The Tamaulipan mezquital ecoregion, in the deserts and xeric shrublands biome, is located in the southern United States and northeastern Mexico. It covers an area of 141,500 km2, encompassing a portion of the Gulf Coastal Plain in southern Texas, northern Tamaulipas, northeastern Coahuila, part of Nuevo León; the Sierra Madre Oriental range to the west separates the Tamaulipan mezquital from the drier Chihuahuan Desert. The Tamaulipan matorral is a transitional ecoregion between the mezquital and the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests to the west and the Veracruz moist forests to the south; the Western Gulf coastal grasslands, known as the Tamaulipan pastizal south of the border, fringe the Gulf of Mexico. The Edwards Plateau savannas lie to the north, the East Central Texas forests and Texas blackland prairies to the northeast. Mezquital is characterized by curly mesquite grass. Prior to disturbance, the most common shrubs were lotebush and whitebrush. Parts of this region consisted with a pronounced understory of grasses.
The grasses in this community contained a layer of taller species such as hooded windmill grass and fourflower trichloris, a layer of shorter species such as grama. In some places dense stands of Texas prickly pear occurred instead of grasses. Brushy species include huisache and other acacias, desert hackberry or granjeno, whitebrush, Texas prickly pear, tasajillo. Mexican palmettos and Montezuma cypresses grow in riparian zones, such as along the Rio Grande. Mammals of the Tamaulipan mezquital include the Mexican prairie dog, Gulf Coast jaguarundi southern plains woodrat, Mexican spiny pocket mouse. Mexican black bears and cougars inhabit the Sierra de Picachos; the southern part of the ecoregion is an Endemic Bird Area and is home to the red-crowned amazon, crimson-collared grosbeak, Altamira yellowthroat, Tamaulipas crow. Mesquite Bosque Bosque List of ecoregions in the United States
Royal Spanish Academy
The Royal Spanish Academy is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, but is affiliated with national language academies in 22 other hispanophone nations through the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language; the RAE's emblem is a fiery crucible, its motto is "Limpia, fija y da esplendor". The RAE dedicates itself to language planning by applying linguistic prescription aimed at promoting linguistic unity within and between various territories, to ensure a common standard; the proposed language guidelines are shown in a number of works. The Royal Spanish Academy was founded in 1713, modeled after the Accademia della Crusca, of Italy, the Académie Française, of France, with the purpose "to fix the voices and vocabularies of the Castilian language with propriety and purity". King Philip V approved its constitution on 3 October 1714, its aristocratic founder, Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco, Duke of Escalona and Marquess of Villena, described its aims as "to assure that Spanish speakers will always be able to read Cervantes" – by exercising a progressive up-to-date maintenance of the formal language.
The RAE began establishing rules for the orthography of Spanish beginning in 1741 with the first edition of the Ortographía. The proposals of the Academy became the official norm in Spain by royal decree in 1844, they were gradually adopted by the Spanish-speaking countries in the Americas. Several reforms were introduced in the Nuevas Normas de Prosodia y Ortografía. Since the establishment of the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language in 1951, the Spanish academy works in close consultation with the other Spanish language academies in its various works and projects; the 1999 Orthography was the first to be edited by the twenty two academies together. The current rules and practical recommendations on spelling are presented in the latest edition of the Ortografía; the headquarters, opened in 1894, is located at Calle Felipe IV, 4, in the ward of Jerónimos, next to the Museo del Prado. The Center for the Studies of the Royal Spanish Academy, opened in 2007, is located at Calle Serrano 187–189.
According to Salvador Gutiérrez, an academic numerary of the institution, the Academy doesn't dictate the rules but studies the language, collects information and presents it. The rules of the language are the continued use of expressions, some of which are collected by the Academy. Although he says that it is important to read and write correctly. Article 1 of the statutes of the Royal Spanish Academy, translated from the Spanish, says the following: has as its primary mission to ensure that the changes experienced by the Spanish language in its constant adaptation to the needs of its speakers do not break the essential unity that maintains in all the Hispanic world, it must care that this evolution conserves the genius proper of the language, as it has been consolidating with the centuries, as well as establishing and spreading the criteria of propriety and correction, of contributing to its splendor. To achieve these ends, it will study and promote the studies about history and about the present of Spanish, it will spread the literary writings classics, non-literary which it deems important for the knowledge of such matters, it will attempt to keep alive the memory of those who, in Spain or in the Americas, have cultivated our language with glory.
As member of the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, it will keep a special relation with the corresponding and associated academies. Members of the Academy are known as Académicos de número, chosen from among prestigious persons in the arts and sciences, including several Spanish-language authors, known as The Immortals to their French Academy counterparts; the numeraries are elected for life by the other academicians. Each academician holds a seat labeled with a letter from the Spanish alphabet, although upper and lower case letters are separate seats; the Academy has included Latin American members from the time of Rafael María Baralt, although some Spanish-speaking countries have their own academies of the language. Joint publications of the RAE and the Association of Academies of the Spanish LanguageDiccionario de la lengua española; the 1st edition was published in 1780, the 22nd edition in 2001 and the 23rd edition in 2014, which since 2001 can be consulted online for free as of October 2017 and was published in Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries to mark the tricentennial of the founding of the RAE).
The Diccionario esencial de la lengua española was published in 2006 as a compendium of the 22nd edition of the Dictionary of the Spanish Language. Ortografía de la lengua española; the 1st edition was published in 1741 and the latest edition in 2010. The edition of 1999 was the first spelling book to cover the whole Hispanic world, replacing the Nuevas normas de prosodia y ortografía of 1959. Nueva gramática de la lengua española; the latest edition is the first grammar to cover the whole Hispanic world, replacing the prior Gramática de la lengua española and the Esbozo de una Nueva gramática de la lengua española (Outline of a New Gramm
For other tree species with similar names, see Algarrobo. Prosopis nigra is a South American leguminous tree species that inhabits the Gran Chaco ecoregion, in Argentina and Uruguay, it is known as algarrobo negro in Spanish, which means "black carob tree". It is variously called algarrobo dulce, algarrobo morado and algarrobo amarillo; the tree blossoms in September and October, gives fruit from November to March. It grows together under the tops of the palm tree Copernicia alba. Like the other species of this genus, it tolerates arid climate, but can survive in flooded ground for a long time; the heartwood is dark brown and heavy, considered noble by local carpenters weather resistant, it presents streaks. Algarrobo negro wood is used in making furniture and barrels. High in tannin, it has been employed for leather tanning since the colonial era, its fruit, called an algarroba, is a dehiscent-type pod, with a sweet, starchy paste inside, milled to make flour, fermented to make an alcoholic beverage.
Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations and information retrieval - H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz Catálogo Web de especies forestales - Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Asunción Prado. "Prosopis nigra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 May 2006
Gulf Coastal Plain
The Gulf Coastal Plain extends around the Gulf of Mexico in the Southern United States and eastern Mexico. The plain reaches from the Florida Panhandle, southwest Georgia, the southern two-thirds of Alabama, over most of Mississippi, western Tennessee and Kentucky, into southern Illinois, the Missouri Bootheel and southern Arkansas, all of Louisiana, the southeast corner of Oklahoma, easternmost Texas in the United States, it continues along the Gulf in northeastern and eastern Mexico, through Tamaulipas and Veracruz to Tabasco and the Yucatán Peninsula on the Bay of Campeche. The Gulf Coastal Plain's southern boundary is the Gulf of Mexico in the U. S. and the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in Mexico. On the north, it extends to the Ouachita Highlands of the Interior Low Plateaus and the southern Appalachian Mountains, its northernmost extent is along the Mississippi embayment as far north as the southern tip of Illinois. To the east the Gulf coastal plain meets the South Atlantic Coastal Plain in southern Georgia along the basin divide between the rivers flowing into the Gulf and those flowing to the Atlantic and south along the Apalachicola River through the Florida panhandle.
The flat to rolling topography is broken by many streams, river riparian areas, marsh wetlands. The Gulf Coastal Plain extends into southern Mexico and up to the northern west coast states of the US; the Gulf Coastal Plain is a westward extension of the Atlantic Coastal Plain around the Gulf of Mexico. It is only the lower, seaward part of this region that deserves the name of plain, for there alone is the surface unbroken by hills or valleys; the inner part a plain, has been maturely dissected into an elaborate complex of hills and valleys of increasing altitude and relief as one passes inland. The Gulf Plain features not found in the Atlantic coastal plain are: the peninsular extension of the plain in Florida the belted arrangement of relief and soils in Alabama and in Texas the Mississippi embayment or inland extension of the plain half-way up the course of the Mississippi River to its junction with the Ohio River at Cairo, with the Mississippi flood plain there included. A broad, low crustal arch extends southward at the junction of the Gulf coastal plains.
The emerged half of the arch, constitutes the visible lowland peninsula of Florida. The submerged half extends westward under the shallow Florida overlapping waters of the Gulf of Mexico; the northern part of the peninsula is composed of a weak limestone. Here, much of the lowland drainage is underground forming many sinkholes. Many small lakes in the lowland appear to owe their basins to the solution of the limestones. Valuable phosphate deposits occur in certain districts; the southern part of the state includes the Everglades, a large area of low, marshy land, overgrown with tall reedy grass. The eastern coast is fringed by long-stretching sand reefs, enclosing lagoons so narrow and continuous that they are popularly called rivers. At the southern end of the peninsula is a series of coral islands, known as the Florida Keys, they appear to be due to the forward growth of corals and other lime-secreting organisms towards the strong current of the Gulf Stream from which they obtain their food. The western coast has shorter off-shore reefs.
Much of it is of minutely irregular outline. A typical example of a belted coastal plain is found in Alabama and the adjacent part of Mississippi; the plain is here about 150 mi wide. The basal formation is chiefly a weak limestone, stripped from its original Alabama innermost extension and worn down to a flat inner lowland of rich black soil, thus gaining the name of the black belt; the lowland is enclosed by an upland or escarpment, known as Chunnenugga Ridge, sustained by consolidated sandy strata. However, the upland is not continuous, but a maturely dissected escarpment, it has a rapid descent toward the inner lowland, a gradual descent to the coast prairies, which become low and marshy before dipping under the Gulf waters, where they are fringed by off-shore reefs. The coastal plain extends 500 miles inland on the axis of the Mississippi embayment, its inner border affords admirable examples of topographical discordance where it sweeps northwestward square across the trend of the piedmont belt, the ridges and valleys, the plateau of the Appalachians.
All of which are terminated by dipping beneath the unconformable cover of the coastal plain strata. In the same way the western side of the embayment, trending south and southwest, passes along the lower southeastern side of the dissected Ozark plateau of southern Missouri and northern and central Arkansas; the southern Missouri and northern Arkansas Ozark plateau resembles in many ways the Appalachian plateau. The Ozarks and Ouachitas make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; as the coastal plain turns westward toward Texas, it borders the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma and the Arbuckle Mountains in southern Oklahoma. The Ouachitas and the Arbuckles may be considered an analog of and possible extension of the Appalachian fold and crystalline belts. In the embayment of the coastal plain some low escarpment-like belts of hills with associated strips of lowlands suggest the features of a belted coastal plain.
The hilly belt or dissected escarpment determined by the Grand Gulf formation in western Mississippi is the most distinct. Important salt deposits occur in the coastal plain strata near the coast; the most striking feature of the embayment is the broad valley which the Mississippi has eroded across it. The small proportion of total water volume suppli
Prosopis velutina known as velvet mesquite, is a small to medium-sized perennial tree. It is a legume adapted to a dry, desert climate. Though considered to be a noxious weed in states outside its natural range, it plays a vital role in the ecology of the Sonoran Desert. Velvet mesquite is native to the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, it grows at elevations below 4,000 to 5,000 feet in near washes. The main distribution is in adjacent Sonora, Mexico. Near waterways, mesquites can form deciduous woodlands called bosques. Velvet mesquite can grow to 30 -- 50 more, it grows smaller in open, dry grasslands. The youngest branches may be photosynthetic. Young bark is smooth; as it matures, it takes on a shredded texture. Yellow thorns up to one inch long appear on the young branches; the leaves are about 3-6 in long and bipinnately compound. They fold closed at night; the taproot sinks deep into the earth, far deeper than the height of the tree, taking advantage of water sources inaccessible to most plants.
Roots extend to about 50 ft. The mesquite is deciduous, losing its leaves in winter, leafs out again in the spring when all danger of frost is past; because of its deep root system, it keeps its leaves in the dry months of summer in all but the most severe drought years. The flowers are yellow and form in the spring in dense cylindrical clusters 4 in long. Long seedpods form from the flowers, they look somewhat like pea pods when young. Mature, dry pods are hard and contain several hard, brown seeds; the seeds need to be scarified. This scarification takes place in the digestive tracts of animals, which eat the seeds and disperse them as the seed takes days to pass through the animal; the mesquite contributes to the desert ecosystem. Coyotes, round-tailed ground squirrels, collared peccaries, mule deer, white-tailed deer, jackrabbits all eat mesquite pods, as do livestock when they are available. Birds feed on the flower buds; as a member of the legume family, mesquites fix nitrogen in the soil. Mesquites can serve as nurse trees such as the saguaro.
The shade of its branches provides protection for small mammals burrowing animals. Native Americans used the seeds for food; the bark was used for the wood for firewood and building. The leaves and gum were used as medicine; the range of the velvet mesquite has changed because of grazing. Cattle not only dispersed mesquite seeds, but they overgrazed the land, resulting in fewer range fires to control the mesquite population. Mesquites grew more densely and spread into. Velvet mesquite is considered an invasive species or noxious weed in several states. However, mesquite bosques cover only a small fraction of the area they covered before human settlement. Agriculture, firewood cutting, housing developments, the lowering of the water table have all contributed to the loss of native mesquite stands. Velvet mesquite is a common choice for residential and commercial xeriscaping in Tucson and Phoenix, cities which are inside its natural range. An established mesquite tree needs little or no watering, is an attractive ornamental plant.
Medicinal uses: Sore throats were treated with a hot tea made from a blend of the clear sap plus inner red bark. Stomachaches were treated with a tea made from the fresh leaves. Toothache was treated by chewing the soft inner bark of the root. For flagging appetite, a tea made from the dried leaves was taken before meals. Cosmetic uses: Most important to a select number of folks was mesquite's use against hair loss; this treatment was used by men only, consisted of the black sap that oozes from mesquite wounds mixed with other secret herbs and applied to the scalp. Special mesquite herbal soap for "macho" hair is still available in parts of Mexico. Bark was used for fabrics. Wood is important for flavor when grilling meat. Mesquite pods are an important source of food for humans as well as native wildlife. Pods are considered a slow-release food due to galactomannin gums which have been found to lower glycemic responses, their glycemic index is 25%, compared to 60% for sweet corn, 100% for white sugar.
Dried and toasted, the pods are ground into mesquite mesquite flour. Both flour and meal are used to make cakes, breads and pancakes. Mesquite Bosque USDA Plant Profile for Prosopis velutina ITIS Taxonomy Report Species information from the U. S. Forest Service Photographs from CalPhotos Prosopis velutina Pictures and herbarium specimen
The Cahuilla known as ʔívil̃uqaletem or Ivilyuqaletem, are a Native American people of the inland areas of southern California. Their original territory included an area of about 2,400 square miles; the traditional Cahuilla territory was near the geographic center of Southern California. It was bounded to the north by the San Bernardino Mountains, to the south by Borrego Springs and the Chocolate Mountains, to the east by the Colorado Desert, to the west by the San Jacinto Plain and the eastern slopes of the Palomar Mountains; the Cahuilla language is in the Uto-Aztecan family. A 1990 census revealed 35 speakers in an ethnic population of 800, it is critically endangered. In their own language, their autonym is ʔívil̃uqaletem, the name of their language is ʔívil̃uʔat, however they call themselves táxliswet meaning'person'. Cahuilla is an exonym applied to the group after mission secularization in the Ranchos of California; the word "Cahuilla" is from the Ivilyuat word kawi'a, meaning "master." Oral legends suggest that when the Cahuilla first moved into the Coachella Valley, a large body of water which geographers call Lake Cahuilla was in existence.
Fed by the Colorado River, it dried up sometime before 1700, following one of the repeated shifts in the river's course. In 1905 a break in a levee created the much smaller Salton Sea in the same location; the Cahuilla lived from the land by using native plants. A notable tree whose fruits they harvested is the California fan palm; the Cahuilla used palm leaves for basketry of many shapes and purposes. The Cahuilla lived in smaller groups than some other tribes; the first encounter with Europeans was in 1774, when Juan Bautista de Anza was looking for a trade route between Sonora and Monterey in Alta California. Living far inland, the Cahuilla priests, or missionaries. Many of the Europeans viewed the desert as having no value, but rather a place to avoid; the Cahuilla learned of Spanish missions and their culture from Indians living close to missions in San Gabriel and San Diego. The Cahuilla provided the vaqueros that worked for the owners of the Rancho San Bernardino, provided security against the raids of the tribes from the desert and mountains on its herds.
The Cahuilla did not encounter Anglo-Americans until the 1840s. Chief Juan Antonio, leader of the Cahuilla Mountain Band, gave traveler Daniel Sexton access to areas near the San Gorgonio Pass in 1842; the Mountain Band lent support to a U. S. Army expedition led by Lieutenant Edward Fitzgerald Beale, defending the party against attacks by Wakara and his band of Ute warriors. During the Mexican–American War, Chief Juan Antonio led his warriors to join Californios led by José del Carmen Lugo in attacking their traditional enemy, the Luiseño. Lugo led this action in retaliation for the Pauma Massacre, in which the Luiseno had killed 11 Californios; the combined forces staged an ambush and killed 33–40 of the Luiseno warriors, an event that became known as the Temecula Massacre of 1847. In the treaty ending the war with Mexico, the US promised to honor Mexican land policies; these included recognition of Native American rights to inhabit certain lands, but European-American encroachment on Indian lands became an increasing problem after the US annexed California.
During the 1850s, the Cahuilla came under increasing pressure from waves of European-American migrants because of the California Gold Rush. In 1851, Juan Antonio led his warriors in the destruction of the Irving Gang, a group of bandits, looting the San Bernardino Valley. Following the outcome of the Irving Gang incident, in late 1851, Juan Antonio, his warriors and their families, moved eastward from Politana, toward the San Gorgonio Pass and settled in a valley which branched off to the northeast from San Timoteo Canyon, at a village named Saahatpa. In addition to the influx of Anglo-American miners and outlaws, groups of Mormon colonists, the Cahuilla came into conflict with the neighboring Cupeño tribe to the west. In November 1851, the Garra Revolt occurred, wherein the Cupeno leader Antonio Garra attempted to bring Juan Antonio into his revolt. Juan Antonio, friendly to the Americans, was instrumental in capturing Antonio Garra, ending that revolt; when the California Senate refused to ratify an 1852 treaty granting the Cahuilla control of their lands, some tribal leaders resorted to attacks on approaching settlers and soldiers.
Juan Antonio did not participate in this as long. To encourage the railroad, the U. S. government subdivided the lands into one-mile-square sections, giving the Indians every other section. In 1877 the government established reservation boundaries, which left the Cahuilla with only a small portion of their traditional territories; the Cahuilla have intermarried with non-Cahuilla for the past century. A high percentage of today's Cahuilla tribal members have some degree of mixed ancestry Spanish and African American. Individuals who have grown up in the tribe's ways and identify culturally with the Cahuilla may qualify for official tribal membership by the tribe's internal rules; each federally recognized tribe sets its own rules for membership. Today Palm Springs and the surrounding areas are experiencing rapid development; the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla is an important player in the local economy, operating an array of business enterprises, including land leasing and casino operations, banking.
The Agua Caliente Indian Reservation occupies 126.706 km2 (48
Indian wild ass
The Indian wild ass called the Ghudkhur, Khur or Indian onager in the local Gujarati language, is a subspecies of the onager native to Southern Asia. It is listed as Near Threatened by IUCN. At the previous census in 2009, estimated 4,038 Indian wild ass. However, the population was still growing. In December 2014, the population was estimated at 4,451 individuals, it has increased from a jump of 454. However, as of 2015, the current Indian wild ass population has increased to more than 4,800 individuals in and outside of the Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary of India; the Indian wild ass, as with most other Asian wild ass subspecies, is quite different from the African wild ass species. The coat is sandy, but varies from reddish grey, fawn, to pale chestnut; the animal possesses an dark mane which runs from the back of the head and along the neck. The mane is followed by a dark brown stripe running along the back, to the root of the tail; the Indian wild ass's range once extended from western India, southern Pakistan and south-eastern Iran.
Today, its last refuge lies in the Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch and its surrounding areas of the Great Rann of Kutch in the Gujarat province of India. The animal, however, is seen in the districts of Surendranagar, Banaskantha and other Kutch districts. Saline deserts, arid grasslands and shrublands are its preferred environments; the Indian wild ass population has been increasing in numbers and extending its range from Little Rann of Kutch, where the world's last population of this subspecies had got confined to in recent years, has started moving out and colonizing the Greater Rann of Kutch extending into the neighboring Indian State of Rajasthan in the bordering villages in Jalore district bordering the Rann of Kutch of Gujarat and Khejariali and its neighbourhood where a 60 km2 area was transferred to the Rajasthan Forest Department by the revenue authorities in 2007. At this place Rebaris live in the Prosopis juliflora jungles in the company of chinkaras, striped hyenas, red foxes, desert cats and Indian wolves, etc.
Indian wild asses graze between dusk. The animal feeds on grass and fruits of plant, Prosopis pods, saline vegetation, it is one of the fastest of Indian animals, with speeds clocked at about 70 – 80 km. per hour and can outrun a jeep. Stallions live either solitarily, or in small groups of twos and threes while family herds remain large. Mating season is in rainy season; when a mare comes into heat, she separates from the herd with a stallion who battles against rivals for her possession. After few days, the pair returns to the herd; the mare gives birth to one foal. The male foal weans away by 1–2 years of age, while the female continues to stay with the family herd, it is unknown how the Indian wild ass disappeared from its former haunts in parts of western India and Pakistan, since the animal was never a hunting target of Indian Maharajas and colonial British officials of the British Raj. However, India's Mughal Emperors and noblemen from the time took great pleasure in hunting it with Emperor Jahangir in his book Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.
In an illustrated copy that has survived of Akbarnama, the book of Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great there is an illustration of Akbar on an Indian wild ass shoot with several of them having been shot by him. From 1958-1960, the wild ass became a victim of a disease known as surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi and transmitted by flies, which caused a dramatic decline of its population in India. In November and December 1961, the wild ass population was reduced to just 870 after to the outbreak of South African Horse Sickness. Besides disease, the ass's other threats include habitat degradation due to salt activities, the invasion of the Prosopis juliflora shrub, encroachment and grazing by the Maldhari. Conservation efforts since 1969 have helped boost the animal's population to 4000. In the last century, the Indian wild ass lived all over the dry regions of northwestern India and western Pakistan including Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Baluchistan. Today, it survives only in the Little Rann, a few stray towards the Great Rann of Kutch with some reaching bordering villages in the Jalore district of the Indian State of Rajasthan.
First census of the wild ass was done in 1940. But, by the year 1960, this figure fell to just 362, it was classified as a endangered species. In the years 1973 & 1976, Rann of Kutch and adjoining districts were taken up as the area for conservation for this sub-species known as Khur. From 1976, the forest department began conducting the wild ass census. Water holes were increased in the area, the forest department has started a project for having fodder plots though the forest department is yet to get desired success. In 1998, the wild ass population was estimated at 2,940, by the year 2004 it has increased to an estimated 3,863. A recent census conducted by forest department in 2009 has revealed that the population of wild ass in the state was estimated to about 4,038, an increase of 4.53% as compared to 2004. In 2015, the current census of the Indian wild ass population has increased to more than 4,800 individuals in and outside of the Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary of India. Of late, it has been spotted right outside Ahmedabad near Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary.
It seems it is no more confined to the 4,953.71 km2 area of the Rann, but it is now being found right up to the Kala Dungar near Banni grasslands in Kutch and Nal Sarovar. Within the State of Gujarat it is now found in districts of Surendranagar, Patan and Kutch; this population of wild asses