Chris appears with a sword and decapitates him with it, returning them both to normal, they thank Edgar, who promises to bill them for his services, Evan takes the opportunity to ask Nicole for a date. At home, they are confronted by their aunt, who believes they have been doing drugs, promises zero tolerance. In a mid-credits scene, Edgar encounters Sam Emerson, now a vampire, they exchange some charge at each other as the credits resume.

In one alternate ending, Edgar is cleaning up after the vampire hunt, when Sam Emerson knocks on his door. Sam warns him. Edgar is reluctant to accept Sam's help; the scene ends with a female companion driving wildly to confront Edgar. Another alternate ending is a extended version of the first, but with Sam wearing black sunglasses and showing Edgar bite marks on his neck. Tad Hilgenbrink as Chris Emerson Angus Sutherland as Shane Powers Autumn Reeser as Nicole Emerson Corey Feldman as Edgar Frog Gabrielle Rose as Aunt Jillian Shaun Sipos as Kyle Merwin Mondesir as Erik Kyle Cassie as Jon Moneca Delain as Lisa Greyston Holt as Evan Monroe Tom Savini as David Von Etten Daryl Shuttleworth as McGraw Sarah Smyth as Hayden Alexander Calvert as Grom Corey Haim as Sam Emerson Jamison Newlander as Alan Frog Plans for a sequel to The Lost Boys had been in varying stage of development since the release of the original film. Director of the original film Joel Schumacher had wanted to do a sequel called The Lost Girls before the announcement of The Tribe, a film in which he had no input and did not believe should be made.

In addition, a script called Lost Boys: Devil May Cry was considered. Hans Rodionoff wrote a script about surfing werewolves titled The Tribe, turned down by studios including Warner Bros. for its resemblance to The Lost Boys. Warner Bros. studio executives changed their mind when they decided on a sequel, who persuaded Rodionoff to alter the script as a sequel, including changing the werewolves of the original to vampires. Corey Feldman returns to play the role of one of the vampire slaying "Frog Brothers", Edgar but was reluctant to participate in the sequel. Newcomer Greyston Holt, as Evan, finds himself up against the vampire horde after he becomes close to the object of the head vampire's affection, Reeser. Merwin Mondesir, Shaun Sipos, Kyle Cassie have been cast as the vampires led by Angus Sutherland's character, Shane. Moneca Delain has been added to the cast. Said Feldman on the film: "Warner Bros. has further developed the script — they brought on a great writer, Hans Rodionoff, who came up with a great story line.

In the script, as it is today, I am one of the leads. My involvement is close to what my involvement was in the first one. So I'm pretty much scattered throughout. Edgar was always an outcast. They