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Metal detector

A metal detector is an electronic instrument that detects the presence of metal nearby. Metal detectors are useful for finding metal inclusions hidden within objects, or metal objects buried underground, they consist of a handheld unit with a sensor probe which can be swept over the ground or other objects. If the sensor comes near a piece of metal this is indicated by a changing tone in earphones, or a needle moving on an indicator; the device gives some indication of distance. Another common type are stationary "walk through" metal detectors used for security screening at access points in prisons and airports to detect concealed metal weapons on a person's body; the simplest form of a metal detector consists of an oscillator producing an alternating current that passes through a coil producing an alternating magnetic field. If a piece of electrically conductive metal is close to the coil, eddy currents will be induced in the metal, this produces a magnetic field of its own. If another coil is used to measure the magnetic field, the change in the magnetic field due to the metallic object can be detected.

The first industrial metal detectors were developed in the 1960s and were used extensively for mineral prospecting and other industrial applications. Uses include detecting land mines, the detection of weapons such as knives and guns, geophysical prospecting and treasure hunting. Metal detectors are used to detect foreign bodies in food, in the construction industry to detect steel reinforcing bars in concrete and pipes and wires buried in walls and floors. Towards the end of the 19th century, many scientists and engineers used their growing knowledge of electrical theory in an attempt to devise a machine which would pinpoint metal; the use of such a device to find ore-bearing rocks would give a huge advantage to any miner who employed it. Early machines were crude, used a lot of battery power, worked only to a limited degree. In 1874, Parisian inventor Gustave Trouvé developed a hand-held device for locating and extracting metal objects such as bullets from human patients. Inspired by Trouvé, Alexander Graham Bell developed a similar device to attempt to locate a bullet lodged in the chest of American President James Garfield in 1881.

The modern development of the metal detector began in the 1920s. Gerhard Fischer had developed a system of radio direction-finding, to be used for accurate navigation; the system worked well, but Fischer noticed there were anomalies in areas where the terrain contained ore-bearing rocks. He reasoned that if a radio beam could be distorted by metal it should be possible to design a machine which would detect metal using a search coil resonating at a radio frequency. In 1925 he applied for, was granted, the first patent for a metal detector. Although Gerhard Fischer was the first person granted a patent for a metal detector, the first to apply was Shirl Herr, a businessman from Crawfordsville, Indiana, his application for a hand-held Hidden-Metal Detector was filed in February 1924, but not patented until July 1928. Herr assisted Italian leader Benito Mussolini in recovering items remaining from the Emperor Caligula's galleys at the bottom of Lake Nemi, Italy in August 1929. Herr's invention was used by Admiral Richard Byrd's Second Antarctic Expedition in 1933, when it was used to locate objects left behind by earlier explorers.

It was effective up to a depth of eight feet. However, it was one Lieutenant Józef Stanisław Kosacki, a Polish officer attached to a unit stationed in St Andrews, Scotland, during the early years of World War II, who refined the design into a practical Polish mine detector; these units were still quite heavy, as they ran on vacuum tubes, needed separate battery packs. The design invented by Kosacki was used extensively during the Second Battle of El Alamein when 500 units were shipped to Field Marshal Montgomery to clear the minefields of the retreating Germans, used during the Allied invasion of Sicily, the Allied invasion of Italy and the Invasion of Normandy; as the creation and refinement of the device was a wartime military research operation, the knowledge that Kosacki created the first practical metal detector was kept secret for over 50 years. Many manufacturers of these new devices brought their own ideas to the market. White's Electronics of Oregon began in the 1950s by building a machine called the Oremaster Geiger Counter.

Another leader in detector technology was Charles Garrett. With the invention and development of the transistor in the 1950s and 1960s, metal detector manufacturers and designers made smaller, lighter machines with improved circuitry, running on small battery packs. Companies sprang up all over the United States and Britain to supply the growing demand. Modern top models are computerized, using integrated circuit technology to allow the user to set sensitivity, track speed, threshold volume, notch filters, etc. and hold these parameters in memory for future use. Compared to just a decade ago, detectors are lighter, deeper-seeking, use less battery power, discriminate better. State of the art metal detectors have further incorporated extensive wireless technologies for the earphones, connect to Wi-Fi networks and Bluetooth devices; some utilize built in GPS locator technology to keep track of searching location and the location of items found. Some connect to smartphone applications to further extend functi

Dragan Radović

Dragan Radović is a Montenegrin retired professional footballer who played as a striker. Radović began his career in the Second League of FR Yugoslavia in 1998 where he had stints with Iskra Danilovgrad, Rudar Pljevlja. In 2001, he signed with FK Obilić in the First League of FR Yugoslavia. After a season in the top flight he returned to the second league to play with Trudbenik, FK Mogren, Zora Spuž. In 2005, he signed with FK Mornar. Following Montenegro regaining independence in 2006, he signed with the Serbian White Eagles of the Canadian Soccer League thus becoming Montenegro's first international football transfer, he made his debut for the Serbian White Eagles on August 11, 2006 against Toronto Supra Portuguese, where he recorded a goal in a 2-1 victory. In his debut season he clinched the International Division title and featured in the CSL Championship final against Italia Shooters. In the 2008 season he finished as the club's top goalscorer with 12 goals, he featured in the championship final against Trois-Rivières Attak, where he won the title after a 2-1 victory in a penalty shootout.

After one season in his first club Iskra Danilovgrad he retired from competitive football in 2011. He is referred to by his nickname Ruso after the famous philosopher. CSL Championship: 2008 Canadian Soccer League International Division: 2006, 2007, 2009

The Income-tax Act, 1961

The Income-tax Act, 1961 is the changing Statute of Income Tax in India. It provides for levy, administration and recovery of Income Tax; the Government of India brought a draft statute called the "Direct Taxes Code" intended to replace the Income Tax Act,1961 and the Wealth Tax Act, 1957. However the bill was scrapped; the Government of India presents finance budget every year in the month of February. The finance budget brings various amendments in income tax act,1961 including tax slabs rates; the amendments are applicable to the next following financial year beginning from 1 April unless otherwise specified. Such amendments become part of the income tax act after the approval of the president of India. "The Taxation Laws Act, 2016" is an amendment Act, No.48 of 2016, to Income-tax Act, 1961 and The Finance Act, 2016. It was passed during the 2016 Winter Session of Indian Parliament; the Taxation Laws Bill, 2016 was passed in Lok Sabha as a money bill on 29 November 2016 enabling people to declare their undisclosed incomes after Indian 500 and 1000 rupee note demonetisation.

The Taxation Laws Bill, 2016, was introduced in the Lok Sabha during the 2016 Winter Session of Indian Parliament. The bill was introduced on 28 November 2016, by Finance Minister of Arun Jaitley; the bill was passed by Speaker Sumitra Mahajan, with a voice vote without debate in Lok Sabha. The Government, clarified that gold asset in form of jewellery of people of India, were not for taxation as per the introduced Bill; the Opposition, expressed anger against the passed bill in Lok Sabha, that a debate was not held. Union Government sets up Arbind Modi-led panel to simplify income tax laws. On 22 November 2017, the government formed a task force to draft a new direct tax law to replace the existing Income Tax Act, in force since 1961. Arbind Modi, Central Board of Direct Taxes, will lead a six-member panel. Chief Economic Advisor Arvind Subramanian will be apermanent special invitee on the panel