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Messianic Judaism

Messianic Judaism is a modern syncretic religious movement that combines Christianity—most the belief that Jesus is the Jewish messiah—with elements of Judaism and Jewish tradition. It emerged in the 1970s. Many Messianic Jews believe that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah and "God the Son", that the Tanakh and New Testament are the authoritative scriptures. Salvation in Messianic Judaism is achieved only through acceptance of Jesus as one's savior, Jewish laws or customs which are followed do not contribute to salvation. Belief in the messiahship of Jesus, his power to save, his divinity are considered by Jewish authorities to be the defining distinctions between Christianity and Judaism. Protestant groups accept Messianic Judaism as a form of Protestantism. Many adherents of Messianic Judaism are ethnically Jewish and argue that the movement is a sect of Judaism. Many refer to themselves in Hebrew as maaminim, not converts, yehudim, not notzrim. Jewish organizations and the Supreme Court of Israel have rejected this claim in cases related to the Law of Return, instead consider Messianic Judaism to be a form of Christianity.

From 2003 to 2007, the movement grew from 150 Messianic houses of worship in the United States to as many as 438, with over 100 in Israel and more worldwide. As of 2012, population estimates for the United States were between 175,000 and 250,000 members, between 10,000 and 20,000 members for Israel, an estimated total worldwide membership of 350,000. Efforts by Jewish Christians to proselytize Jews began in the first century, when Paul the Apostle preached at the synagogues in each city that he visited. However, by the fourth century CE, non-biblical accounts of missions to the Jews do not mention converted Jews playing any leading role in proselytization. Notable converts from Judaism who attempted to convert other Jews are more visible in historical sources beginning around the 13th century, when Jewish convert Pablo Christiani attempted to convert other Jews; this activity, however lacked any independent Jewish-Christian congregations, was imposed through force by organized Christian churches.

In the 19th century, some groups attempted to create congregations and societies of Jewish converts to Christianity, though most of these early organizations were short-lived. Early formal organizations run by converted Jews include: the Anglican London Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews of Joseph Frey, which published the first Yiddish New Testament in 1821; the September 1813 meeting of Frey's "Beni Abraham" congregation at the rented "Jews' Chapel" in Spitalfields is sometimes pointed to as the birth of the semi-autonomous Hebrew Christian movement within Anglican and other established churches in Britain. However, the minister of the chapel at Spitalfields evicted Frey and his congregation three years and Frey severed his connections with the Society. A new location was found and the Episcopal Jew's Chapel Abrahamic Society registered in 1835. In Eastern Europe, Joseph Rabinowitz established a Hebrew Christian mission and congregation called "Israelites of the New Covenant" in Kishinev, Bessarabia, in 1884.

Rabinowitz was supported from overseas by the Christian Hebraist Franz Delitzsch, translator of the first modern Hebrew translation of the New Testament. In 1865, Rabinowitz created a sample order of worship for Sabbath morning service based on a mixture of Jewish and Christian elements. Mark John Levy pressed the Church of England to allow members to embrace Jewish customs. In the United States, a congregation of Jewish converts to Christianity was established in New York City in 1885. In the 1890s, immigrant Jewish converts to Christianity worshiped at the Methodist "Hope of Israel" mission on New York's Lower East Side while retaining some Jewish rites and customs. In 1895, the 9th edition of Hope of Israel's Our Hope magazine carried the subtitle "A Monthly Devoted to the Study of Prophecy and to Messianic Judaism", the first use of the term "Messianic Judaism". In 1894, Christian missionary Leopold Cohn, a convert from Judaism, founded the Brownsville Mission to the Jews in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn, New York as a Christian mission to Jews.

After several changes in name and focus, the organization is now called Chosen People Ministries. Missions to the Jews saw a period of growth between the 1960s. In the 1940s and 1950s, missionaries in Israel, including the Southern Baptists, adopted the term meshichyim to counter negative connotations of the word notsrim; the term was used to designate all Jews. The Messianic Jewish movement emerged in the United States in the 1960s. Prior to this time, Jewish converts assimilated into gentile Christianity, as the church required abandoning their Jewishness and assuming Gentile ways to receive baptism. Peter Hocken postulates that the Jesus movement which swept the nation in the 1960s triggered a change from Hebrew Christians to Messianic Jews, was a distinctly charismatic movement; these Jews wanted to "stay Jewish while believing in Jesus". This impulse was amplified by the results of the Six-Day War and the restoration of Jerusalem to Jewish control. In 2004 there were 300 Messianic congregations in the United States with maybe half of their attendance being Gentiles and

Elisabeth Bouchaud

Elisabeth Bouchaud is a French physicist and actress born 1 March 1961. She is a member of Commissariat à l'énergie atomique, works at Ecole Superieure de Chimie et Physique de la Ville de Paris. Since 2015, she is the Director of the Théâtre de la Reine Blanche in Paris, she has worked in quantitative fractography, establishing some universal fractal properties of fracture surfaces, a subject pioneered by Benoit Mandelbrot. In fact, the term "fractal" itself was coined by Mandelbrot in 1975, based on the Latin frāctus meaning "broken" or "fractured". Elisabeth Bouchaud suggested that these fractal properties could be understood in terms of the propagation of the crack front in a disordered environment, affected by the vicinity of a depinning transition, she was awarded the Louis Ancel Prize, the Onsager Medal, the Aniuta Winter-Klein Prize. Elisabeth Bouchaud plays. Two plays of them were presented at the Avignon Festival: A Contre Voix in 1994 and in 2000, Apatride, la Tragédie de Médée in 2013.

A Contre Voix was translated into English by Mary Luckhurst and put on at the Grace Theatre, London, in 1994. Her other plays are Les liaisons dangereuses, Musical Box, De la matière dont les rèves sont faits and Puzzle, a stage adaptation of Puzzle of a Downfall Child by Jerry Schatzberg, put on at the theatre La Reine Blanche in 2017. Google Scholar report

All Dogs Go to Heaven 2

All Dogs Go to Heaven 2 is a 1996 American animated musical fantasy adventure film, a sequel to Goldcrest Films' animated film All Dogs Go to Heaven. Produced by MGM/UA Family Entertainment and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Animation, it was co-directed by Paul Sabella and Larry Leker. Dom DeLuise reprises his role from the first film, alongside new cast members Charlie Sheen, Ernest Borgnine and Bebe Neuwirth, respectively. New characters are voiced by Adam Wylie and George Hearn; the film was released on March 29, 1996. Don Bluth, the director of the original film, had no involvement with it, it was the second of only two theatrical sequels to a film directed by Don Bluth to not involve Bluth himself, the first being An American Tail: Fievel Goes West, as 13 sequels to The Land Before Time and a single sequel to The Secret of NIMH were direct-to-video releases along with two sequels of An American Tail in 1998–2000, as well as An All Dogs Christmas Carol. This was MGM's last theatrically released animated film until Igor.

It had a DVD double feature release with the first one on March 14, 2006 and January 18, 2011. It was released on Blu-ray on March 29, 2011; the film served the inspiration for the All Dogs Go to Heaven: The Series. Decades after the events of the first movie, Charlie B. Barkin states he is disillusioned by the afterlife, their old nemesis, Carface Caruthers, steals Gabriel's Horn, but loses it somewhere over San Francisco in his attempt to escape with it. The dog angels are alerted of the horn's theft by Anabelle, the head angel, who sends Charlie and Itchy to Earth to retrieve it, gives them one miracle to use. Upon arrival in San Francisco, they discover that they are ghosts, therefore unable to interact with the physical world. At a tavern where Charlie flirts with a beautiful and charming Irish Setter named Sasha La Fleur, Carface appears in a corporeal form granted by a red dog collar created by Red, an elderly dog fortune teller who gives Charlie and Itchy equivalent collars effective for a single day.

Shortly thereafter, unbeknownst to the duo, Red reveals his true form as a large demonic cat who intends to take the horn for himself with Carface's help. Charlie and Itchy meet Sasha and an 8-year-old human boy she is looking after named David, who ran away from home to become a street performer doing magic tricks, the former leading him to believe that he is his guardian angel. Before leaving for "Easy Street", Charlie uses his miracle in the form of a lustful kiss to grant Sasha the ability to converse with David. Upon seeing the horn being taken into a police station, they rescue it, with Carface failing to steal it from them. Refusing to return to Heaven, Charlie hides it in a lobster trap. On Easy Street, they entertain an audience with magic tricks, but the act is ruined by a combination of a rainstorm and falling into a fountain. David reveals that he believes that his father and stepmother, who are expecting a new baby, will care less for him once it's born; as Charlie and Sasha share a tender moment, his collar vanishes, he and Itchy become ghosts again.

Carface kidnaps David and demands that Charlie bring Gabriel's horn to Alcatraz Island and give it to Red in exchange for David's life. Determined to fulfill his promise to get David home, Charlie approaches Red, who presses him to give him the horn, he does so, Red uses it to capture Heaven's canine angels and send them to Earth in the prison cells while opening a portal to permanently connect the human world to Hell. While Carface flees for cover, not wanting to get in Red's way - Charlie, Itchy and David stay to challenge Red and steal the horn which Charlie plays to free the angels and send Red back to Hell which seals the portal. Carface attempts to downplay his involvement. However, Red returns and drags Carface into Hell, which reveals to everyone that Carface had unknowingly sold his soul to him in exchange for his collar. With their mission accomplished and Itchy are spirited away to Heaven. Charlie gives the horn back to Anabelle in exchange for a new life and says yet another goodbye to Itchy, who decides to remain in Heaven.

After he reunites with Sasha and David, they head to the latter's house where he returns and reconciles with his father and stepmother. His stepmother is relieved that he is alive and explains she has been worried about him and says just because she is pregnant does not mean she does not love him as well and that they are all a family, they adopt Charlie and Sasha, the two share a kiss, happy with their new life together. Burt Reynolds, Vic Tayback and Melba Moore are replaced by Charlie Sheen, Ernest Borgnine and Bebe Neuwirth. Anne-Marie was written out of the story due to the murder of Judith Barsi in July 25, 1988, while Killer and Flo were written out of the story because Charles Nelson Reilly and Loni Anderson chose not to return to their roles from the first film. Main charactersCharlie Sheen as Charles "Charlie" B. Barkin, a German Shepherd who returns from Heaven to find Gabriel's Horn, it is revealed that as a puppy, he ran away from home, a point he mentions to David to convince him to return home.


1967 in Canadian television

The following is a list of events affecting Canadian television in 1967. Events listed include television show debuts, finales and channel launches and rebrandings. Country Canada CBC News Magazine Chez Hélène Circle 8 Ranch Don Messer's Jubilee The Friendly Giant Hockey Night in Canada The National Front Page Challenge Wayne and Shuster Show CTV National News Elwood Glover's Luncheon Date Flashbook Land and Sea Let's Go Magistrate's Court Music Hop The Nature of Things People in Conflict The Pierre Berton Show Quentin Durgens, M. P. Reach for the Top Rocket Robin Hood Singalong Jubilee Take 30 Telescope The Tommy Hunter Show University of the Air W-FIVE Wojeck 1967 in Canada List of Canadian films


Apito, the Portuguese word for "whistle", refers to any of a variety of whistles. The apito de samba is used during performances of samba. In a samba school, the apito de samba plays a crucial role because during these performances, the mestre de bateria – the "band leader" – uses the whistle to signal transitions to the band; these transitions could include changes in rhythmic pattern. The origins of the apito are undoubtedly a simple instrument, but has developed as a standard today into a whistle capable of giving three notes; the LP Tri-Tone Samba Whistle shown here has its origins in Brazilian music but has become a standard in today's dance music as well. It has three distinct, complementary tones that are achieved by placing fingers over the side chamber holes in various combinations; the rhythms played on apitos de samba are endless and change throughout a batucada performance. Outside Brazil in Europe, the samba whistle is used as a rhythm instrument; this part is not done by the band leader.

The samba whistle is easy to learn, so it is a suitable toy musical instrument for children. In samba music, the samba whistle is a perfect supplement for the maracas; this requires loud maracas so the whistle doesn't drown them out. Samba band leaders can choose to either play a single-tone apito – common referee whistle – or a tri-tone apito. Apitos were traditionally made of wood; the whistle is a chamber that has dowel rod inside. When one blows air through the mouthpiece, the small ball or dowel rod moves around the chamber and hits its sides. Since, the apito de samba has a small ball or dowel rod that hits the sides of the whistle's chamber, this instrument creates a loud and shrill sound, useful in a samba school because the sound can be heard over the playing of the band; however one can manipulate the sound of the whistle by changing the speed at which one is blowing air through the instrument and by changing one's embouchure. Audio example of variations in apito de samba Sound of a wood samba whistle.

Band leaders using single-tone apitos can choose to hold the instrument between their teeth and create signals with both the whistle and their hands to conduct. Band leaders with tri-tone apitos hold the instrument with one hand and can use the other hand to conduct. Tri-tone apitos have three holes – one on the top, one on the left, one on the right. One can manipulate the pitch being played by covering either or both of the holes on the sides of the instrument using a thumb and/or index finger. Covering none of the holes creates the highest pitch, while covering either of the two side holes creates the middle pitch, covering both side holes creates the apito’s lowest pitch Sound of a tri-tone whistle

Phillips Report

The Phillips report was a document summarizing a review conducted in November–December 1965 by a NASA team headed by Lt Gen Samuel C. Phillips, director of the Apollo crewed Moon landing program, to investigate schedule slippage and cost overruns incurred by North American Aviation, manufacturer of the Command/Service Module spacecraft and the second stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle. Phillips sent a summary of his findings with a worded letter to NAA president Lee Atwood demanding corrective action be taken. North American revised its management of its Apollo contract items, NASA management considered the matter a normal part of confidential agency-contractor relations, but after a fire killed the entire crew of the first crewed Apollo mission Apollo 1 on January 27, 1967, a United States Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences hearing overseeing NASA's investigation of the accident, led to the public disclosure of the Phillips Report by junior Senator Walter Mondale, told of its existence by ABC news reporter Jules Bergman, who had seen a copy at NASA's Washington, DC Office of Manned Space Flight headquarters.

From November 22 to December 6, 1965, Phillips headed a tiger team investigating the causes of inadequate quality, schedule delays, cost overruns in both the Apollo CSM and the Saturn V second stage, for which North American was prime contractor. He gave an oral presentation of his team's findings to his boss, NASA Office of Manned Space Flight Administrator George E. Mueller, Mueller's boss, NASA Deputy Director Robert Seamans, presented them in a letter to North American president Lee Atwood, to which Mueller appended his own worded letter to Atwood. After the fire in 1967, NASA followed its established procedure of investigating and identifying corrections for the cause, with Presidential and Congressional oversight. No one in NASA's upper management expected that the Phillips findings would be printed as a document, but this had been done and on February 13, Bergman was shown a copy at the Office of Manned Space Flight headquarters, he told a junior Senator on the Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee, Walter Mondale, about the document, reported its existence on ABC.

Mondale proceeded to grill the top managers, including Webb, blind-sided, about the report's existence. Other Senators, such as Margaret Chase questioned Webb about NASA's choice of North American as the Apollo contractor. Mondale said he had been told of the existence what he called "the Phillips report", Seamans was afraid that Mondale might be in possession of a hard copy of the presentation, so he said tentatively that contractors have been given negative reviews, but that he knew of no such extraordinary report. Mondale raised controversy over the report, despite Phillips' refusal to characterize it as such before Congress, was angered by what he perceived as Webb's deception and concealment of important program problems from Congress, questioned NASA's selection of North American as prime contractor. Webb provided a controlled copy of Phillips' memo to Congress. Seamans wrote that Webb roundly chastised him in the cab ride leaving the hearing, for volunteering information which led to the disclosure of Phillips' memo.

The committee concluded in its final report that "the findings of the task force had no effect on the accident, did not lead to the accident, were not related to the accident," but in its recommendations, stated "the committee believes it should have been informed of the situation." Freshman Senators Edward Brooke and Charles H. Percy jointly wrote an "Additional Views" section appended to the committee report, expressing a bit more that the Phillips review should have been disclosed to Congress. Mondale wrote his own Additional View, voicing his complaints in the most worded terms. In its final report, the committee agreed with NASA that the Phillips review had no bearing on the fire, though the chairman expressed his disappointment that Webb had not kept them informed of Apollo program problems at the time, but Mondale issued a minority opinion accusing NASA of "evasiveness... lack of candor... patronizing attitude exhibited toward Congress... refusal to respond and forthrightly to legitimate congressional inquiries, and... solicitous concern for corporate sensitivities at a time of national tragedy".

The Phillips Report, 1965-1966, text of Phillips' summary, with cover letter by George E. Mueller to Lee Atwood