Medieval Greek known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire; this stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine studies, the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire; the beginning of Medieval Greek is dated back to as early as the 4th century, either to 330 AD, when the political centre of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople, or to 395 AD, the division of the Empire. However, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political, as opposed to cultural and linguistic, developments. Indeed, by this time the spoken language pronunciation, had shifted towards modern forms.
The conquests of Alexander the Great, the ensuing Hellenistic period, had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure. Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, Modern Greek. Though Byzantine Greek literature was still influenced by Attic Greek, it was influenced by vernacular Koine Greek, the language of the New Testament and the liturgical language of the Greek Orthodox Church. Constantine moved to Byzantium in 330; the city, though a major imperial residence like other cities such as Trier and Sirmium, was not a capital until 359. Nonetheless the imperial court resided there and the city was the political centre of the eastern parts of the Roman Empire where Greek was the dominant language. At first, Latin remained the language of the army, it was used for official documents. From the beginning of the 6th century, amendments to the law were written in Greek. Furthermore, parts of the Roman Corpus Iuris Civilis were translated into Greek.
Under the rule of Emperor Heraclius, who assumed the Greek title Basileus in 629, Greek became the official language of the Eastern Roman Empire. This was in spite of the fact that the inhabitants of the empire still considered themselves Rhomaioi until its end in 1453, as they saw their State as the perpetuation of Roman rule. Despite the absence of reliable demographic figures, it has been estimated that less than one third of the inhabitants of the Eastern Roman Empire, around eight million people, were native speakers of Greek; the number of those who were able to communicate in Greek may have been far higher. The native Greek speakers consisted of many of the inhabitants of the southern Balkan Peninsula, south of the Jireček Line, all of the inhabitants of Asia Minor, where the native tongues, except Armenian in the east, had become extinct, replaced by Greek, by the 5th century. In any case, all cities of the Eastern Roman Empire were influenced by the Greek language. In the period between 603 and 619, the southern and eastern parts of the empire were occupied by Persian Sassanids and, after being recaptured by Heraclius in the years 622 to 628, they were conquered by the Arabs in the course of the Muslim conquests a few years later.
Alexandria, a center of Greek culture and language, fell to the Arabs in 642. During the seventh and eighth centuries, Greek was replaced by Arabic as an official language in conquered territories such as Egypt; as more people gained a knowledge of Arabic. Thus, the use of Greek declined early on in Egypt; the invasion of the Slavs into the Balkan peninsula reduced the area where Greek was spoken and Latin. Sicily and parts of Magna Graecia, Asia Minor and more Anatolia, parts of the Crimean Peninsula remained Greek-speaking; the southern Balkans which would henceforth be contested between Byzantium and various Slavic kingdoms or empires. The Greek language spoken by one-third of the population of Sicily at the time of the Norman conquest 1060-90 remained vibrant for more than a century, but died out to a deliberate policy of Latinization in language and religion from the mid-1160s. From the late 11th century onwards, the interior of Anatolia was invaded by Seljuq Turks, who advanced westwards.
With the Ottoman conquests of Constantinople in 1453, the Peloponnese in 1459/1460, the Empire of Trebizond in 1461, Athens in 1465, two centuries the Duchy of Candia in 1669, the Greek language lost its status as a national language until the emergence of modern Greece in the year 1821. Language varieties after 1453 are referred to as Modern Greek; as early as in the Hellenistic period, there was a tendency towards a state of diglossia between the Attic literary language and the developing vernacular Koiné. By late antiquity, the gap had become impossible to ignore. In the Byzantine era, written Greek manifested itself in a whole spectrum of divergent registers, all of which were consciously archaic in comparison with the contemporary spoken vernacular, but in different degrees, they ranged from a moderately archaic style employed for most every-day writing and based on the written Koiné of the Bible and early Christian literature, to a artificial learned style, employed by authors with higher literary ambitions and imitating the model of classical Attic, in continuation of the movement of Atticism
Caucasian Albanian script
The Caucasian Albanian script was an alphabetic writing system used by the Caucasian Albanians, one of the ancient and indigenous Northeast Caucasian peoples whose territory comprised parts of present-day Azerbaijan and Daghestan. It was one of only two indigenous scripts developed for speakers of indigenous Caucasian languages to represent any of their languages, the other being the Georgian script. According to Movses Kaghankatvatsi, the Caucasian Albanian script was created by Mesrop Mashtots, the Armenian monk and translator, credited with creating the Armenian script. Koriun, a pupil of Mesrop Mashtots, in his book The Life of Mashtots, wrote about the circumstances of its creation: Then there came and visited them an elderly man, an Albanian named Benjamin, and he, Mesrop Mashtots and examined the barbaric diction of the Albanian language, through his usual God-given keenness of mind invented an alphabet, which he, through the grace of Christ organized and put in order. The alphabet was in use from its creation in the early 5th century through the 12th century, was used not only formally by the Church of Caucasian Albania, but for secular purposes.
Although mentioned in early sources, no examples of it were known to exist until its rediscovery in 1937 by a Georgian scholar, Professor Ilia Abuladze, in Matenadaran MS No. 7117, a manual from the 15th century. This manual presents different alphabets for comparison: Greek, Syriac, Georgian and Caucasian Albanian among them. Between 1947 and 1952, archaeological excavations at Mingachevir under the guidance of S. Kaziev found a number of artifacts with Caucasian Albanian writing — a stone altar post with an inscription around its border that consisted of 70 letters, another 6 artifacts with brief texts, including candlesticks, a tile fragment, a vessel fragment; the first literary work in the Caucasian Albanian alphabet was discovered on a palimpsest in Saint Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai in 2003 by Dr. Zaza Aleksidze. Jost Gippert, professor of Comparative Linguistics at the University of Frankfurt am Main, other have published this palimpsest that contains liturgical readings taken from the Gospel of John.
The Udi language, spoken by some 8,000 people in Azerbaijan but in Georgia and Armenia, is considered to be the last direct continuator of the Caucasian Albanian language. The script consists of 52 characters, all of which can represent numerals from 1-700,000 when a combining mark is added above, below, or both above and below them, described as similar to Coptic. 49 of the characters are found in the Sinai palimpsests. Several punctuation marks are present, including a middle dot, a separating colon, an apostrophe, paragraph marks, citation marks; the Caucasian Albanian alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2014 with the release of version 7.0. The Unicode block for Caucasian Albanian is U+10530–1056F: Armazi project: Jost Gippert: The "Albanian" Alphabet as preserved in Armenian Tradition – has images of glyphs Zaza Aleksidze: A Breakthrough in the Script of Caucasian Albany
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism or Eastern Orthodoxy, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, craft, class, family or person. Saints become the patrons of places where they were born or had been active. However, there were cases in Medieval Europe where a city which grew to prominence and obtained for its cathedral the remains or some relics of a famous saint who had lived and was buried elsewhere, thus making him or her the city's patron saint – such a practice conferred considerable prestige on the city concerned. In Latin America and the Philippines and Portuguese explorers named a location for the saint on whose feast or commemoration they first visited the place, with that saint becoming the area's patron. Professions sometimes have a patron saint owing to that individual being involved somewhat with it, although some of the connections were tenuous. Lacking such a saint, an occupation would have a patron whose acts or miracles in some way recall the profession.
For example, when the unknown profession of photography appeared in the 19th century, Saint Veronica was made its patron, owing to how her veil miraculously received the imprint of Christ's face after she wiped off the blood and sweat. The veneration or "commemoration" and recognition of patron saints or saints in general is found in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, among some Lutherans and Anglicans. Catholics believe that patron saints, having transcended to the metaphysical, are able to intercede for the needs of their special charges, it is, however discouraged in most Protestant branches such as Calvinism, where the practice is considered a form of idolatry. Although Islam has no codified doctrine of patronage on the part of saints, it has been an important part of both Sunni and Shia Islamic tradition that important classical saints have served as the heavenly advocates for specific Muslim empires, cities and villages. Martin Lings wrote: "There is scarcely a region in the empire of Islam which has not a Sufi for its Patron Saint."
As the veneration accorded saints develops purely organically in Islamic climates, in a manner different to Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity, "patron saints" are recognized through popular acclaim rather than through official declaration. Traditionally, it has been understood that the patron saint of a particular place prays for that place's wellbeing and for the health and happiness of all who live therein. However, the Wahhabi and Salafi movements within Sunnism have latterly attacked the veneration of saints, which they claim are a form of idolatry or shirk. More mainstream Sunni clerics have critiqued this argument since Wahhabism first emerged in the 18th century; the critiques notwithstanding, widespread veneration of saints in the Sunni world declined in the 20th century under Wahhabi and Salafi influence. Calendar of saints Guardian angel List of blesseds List of saints Patron saints of ailments and dangers Patron saints of occupations and activities Patron saints of places Patron saints of ethnic groups Saint symbolism Catholic Online: Patron Saints Henry Parkinson.
"Patron Saints". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. "Patron Saint". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
Gospel meant the Christian message itself, but in the 2nd century it came to be used for the books in which the message was set out. The four canonical gospels — Matthew, Mark and John — were written between AD 66 and 110, building on older sources and traditions, each gospel has its own distinctive understanding of Jesus and his divine role. All four are anonymous, it is certain that none were written by an eyewitness, they are the main source of information on the life of Jesus as searched for in the quest for the historical Jesus. Modern scholars are cautious of relying on them unquestioningly, but critical study attempts to distinguish the original ideas of Jesus from those of the authors. Many non-canonical gospels were written, all than the four, all, like them, advocating the particular theological views of their authors; the Gospel of Mark dates from c. AD 66–70, Matthew and Luke around AD 85–90, John AD 90–110. Despite the traditional ascriptions all four are anonymous, none were written by eyewitnesses.
Like the rest of the New Testament, they were written in Greek. In the immediate aftermath of Jesus' death his followers expected him to return at any moment within their own lifetimes, in consequence there was little motivation to write anything down for future generations, but as eyewitnesses began to die, as the missionary needs of the church grew, there was an increasing demand and need for written versions of the founder's life and teachings; the stages of this process can be summarised as follows: Oral traditions — stories and sayings passed on as separate self-contained units, not in any order. Gospels formed by combining written collections and still-current oral tradition. Mark, the first gospel to be written, uses a variety of sources, including conflict stories, apocalyptic discourse, collections of sayings, although not the sayings gospel known as the Gospel of Thomas and not the Q source used by Matthew and Luke; the authors of Matthew and Luke, acting independently, used Mark for their narrative of Jesus's career, supplementing it with the collection of sayings called the Q document and additional material unique to each called the M source and the L source.
Mark and Luke are called the synoptic gospels because of the close similarities between them in terms of content and language. The authors and editors of John may have known the synoptics, but did not use them in the way that Matthew and Luke used Mark. There is a near-consensus that this gospel had its origins as a "signs" source that circulated within the Johannine community expanded with a Passion narrative and a series of discourses. All four use the Jewish scriptures, by quoting or referencing passages, or by interpreting texts, or by alluding to or echoing biblical themes; such use can be extensive: Mark's description of the Parousia is made up entirely of quotations from scripture. Matthew is full of quotations and allusions, although John uses scripture in a far less explicit manner, its influence is still pervasive, their source was the Greek version of the scriptures, called the Septuagint – they do not seem familiar with the original Hebrew. The four gospels share a story in which the earthly career of Jesus culminates in his death and resurrection, an event of crucial redemptive significance, but are inconsistent in detail.
John and the three synoptics in particular present different pictures of Jesus' career. John has no baptism, no temptation, no transfiguration, lacks the Lord's Supper and stories of Jesus' ancestry and childhood. Jesus's career in the synoptics takes up a single year while in John it takes three, with the cleansing of the Temple at the beginning of his ministry while in the synoptics it happens at the end, in the synoptics the Last Supper takes place as a Passover meal, while in John it happens on the day before Passover; each gospel has its own distinctive understanding of his divine role. Mark never calls Jesus "God" or claims that Jesus existed prior to his earthly life, never mentions a virgin birth, makes no attempt to trace Jesus' ancestry back to King David or Adam. Crucially, Mark had no post-resurrection appearances of Jesus, although Mark 16:7, in which the young man discovered in the tomb instructs the women to tell "the disciples and Peter" that Jesus will see them again in Galilee, hints that the author may have known of the tradition.
Matthew reinterprets Mark, stressing Jesus' teachings as much as his acts and making subtle changes to the narrative in order to stress his divine nature – Mark's "young man" who appears at Jesus' tomb, for example, becomes a radiant angel in Matthew. The miracle stories in Mark confirm Jesus' status as an emissary of God, but in Matthew they demonstrate his divinity. Luke, while following Mark's plot more faithfully than does Matthew, has expanded on the source, corrected Mark's grammar and syntax, eliminated some passages notably most of chapters 6 and 7, which he felt reflected poorly on the disciples and painted Jesus too much like a magician. John, t
The Aras or Araxes is a river that starts in Turkey and flows along the borders between Turkey and Armenia, between Turkey and the Nakhchivan area of Azerbaijan, between Iran and both Azerbaijan and Armenia, through Azerbaijan to the Kura River. It drains the south side of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains and joins the Kura, which drains the north side of Lesser Caucasus Mountains, its total length is 1,072 kilometres. The Aras River is one of the largest rivers in the Caucasus. In the classical antiquity, the river was known to the Greeks as Araxes, its modern Armenian name is Arax. It was known as Yeraskh, its Old Georgian name is Rakhsi. In Azerbaijani, the river name is Araz. In Persian and Kurdish its name is ارس and in Turkish it is Aras; the Aras meets with the Akhurian River southeast of Digor. From Digor it flows along the closed Turkish-Armenian border, runs close to the corridor that connects Turkey to Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan exclave, it continues along the Iranian-Armenian and the Iranian-Azerbaijan border.
The Zangmar, Ghotour River, Hajilar River, Kalibar River, Ilghena River, Darreh River and Balha River are the major tributaries of the Aras from the South. In Turkey, the Ghareso river flows in from the North, the Akhurian, Hrazdan, Vedi, Vorotan and Meghri rivers join in from the Armenian side; the Khachin River, Okhchi River, Kuri River and Kandlan River flow into the river from the Azerbaijan side. In Armenian tradition, the river is named after Arast, a great-grandson of the legendary Armenian patriarch Haik; the name was Hellenized to Araxes and was applied to the Kura-Araxes culture, a prehistoric people who flourished in the valleys of the Kura and Aras. The river is mentioned in the last chapter of the Aeneid VIII by Virgil, as "angry at the bridge," since the Romans built a bridge over it, so that it is thereby conquered; the river Aras has been associated with the biblical rivers Pishon. Robert H. Hewsen described Aras as the only "true river" of Armenia and as "Mother Araxes," a symbol of pride to the Armenian people.
According to a legend cited by Strabo in ancient times Araxes river in Armenia had no outflow to Caspian sea but spread out in plains and created a lake without outflow. In Islamic times, the Araxes became known in Arabic parlance as al-Rass and in Perso-Turkish contexts as Aras. In modern history, the Aras gained significance as a geographic political boundary. Under the terms of the Treaty of Gulistan and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the river was chosen as the border limit between the Russian Empire and Qajar Iran, as the latter was forced to cede its Caucasian territories to Russia. Iran and the Soviet Union built the Aras Dam on the Aras in the Poldasht area creating the Aras Reservoir; the Meghri Dam is under construction near the Armenian town of Meghri. In 2006, a bird research and education center was established by KuzeyDoğa Society, a Turkish non-governmental organization for nature conservation, in the Aras Valley at the village Yukarı Çıyrıklı, in the Tuzluca district of Iğdır Province, Turkey.
It is one of Turkey's two bird ringing stations. Between 2006 and 2015, more than 65,000 birds of 198 species were ringed and 258 bird species were observed at this station. Fifty-five percent of the 471 bird species found in Turkey are recorded at this wetland, making it Turkey's most important wetland for birds; the number of ringed and observed 258 bird species comprises 85 percent of the 303 bird species in Iğdır Province. Seven new bird species were observed during the bird ringing activities in 2012 alone, including the raptor Shikra or Little Banded Goshawk, new to Turkey's avifauna. University of Utah biology professor Çağan Şekercioğlu, president of the KuzeyDoğa Society, appealed to the Ministry of Forest and Water Management to drop the Tuzluca Dam project, which would destroy the wetland harboring bird wildlife in the Aras Valley. In 2013, the ministry granted the site the highest level of conservation status. Rivers and lakes in Armenia Rivers and lakes in Azerbaijan Geography of Turkey Geography of Armenia Geography of Iran Geography of Azerbaijan Nature of Azerbaijan
Vramshapuh, whose name is spelt as Vramshapouh, Vramšapuh, Vram-Shapouh, Bahram Shapur and Bahram-Shahpur was a prince who served as a Sasanian client king of Arsacid Armenia from 389 until 414. The name that Vramshapuh had prior to his kingship is unknown as he is only known by his ruling name; the name Vramshapuh is the Armenian translation of the Persian names Shapur put together. When Vramshapuh succeeded his brother Khosrov IV in 389 as Sasanian client king of Arsacid Armenia, Vramshapuh assumed this name in compliment to the Sasanian shah Bahram IV; the names Bahram and Shapur were dynastic names of the ruling Sasanian dynasty and demonstrate the cultural influence that the Sasanians had on the remaining Arsacid Armenian monarchs living in Persia. The exact origins of Vramshapuh are unknown; the Armenian Historian Ghazar Parpetsi who lived between the 5th and 6th centuries, whose work was History of Armenia presents Vramshapuh as a prince from the Arsacid dynasty, without mentioning his parentage.
Ghazar Parpetsi names him as the brother of Khosrov IV and the father of Artaxias IV. According to modern genealogies, Vramshapuh is presented as being one of the sons of Varasdates. Vramshapuh was born and raised in Armenia and little is known of his life prior to his kingship. Sometime in 389 Bahram IV, dethroned Khosrov placed him in confinement in Ctesiphon. Bahram IV was unsatisfied with Khosrov IV. Bahram IV considered Khosrov IV, as being too assertive in his royal authority as a governing Client Monarch and did various acts in his kingship without consultation from the Sasanian dynasty; the Armenians requested to the Sasanian shah another king of Armenia from the Arsacid dynasty. Bahram IV agreeing to their request, enthroned Vramshapuh as the new Sasanian Client King of Arsacid Armenia. After his brother, Vramshapuh served as the second Sasanian client King of Arsacid Armenia. Not much is known of his relationship with Khosrov IV; as Vramshapuh ruled over Eastern Armenia, he was a Christian Client Monarch governing under a pagan state whose official religion was Zoroastrianism.
Vramshapuh managed through his rule to unite the two parts of Greater Armenia. Saint Mesrop Mashtots continued his role as being the royal scribe and imperial secretary from the reign of Khosrov IV to his brother Vramshapuh. Sahak the son of Nerses, the last Gregorian Patriarch served as the Armenian Catholicos during Vramshapuh's reign. Sahak and Vramshapuh were distantly related as Sahak's late paternal grandmother was the Arsacid Princess Bambish. Bambish was a sister to king Tigranes VII and a daughter of king Khosrov III. Vramshapuh maintained peaceful relations between the Sasanian Empire, he is known for his successful peace mission to Mesopotamia to mediate between Persia and Byzantium. Vramshapuh succeeded in winning the confidence of the Sasanian shah as well as the Armenians who were pro-Roman. Through maintaining good relations and restoring peace to both empires, Vramshapuh was able to establish a long peace which contributed to the internal improvement of the region into which Christianity was able to penetrate, which kept the spread of pagan faiths to a minimum.
The Sasanian shah Yazdegerd I, ratified Sahak as the Armenian Catholicos in which Vramshapuh promoted Sahak's son-in-law to the high office of general. This title, part of his heritage was for a long time withheld from him. Vramshapuh appointed his prerogatives as were those of the Mardpet, the guardian of his harem and the Apset who placed the crown on Vramshapuh's head at his coronation. In his kingship, Vramshapuh was wise and his reign was illustrious; the reign of Vramshapuh is most noted under his patronage for Mesrop and Sahak for presiding over the creation of the Armenian alphabet in 405 to 406. The creation of the Armenian alphabet brought a last moment of glory to the Arsacids and Vramshapuh sent Sahak to the Sasanian court in Persia to conciliate over the creation of the alphabet. Vramshapuh became interested in the project and he was materially and morally the literacy project's great patron; the Armenian alphabet was a tool to greater unify Armenians living in the Byzantine Empire and the Sasanian Empire, giving a Christian identity to the Armenian people.
The alphabet was the key to the survival of the Armenian culture and identity, providing the cohesive forces in society with a standard around which to rally. In time the Armenian language would become the native language of the Armenians, used throughout the country and the language was invented from Greek and Persian scripts; the important role of the Armenian language at that time was to propagate the Christian religion. At that time the church scriptures in Armenia were read in Greek and Syriac; the majority of the people couldn't understand the scriptures being read in these languages. During the creation of the Armenian alphabet the Armenian nation was born; the creation of the Armenian alphabet during Vramshapuh's reign marks a symbolic time in the country's history which resulted in the flowering of Armenian literature, called the Golden Age of Armenian Literature. After the creation of the Armenian alphabet, Vramshapuh providing counsel and assistance to the project, supported Mesrop and Sahak in carrying out educational missions in teaching the Armenians the new language.
This led Armenians to better understand Christianity and the reading of the scriptures, in particular the preaching of Christianity in pagan sections of the country. After this moment, little is known about the remaining years of Vramshapuh's reign, he died in 417 leaving
The Würzburg Residence is a palace in Würzburg, Germany. Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt and Maximilian von Welsch, representatives of the Austrian/South German Baroque style, were involved in the construction, as well as Robert de Cotte and Germain Boffrand, who were followers of the French Style. Balthasar Neumann, court architect of the Bishop of Würzburg, was the principal architect of the Residence, commissioned by the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg Johann Philipp Franz von Schönborn and his brother Friedrich Carl von Schönborn in 1720, completed in 1744; the Venetian painter Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, assisted by his son, painted frescoes in the building. Interiors considered masterworks of Baroque/Rococo or Neoclassical architecture and art include the grand staircase, the chapel, the Imperial Hall; the building was called the "largest parsonage in Europe" by Napoleon. It was damaged by Allied bombing during World War II, restoration has been in progress since 1945. Since 1981, the Residence has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Prince-Bishops of Würzburg resided in the Marienberg Fortress on a hill west of the Main river until the early 18th century. Johann Philipp Franz von Schönborn moved the court to a palace erected in 1701–4, the predecessor of the Residence. However, the rather small palace did not, in his opinion, measure up to his position as an absolute monarch - he was looking for something comparable to the Palace of Versailles or Schönbrunn Palace. Having won a sum of 600,000 fl. in a court case in the year of his accession, he used the funds to undertake a building project that would proclaim his political standing to all. In this, he was eagerly supported by two relatives, his uncle the Archbishop of Mainz and Elector of Mainz, Lothar Franz von Schönborn and his brother Friedrich Carl von Schönborn, from 1704 to 1734 Imperial Vice-Chancellor in Vienna. Both supplied ideas and, artists from their circles. Friedrich Carl had met Hildebrandt in Vienna during the construction of the Belvedere; the foundation stone was laid on 22 May 1720.
The construction started with the north block. However, Johann Phillip Franz' successor, Prince-Bishop Christoph Franz von Hutten had no great interest in building such an enormous palace, he only wanted the northern block to be finished. This construction was concluded in the year of his death. All other works ceased. In the year 1730, under Prince-Bishop Friedrich Carl von Schönborn, work on the south block began once more. In 1732-3, the front of the Cour d'honneur was completed. From 1735 onwards, the work on the central building took place with the participation of Lucas von Hildebrandt. In 1737, the main staircase by Balthasar Neumann was constructed; the garden front was completed in 1740 and the whole shell in December 1744. Neumann was responsible for the Residence's town front, while Hildebrandt's work dominated on the garden side; the four interior courts of the side wings were an idea of von Welsch. The completion of the vaulted ceilings over the Emperor's Hall and the White Hall took place in 1742.
At the same time, the decorations of the Court Chapel were realized and its consecration performed in 1743. From 1740-5, the southern Kaiserzimmer and the Mirror Cabinet were decorated by ornamental carver Ferdinand Hundt, by Johann Wolfgang van der Auvera, Antonio Giuseppe Bossi and Johann Rudolf Byss. Bossi created the stucco-work in the White Hall during the years 1744-5. Under the rule of Prince-Bishop Anselm Franz von Ingelheim, all building work on the Residence ceased once again. After his death, once Karl Philipp von Greifenclau zu Vollraths became Prince-Bishop, he ordered a resumption of construction. In the same year, Antonio Bossi completed the stucco-work in the Garden Hall, the painting of, finished in the next year. In 1750, Lorenz Jakob Mehling, a merchant at Venice, sent Giovanni Battista Tiepolo to the bishopric residence, after the painter Giuseppe Visconti had failed. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, assisted by his sons, decorated the Imperial Hall and the ceiling above the staircase with frescoes in the early 1750s.
In 1753, Balthasar Neumann died. Under Prince-Bishop Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim and Ludovico Bossi created the stucco-work decoration over the staircase and in the first and second guest rooms of the northern Kaiserzimmer between 1769 and 1772. At the same time, the Green Lacquered Room and the Neoclassical Fürstensaal were finished. From 1776 to 1781, the Ingelheimer Räume were decorated, including stucco-work by Materno Bossi; the total construction cost came to over 1.5 million guilders, at a time when a day labourer could expect a weekly wage of one guilder. The episcopal principality of Würzburg was abolished with secularization in 1802/03. An eight-year interregnum by Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany followed, during which he had several rooms of the south block, the so-called Toskanaräume, decorated in Empire style. Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte slept in the Residence when he stopped in Würzburg three times between 1806 and 1813. On 2 October 1806 he signed the declaration of war against Prussia here.
A Neoclassical double bed and bedside tables were installed in the sleeping room of the northern Imperial Apartments for him and his wife Marie Louise in 1812. In 1814, Würzburg became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria; the wrought-iron gates across the Cour d'honneur, which had separated this inner area from the large Residence Square, were demolished