Valencian referred to as Southern Catalan, is a dialect of the Catalan language spoken in the Valencian Community, where it is an official language, in the El Carche comarca in Murcia, where it has no official recognition. Besides, it is spoken in the south of the Terres de l'Ebre and in the south of La Franja in Aragon, in its transitional variety; the denominations "Valencian" or "Valencian language" are used traditionally and as a glottonym exclusively in the Valencian Community, to refer not only to the dialect spoken in the region, but to refer to the totality of the Catalan language. However, outside this territory the use of this denomination is null, it is considered the Valencian Community's own language according to the region's 1982 Statute of Autonomy and the Spanish Constitution. According to philological studies, the varieties of this language spoken in the Valencian Community and El Carxe cannot be considered a dialect restricted to these borders: the several dialects of Valencian belong to the Western group of Catalan dialects.
Valencian, as a variety of the Catalan language, displays transitional features between Ibero-Romance languages and Gallo-Romance languages. Its similarity with Occitan has led many authors to group it under the Occitano-Romance languages. There is some controversy within the Valencian Community regarding its status as a glottonym or as a language on its own among certain political sectors such as blaverism and Spanish nationalism. According to a study carried out by the Generalitat Valenciana in 2014, scarcely more than a half people in the Valencian Community consider it as a separate language, different from Catalan. However, according to the same study, most of Valencians with higher studies say that it is the same language. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy Valencian is regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, by means of the Normes de Castelló. Due to not having been recognized for a long time and the considerable immigration coming from Andalusia but from other areas of Spain where Spanish is spoken, the number of speakers has decreased, the influence of Spanish has led to the adoption of a huge amount of loanwords.
Some of the most important works of Catalan literature in Valencia experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, Ausiàs March's poetry; the first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor; the official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution and the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, together with the Law of Use and Education of Valencian. Article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that: The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, the official language nationwide. Everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language.
Special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language; the Law of Use and Education of Valencian develops this framework, providing for implementation of a bilingual educational system, regulating the use of Valencian in the public administration and judiciary system, where citizens can use it when acting before both. Valencian is recognized under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages as "Valencian". Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community. A quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Additionally, it is spoken by a reduced number of people in Carche, a rural area in the Region of Murcia adjoining the Valencian Community. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, nowadays only about 600 people are able to speak Valencian in the area of Carche.
In 2010 the Generalitat Valenciana published a study and Social use of Valencian, which included a survey sampling more than 6,600 people in the provinces of Castellón, Alicante. The survey collected the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification; the results were: Valencian was the language "always or most used": at home: 31.6% with friends: 28.0% in internal business relations: 24.7%For ability: 48.5% answered they speak Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" 26.2% answered they write Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" The survey shows that, although Valencian is still the common language in many areas in the Valencian Community, where more than half of the Valencian population are able to speak it, most Valencians do not speak in Valencian in their
1957 Valencia flood
The 1957 Valencia flood was a natural disaster that occurred on 13 and 14 October 1957 in Valencia, Spain. The flood caused the deaths of at least 81 people. In response to the tragedy, the Spanish government devised and enacted the Plan Sur, which rerouted the city's main river, the Turia. Previous floods had been recorded in Valencia in 1321, 1328, 1340, 1358, 1406, 1427, 1475, 1517, 1540, 1581, 1589, 1590, 1610, 1651, 1672, 1731, 1776, 1783, 1845, 1860, 1864, 1870 and 1897. In total, up to 75 floods are estimated to have taken place in the seven centuries prior to the 1957 flood. During a 3-day long cold drop, heavy rain had fallen in the city and upstream the Túria river on Saturday 12 October, easing up overnight; the rain resumed the following morning around 07:00. The towns of Chelva and Ademuz were affected, suffering light flooding; the rain continued until 14 October. In Valencia, there was torrential rainfall around midday of the 14th; the Turia overflowed, discharging up to 300,000,000 cubic metres of water into the city.
While some of the older streets in Valencia's historic centre, such as Calle del Micalet, Plaza de la Reina and Plaza del Michalet escaped damage, the newer bridges and areas to the north of the river, such as Zaidia and Campanar suffered severe damage. In the Marxalanes district, some streets were under 5 metres of water; the Natzaret district near Valencia port was cut off from the rest of the city. The city as a whole was left without water and electricity and around 75% of commercial and industrial activity was affected. Around 5,800 homes were destroyed, leaving 3,500 families homeless; the eventual death toll was at least 81 people. The local governments of Madrid and surrounding areas offered help, although external rescue efforts were hindered by the flooding of the main roads to the city; the Spanish army was deployed alongside the emergency services to help in the cleanup operation. The flood occurred; the minister responsible, Luis Carrero Blanco, interrupted those meetings to put Vicente Mortes Alfonso in charge of finding temporary housing for those left homeless by the disaster.
On 24 October 1957, Spanish dictator Francisco Franco visited Valencia and promised government funding for reconstruction of the city and adequate supplies to those affected. In reaction to the disaster, the Cortes Españolas unanimously approved the Plan Sur on 21 December 1961; this rerouted the Turia to the south of three kilometres from its original course. The new course is 175 metres wide. Despite objections from Quart de Poblet and Mislata, municipalities to the west of Valencia affected by the plan, work began in 1964 and finished in 1973. Photos of Francisco Franco's visit to Valencia in the aftermath of the flood, Levante-EMV.com, accessed 9 November 2013
Metrovalencia is a modern amalgamation of former FEVE narrow gauge diesel and electric operated suburban/regional railways. It is a large suburban network that crosses the city of Valencia, with all trains continuing out to the suburbs, it has destinations on lines that make it more resemble commuter trains. The unique system combines light railway and several tram operations north of the Túria riverbed park with line 4. Trains of lines 1, 3, 5 and 9 have automatic train operation in 25.3 kilometers of underground system. Tram lines 4, 6 and 8 are operated by modern trams; this network consists of more than 156.4 kilometres of route, of which 27.3 kilometres is underground. The system authority Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana uses bilingual signage in Valencian and Spanish. † Notes: In 1998, Line 2 was combined with Line 1. Lines 7 to 9 were created in 2015 by splitting existing branch lines, with the only new stations for these lines consisting of the extension from Manises to Riba-roja de Túria.
The network includes five unmanned stations: Rocafort, Fuente del Jarro, Benaguasil 1 and Font de l´Almaguer. Gauge width: 1,000 mm metre gauge Current system: 750 V DC / 1500 V DC, overhead wire In 2012, an estimated 63,103,814 passengers used the service, a decline of 2.8% from the 65,074,726 who had used it in 2011. The 2011 figures had shown a 5% decline compared to 2010. On average 172,887 passengers a day used the service in 2012 with the busiest day being 18 March, the final day of the Fallas festival, when 482,960 passengers used the service; the three most used stations on the network were all in the centre of Valencia: Xàtiva, beside Valencia's main train station, with 4,769,628 passengers in 2012, Colón, in one of Valencia's main shopping streets, with 4,189,736 passengers and Àngel Guimerà, an interchange station for lines 1,4 and 5 situated beside Valencia old town, with 2,461,012 users. The fourth and fifth busiest stations were Túria, next to Valencia's main bus station, with 2,035,521 and Facultats, serving the University of Valencia, with 1,951,080 users.
The remaining stations in the top eight were Plaça de Espanya and Mislata. The first two of these were located in areas near Valencia centre, while Mislata was the main station for the satellite town of the same name. In 2014, the system carried 60,111,000 passengers. In 2015, 60,686,589 passengers used the network, reversing a decline which had occurred in previous years; the 10 busiest stations were Xàtiva, Colón million, Àngel Guimerà, Túria Facultats, Plaça d'Espanya, Torrent Avinguda, Amistat-Casa de Salud and Benimaclet 7 other stations had more than 1 million users. On 8 October 1988 the tunnel through which line 1 crosses Valencia was opened between Sant Isidre and Ademuz, which connected the line with southbound trains from València-Jesús to Castelló de la Ribera at Sant Isidre. Line 2 went from València-Sud with some trains terminating in Paterna. In May 1994 the tranvia line 4 opened. Valencia was the first city in Spain to use this mode of transport in the modern era. Line 4 was 9.7 kilometres long and had 21 stations.
The line connected the suburban lines with high demand zones such as the Polytechnic University, the new university campus and the Malvarosa beach, which the former line Empalme - Pont de Fusta - El Grau had connected before. One year in May 1995, line 3 was extended from El Palmaret in Alboraria to Alameda; the extension reused the older railway line Pont de Fusta-Rafelbunyol, of which part was scrapped, the rest was switched from 750 V to 1500 V. Further alterations followed five years later. On 16 September 1998, line 2 was merged with line 1, Line 3 was extended from Alameda to Avinguda del Cid in the west and Torrent in the south with some trains only going as far as Jesús. Half a year on 20 May 1999, line 3 was extended from Avinguda del Cid to Mislata-Almassil. In April 2003, the new line 5 was opened; this line took over the previous line 3 connection from Alameda to Torrent, together with a newly constructed branch from Alameda to Ayora 2.3 kilometres. One year the new line 5 was extended, together with line 1, from Torrent to Torrent Avinguda, a distance of 2.3 kilometres.
On 3 October 2005, Bailén station was opened on line 5. This station is between Colón and Jesús, has connections with València-Nord, the main railway station of València. Furthermore, Bailen is close to the Plaça d'Espanya station on line 1. In October 2005, line 4 was extended to Mas del Rosari, on 20 December 2005 to Lloma Llarga-Terramelar. On 2 April 2007, Line 5 was extended to the East to a new station Marítim-Serrería. On 18 April 2007, Line 5 extended to the airport in the west and to the Port in the east, this last section from Marítim-Serreria to Marina Real Juan Carlos 1 is a tram section. Line 3 was extended to the Airport as well to cover the schedule limitations of line 5 to Aeropo
History of Valencia CF
The club was established on 5 March 1919 and approved on 18 March 1919, with Octavio Augusto Milego Díaz as its first president. The club played its first competitive match away from home on 21 May 1919 against Valencia Gimnástico, lost the match 1-0. Valencia CF moved into the Mestalla stadium in 1923, having played its home matches at the Algirós ground since 7 December 1919; the first match at Mestalla ended a 0-0 draw. In another match the day after, Valencia won against the same opposition 1-0. Valencia CF won the Regional Championship in 1923, was eligible to play in the domestic Copa del Rey cup competition for the first time in its history; the Spanish Civil War halted the progress of the Valencia team until 1941, when it won the Copa del Rey, beating RCD Espanyol in the final. In the 1941–42 season, the club won its first Spanish La Liga championship title, although winning the Copa del Rey was more reputable than the championship at that time; the club maintained its consistency to capture the league title again in the 1943–44 season, as well as the 1946–47 league edition.
In the 1950s, the club failed to emulate the success of the 1940s though it grew as a club. A restructuring of Mestalla resulted in an increase in spectator capacity to 45,000, while the club had a number of Spanish and foreign stars. Players such as Spanish international Antonio Puchades and Dutch forward Faas Wilkes graced the pitch at Mestalla. In the 1952–53 season, the club finished as runners-up in the La Liga, in the following season, the club won the Copa del Rey known as the Copa del Generalísimo. While managing indifferent league form in the early 1960s, the club had its first European success in the form of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. In the 1961–62 season, Valencia beat FC Barcelona in the final; the 1962–63 edition of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup final pitted Valencia against Croatian club Dinamo Zagreb, which the Valencians won. Valencia was again present in the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup final in the 1963–64 season, but was defeated 2–1 by Real Zaragoza from Spain. Former two-time European Footballer of the Year award winner Alfredo Di Stéfano was hired as coach in 1970, inspired his new club to their fourth La Liga championship and first since 1947.
This secured Valencia its first qualification for the prestigious European Cup, contested by the various European domestic champions. Valencia reached the third round of the 1971–72 competition before losing both legs to Hungarian champions Újpesti Dózsa. In 1972 The club finished runners up both in La Liga and the domestic cup, losing to Real Madrid and Atletico Madrid, respectively; the most notable players of the 1970s era include Austrian midfielder Kurt Jara, forward Johnny Rep of the Netherlands and Argentinian forward Mario Kempes, who became the La Liga topscorer for two consecutive seasons in 1976–77 and 1977–78. Valencia would go on to win the Copa del Rey again in the 1978–79 season, capture the European Cup Winners' Cup the next season, after beating English club Arsenal in the final, with Kempes spearheading Valencia's success in Europe. In 1982, the club appointed Miljan Miljanić as coach. After a disappointing season, Valencia was in 17th place and faced relegation with seven games left to play.
Koldo Aguirre replaced Miljanić as coach, Valencia avoided relegation that year, relying on favorable results from other teams to ensure their own survival. In the 1983–84 and 1984–85 seasons, the club was in debt under the presidency of Vicente Tormo; the club hit rock bottom when it was relegated at the end of the 1985–86 season, riven with internal problems such as unpaid player and staff wages, as well as poor morale. The club was relegated for the first time after 55 years in Spanish top-flight football. Arturo Tuzón was named the new club president, he helped steer Valencia back to La Liga. Alfredo Di Stéfano returned as coach in 1986 and Valencia won promotion again following the 1986–87 season. Di Stéfano stayed on as coach until the 1987–88 season, when the team finished in 14th position in La Liga. Bulgarian forward Luboslav Penev joined the club in 1989, as Valencia aimed to consolidate their place in La Liga. Guus Hiddink was appointed as head coach in the 1991–92 season, the club finished fourth in the League and reached the quarter-finals of the Copa del Rey.
In 1992, Valencia CF became a Sporting Limited Company, retained Hiddink as their coach until 1993. Brazilian coach Carlos Alberto Parreira, fresh from winning the 1994 FIFA World Cup with the Brazilian national team, became manager at Mestalla in 1994. Parreira signed the Spanish goalkeeper Andoni Zubizarreta and the Russian forward Oleg Salenko, as well as Predrag Mijatović, but failed to produce results expected of him, he was replaced by new coach José Manuel Rielo. The club's earlier successes continued to elude it, although it was not short of top coaching staff like Luis Aragonés and Jorge Valdano, as well as foreign star forwards like Brazilian Romário, Claudio López, Ariel Ortega from Argentina and Adrian Ilie from Romania. Valencia started the 1999–00 season by winning another title, the Spanish Super Cup, beating FC Barcelona. Valencia finished third in the league, four points behind the champions Deportivo de La Coruña and level on points with second placed Barça, but the biggest success was in the UEFA Champions League.
However, in the final played in Paris on 24 May 2000, Real Madrid beat Valencia 3–0. It was Claudio López's farewell, as he had agreed to sign for the Italian side Lazio leaving was Farinós for
The Falles is a traditional celebration held in commemoration of Saint Joseph in the city of Valencia, Spain. The term Falles refers to the monuments burnt during the celebration. A number of towns in the Valencian Community have similar celebrations inspired by the original Falles de València celebration; the Falles festival was added to UNESCO's intangible cultural heritage of humanity list on 30 November 2016. Each neighbourhood of the city has an organised group of people, the Casal faller, that works all year long holding fundraising parties and dinners featuring the noted dish, paella, a specialty of the region; each casal faller produces a construction known as a falla, burnt. A casal faller is known as a comissió fallera and there are 400 registered in Valencia; the name of the festival is the plural of the Valencian word falla. The word's derivation is as follows: Latin fax, "torch" → Latin facula → Vulgar Latin *faclam → Valencian falla. Much time would be spent by the casal faller preparing the ninots.
During the four days leading up to 19 March, each group takes its ninot out for a grand parade, mounts it, each on its own elaborate firecracker-filled cardboard and paper-mâché artistic monument in a street of the given neighbourhood. This whole assembly is a falla; the ninots and their falles are constructed according to an agreed-upon theme that has traditionally been a satirical jab at whatever draws the attention of the fallers. In modern times, the two-week-long festival has spawned a substantial local industry, to the point that an entire suburban area has been designated the Ciutat fallera. Here, crews of artists and artisans, sculptors and other craftsmen, all spend months producing elaborate constructions of paper and wax and polystyrene foam tableaux towering up to five stories, composed of fanciful figures caricatures, in provocative poses arranged in a gravity-defying manner; each of them is produced under the direction of one of the many individual neighbourhood casals fallers who vie with each other to attract the best artists, to create the most outrageous allegorical monument to their target.
There are about 750 of these neighbourhood associations in Valencia, with over 200,000 members, or a quarter of the city's population. During Falles, many people wear their casal faller dress of regional and historical costumes from different eras of València's history; the dolçaina and tabalet are heard, as most of the different casals fallers have their own traditional bands. Although the Falles is a traditional event and many participants dress in medieval clothing, the ninots for 2005 included such modern characters as Shrek and George W. Bush, the 2012 Falles included characters like Barack Obama and Lady Gaga; the five days and nights of Falles might be described as a continuous street party. There are a multitude of processions: historical and comedic. Crowds in the restaurants spill out into the streets. Explosions can be heard sporadically through the night. Everyone from small children to elderly people can be seen throwing fireworks and noisemakers in the streets, which are littered with pyrotechnical debris.
The timing of the events is fixed, they fall on the same date every year, though there has been discussion about holding some events on the weekend preceding the Falles, to take greater advantage of the tourist potential of the festival or changing the end date in years where it is due to occur in midweek. Each day of Falles begins at 8:00 am with La Despertà. Brass bands begin to march down every street playing lively music. Close behind them are the fallers; the Mascletà, an explosive barrage of coordinated firecracker and fireworks displays, takes place at 2:00 pm every day of the festival. At 2:00 pm the clock chimes and the Fallera Major, dressed in her fallera finery, will call from the balcony of City Hall, Senyor/a pirotècnic/a, pot començar la mascletà!, the Mascletà begins. The Mascletà is unique to the Valencian Community, popular with the Valencian people. Smaller neighbourhoods hold their own mascletà for saint's days and other celebrations. A nighttime variant runs in the evening hours by the same pyrotechnicans that were present in the afternoon.
On the day of the 15th, all of the falles infantils are to be finished being constructed, that night all of the falles majors are to be completed. If not, they face disqualification. In this event, the flower offering, each of the casals fallers takes an offering of flowers to the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of the Forsaken; this occurs all day during 17–18 March. A statue of the Virgin Mary and its large pedestal are covered with all the flowers. On the nights of the 15, 16, 17, 18th there are firework displays in the old riverbed in València; each night is progressively grander and the last is called La Nit del Foc. On the final evening of Falles, at 7:00 pm on March 19, a parade known in Valencian as the Cavalcada del Foc takes place along Colon street and Porta de la Mar square; this spectacular celebration of fi
1982 FIFA World Cup
The 1982 FIFA World Cup was the 12th FIFA World Cup, played in Spain between 13 June and 11 July 1982. The tournament was won by Italy, who defeated West Germany 3–1 in the final match, held in the Spanish capital of Madrid, it was Italy's third World Cup win, but their first since 1938. The defending champions, were eliminated in the second group round. Algeria, Honduras and New Zealand made their first appearances in the finals; the tournament featured the first penalty shoot-out in World Cup competition. This was the last World Cup to feature two round of group stages, it was the third time that all four semifinalists were European. In the first round of Group 3, Hungary defeated El Salvador 10–1, equalling the largest margin of victory recorded in the finals. Spain was chosen as the host nation by FIFA in London, England on 6 July 1966. Hosting rights for the 1974 and 1978 tournaments were awarded at the same time. West Germany agreed a deal with Spain by which Spain would support West Germany for the 1974 tournament, in return West Germany would allow Spain to bid for the 1982 World Cup unopposed.
For the first time, the World Cup finals expanded from 16 to 24 teams. This allowed more teams to participate from Africa and Asia. Teams absent from the finals were 1974 and 1978 runners-up Netherlands and the three times 1970s participants Sweden. Northern Ireland qualified for the first time since 1958. Belgium, Czechoslovakia, El Salvador and the Soviet Union were back in the Finals after a 12-year absence. England had its first successful World Cup qualifying campaign in 20 years – the English team had qualified automatically as hosts in 1966 and as defending champions in 1970 had missed the 1974 and 1978 tournaments. Yugoslavia and Chile were back after having missed the 1978 tournament. Algeria, Honduras and New Zealand all participated in the World Cup for the first time; as of 2018, this was the last time that El Salvador and Kuwait qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals, as well as the last time that Mexico and South Korea failed to qualify. There was some consideration given as to whether England, Northern Ireland, Scotland should withdraw from the tournament because of the Falklands War between Argentina and the United Kingdom.
A directive issued by the British sports minister Neil Macfarlane in April, at the start of the conflict, suggested that there should be no contact between British representative teams and Argentina. This directive was not rescinded following the end of hostilities. Macfarlane reported to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher that some players and officials were uneasy about participating because of the casualties suffered by British forces. FIFA advised the British Government that there was no prospect that Argentina would be asked to withdraw, it became apparent that no other countries would withdraw from the tournament. It was decided to allow the British national teams to participate so that Argentina could not use their absence for propaganda purposes, reversing the intended effect of applying political pressure onto Argentina; the following 24 teams qualified for the final tournament. The first round was a round-robin group stage containing six groups of four teams each. Two points were awarded for a win and one for a draw, with goal difference used to separate teams equal on points.
The top two teams in each group advanced. In the second round, the twelve remaining teams were split into four groups of three teams each, with the winner of each group progressing to the knockout semi-final stage; the composition of the groups in the second round was predetermined before the start of the tournament. In the aggregate, Groups A and B were to include one team from each of Groups 1 through 6, Groups C and D included the remaining six teams; the winners of Groups 1 and 3 were in Group A whilst the runners-up were in Group C. The winners of Groups 2 and 4 were in Group B whilst the runners-up were in Group D; the winner of Group 5 was in Group D whilst the runner-up was in Group B. The winner of Group 6 was in Group C whilst the runner-up was in Group A. Thus, Group A mirrored Group C, Group B mirrored Group D with the winners and runners-up from the first round being placed into opposite groups in the second round; the second-round groups that mirrored each other faced off against each other in the semifinals.
Thus, the Group A winner played the Group C winner, the Group B winner player the Group D winner. This meant that if two teams which played in the same first-round group both emerged from the second round, they would meet for the second time of the tournament in a semifinal match, it guaranteed that the final match would feature two teams that had not played each other in the tournament. As it turned out and Poland who were both in Group 1 in the first round, each won their second-round groups and played each other in a semifinal match. In Group 1, newcomers Cameroon held both Poland and Italy to draws, were denied a place in the next round on the basis of having scored fewer goals than Italy. Poland and Italy qualified over Peru. Italian journalists and tifosi criticised their team for their uninspired performances that managed three draws. Group 2 saw one of the great World Cup upsets on the first day with the 2–1 victory of Algeria over reig
The avant-garde are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society. It may be characterized by nontraditional, aesthetic innovation and initial unacceptability, it may offer a critique of the relationship between producer and consumer; the avant-garde pushes the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo in the cultural realm. The avant-garde is considered by some to be a hallmark of modernism, as distinct from postmodernism. Many artists have aligned themselves with the avant-garde movement and still continue to do so, tracing a history from Dada through the Situationists to postmodern artists such as the Language poets around 1981; the avant-garde promotes radical social reforms. It was this meaning, evoked by the Saint Simonian Olinde Rodrigues in his essay "L'artiste, le savant et l'industriel", which contains the first recorded use of "avant-garde" in its now customary sense: there, Rodrigues calls on artists to "serve as avant-garde", insisting that "the power of the arts is indeed the most immediate and fastest way" to social and economic reform.
Several writers have attempted to map the parameters of avant-garde activity. The Italian essayist Renato Poggioli provides one of the earliest analyses of vanguardism as a cultural phenomenon in his 1962 book Teoria dell'arte d'avanguardia. Surveying the historical, social and philosophical aspects of vanguardism, Poggioli reaches beyond individual instances of art and music to show that vanguardists may share certain ideals or values which manifest themselves in the non-conformist lifestyles they adopt: He sees vanguard culture as a variety or subcategory of Bohemianism. Other authors have attempted both to extend Poggioli's study; the German literary critic Peter Bürger's Theory of the Avant-Garde looks at the Establishment's embrace of critical works of art and suggests that in complicity with capitalism, "art as an institution neutralizes the political content of the individual work". Bürger's essay greatly influenced the work of contemporary American art-historians such as the German Benjamin H. D. Buchloh.
Buchloh, in the collection of essays Neo-avantgarde and Culture Industry critically argues for a dialectical approach to these positions. Subsequent criticism theorized the limitations of these approaches, noting their circumscribed areas of analysis, including Eurocentric and genre-specific definitions; the concept of avant-garde refers to artists, writers and thinkers whose work is opposed to mainstream cultural values and has a trenchant social or political edge. Many writers and theorists made assertions about vanguard culture during the formative years of modernism, although the initial definitive statement on the avant-garde was the essay Avant-Garde and Kitsch by New York art critic Clement Greenberg, published in Partisan Review in 1939. Greenberg argued that vanguard culture has been opposed to "high" or "mainstream" culture, that it has rejected the artificially synthesized mass culture, produced by industrialization; each of these media is a direct product of Capitalism—they are all now substantial industries—and as such they are driven by the same profit-fixated motives of other sectors of manufacturing, not the ideals of true art.
For Greenberg, these forms were therefore kitsch: phony, faked or mechanical culture, which pretended to be more than they were by using formal devices stolen from vanguard culture. For instance, during the 1930s the advertising industry was quick to take visual mannerisms from surrealism, but this does not mean that 1930s advertising photographs are surreal. Various members of the Frankfurt School argued similar views: thus Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer in their essay The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass-Deception, Walter Benjamin in his influential "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction". Where Greenberg used the German word kitsch to describe the antithesis of avant-garde culture, members of the Frankfurt School coined the term "mass culture" to indicate that this bogus culture is being manufactured by a newly emerged culture industry, they pointed out that the rise of this industry meant that artistic excellence was displaced by sales figures as a measure of worth: a novel, for example, was judged meritorious on whether it became a best-seller, music succumbed to ratings charts and to the blunt commercial logic of the Gold disc.
In this way the autonomous artistic merit so dear to the vanguardist was abandoned and sales became the measure, justification, of everything. Consumer culture now ruled; the avant-garde's co-option by the global capitalist market, by neoliberal economies, by what Guy Debord called The Society of the Spectacle, have made contemporary critics speculate on the possibility of a meaningful avant-garde today. Paul Mann's Theory-Death of the Avant-Garde demonstrates how the avant-garde is embedded within institutional structures today, a thought pursued by Richard Schechner in his analyses of avant-garde performance. Despite the central arguments of Greenberg and others, various sectors of the mainstream culture industry have co-opted and misapplied the term "avant-garde" since the 1960s, chiefly as a marketing tool to publicise popular music and commercial