A metalloid is a type of chemical element which has properties in between, or that are a mixture of, those of metals and nonmetals. There is neither a standard definition of a metalloid nor complete agreement on the elements appropriately classified as such. Despite the lack of specificity, the term remains in use in the literature of chemistry; the six recognised metalloids are boron, germanium, arsenic and tellurium. Five elements are less so classified: carbon, selenium and astatine. On a standard periodic table, all eleven elements are located in a diagonal region of the p-block extending from boron at the upper left to astatine at lower right; some periodic tables include a dividing line between metals and nonmetals and the metalloids may be found close to this line. Typical metalloids have a metallic appearance, but they are brittle and only fair conductors of electricity. Chemically, they behave as nonmetals, they can form alloys with metals. Most of their other physical properties and chemical properties are intermediate in nature.
Metalloids are too brittle to have any structural uses. They and their compounds are used in alloys, biological agents, flame retardants, optical storage and optoelectronics, pyrotechnics and electronics; the electrical properties of silicon and germanium enabled the establishment of the semiconductor industry in the 1950s and the development of solid-state electronics from the early 1960s. The term metalloid referred to nonmetals, its more recent meaning, as a category of elements with intermediate or hybrid properties, became widespread in 1940–1960. Metalloids are sometimes called semimetals, a practice, discouraged, as the term semimetal has a different meaning in physics than in chemistry. In physics, it refers to the electronic band structure of a substance. A metalloid is an element that possesses properties of both metals and non metals, and, therefore hard to classify as either a metal or a nonmetal; this is a generic definition that draws on metalloid attributes cited in the literature.
Difficulty of categorisation is a key attribute. Most elements have a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties, can be classified according to which set of properties is more pronounced. Only the elements at or near the margins, lacking a sufficiently clear preponderance of either metallic or nonmetallic properties, are classified as metalloids. Boron, germanium, arsenic and tellurium are recognised as metalloids. Depending on the author, one or more from selenium, polonium, or astatine are sometimes added to the list. Boron sometimes is excluded, with silicon. Sometimes tellurium is not regarded as a metalloid; the inclusion of antimony and astatine as metalloids has been questioned. Other elements are classified as metalloids; these elements include hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, gallium, iodine, lead and radon. The term metalloid has been used for elements that exhibit metallic lustre and electrical conductivity, that are amphoteric, such as arsenic, vanadium, molybdenum, tin and aluminium.
The p-block metals, nonmetals that can form alloys with metals or modify their properties have occasionally been considered as metalloids. No accepted definition of a metalloid exists, nor any division of the periodic table into metals and nonmetals. Classifying an element as a metalloid has been described by Sharp as "arbitrary"; the number and identities of metalloids depend on. Emsley recognised four metalloids. On average, seven elements are included in such lists. A single quantitative criterion such as electronegativity is used, metalloids having electronegativity values from 1.8 or 1.9 to 2.2. Further examples include packing the Goldhammer-Herzfeld criterion ratio; the recognised metalloids have packing efficiencies of between 34% and 41%. The Goldhammer-Herzfeld ratio equal to the cube of the atomic radius divided by the molar volume, is a simple measure of how metallic an element is, the recognised metalloids having ratios from around 0.85 to 1.1 and averaging 1.0. Other authors have relied on, for example, bulk coordination number.
Jones, writing on the role of classification in science, observed that " are defined by more than two attributes". Masterton and Slowinski used three criteria to describe the six elements recognised as metalloids: metalloids have ionization energies around 200 kcal/mol and electronegativity values close to 2.0. They said that metalloids are semiconductors, though antimony and arsenic have electrical conductivities approaching those of metals. Selenium and polonium are suspected as not in this scheme. In this context, Vernon proposed that a metalloid is a chemical element that, in its standard state, has the electronic band structure band structure of a semiconductor or a semimetal.
Labatt Brewing Company Limited is a Belgian-owned brewery in Canada, founded by John Kinder Labatt in 1847 in London, Ontario. Labatt is the largest brewer in Canada. In 1995, it was purchased by Belgian brewer Interbrew. In 2004, Interbrew merged with Brazilian brewer AmBev to form InBev. In 2008, InBev merged with American brewer Anheuser-Busch to form Anheuser-Busch InBev, making Labatt part of Anheuser-Busch InBev. On October 10, 2016, an over $100 billion merger between Anheuser-Busch InBev and SABMiller closed. Labatt is now part of the new company, Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV, trading as BUD on the New York Stock Exchange. In the United States, Labatt brand beers are sold under license by Labatt USA, which since 2009 has been independent of the Canadian firm and a subsidiary of the held FIFCO USA of Rochester, New York. In 1901, Prohibition in Canada began through a provincial legislation in Prince Edward Island. In 1916, prohibition was instituted in Ontario as well. Although some provinces banned alcohol manufacture, some permitted production for export to the United States.
Labatt survived by producing full strength beer for export south of the border and by introducing two "temperance ales" with less than two per cent alcohol for sale in Ontario. However, the Canadian beer industry suffered a second blow when Prohibition in the United States began in 1919; when Prohibition was repealed in Ontario in 1926, just 15 breweries remained, only Labatt retained its original management. This resulted in a strengthened industry position. In 1945, Labatt became a publicly traded company with the issuance of 900,000 shares. John and Hugh Labatt, grandsons of founder John K. Labatt, launched Labatt 50 in 1950 to commemorate 50 years of partnership; the first light ale introduced in Canada, Labatt 50 was Canada's best-selling beer until 1979. In 1951, Labatt launched its Pilsener Lager; the brew-master at the time was Robert Frank Lewarne. The nickname "Blue" stuck and in 1979, Labatt Blue claimed the top spot in the Canadian beer market, it lost this status in the late eighties to Molson Canadian, but over the next decade, it periodically regained the top spot as consumer preferences fluctuated.
In 2004, Budweiser took the top spot. However, since Labatt has brewed Budweiser in Canada under licence since the 1980s, Labatt did not suffer from this shift. Moreover, Labatt Blue remains the best selling Canadian beer in the world, based upon worldwide sales. Labatt was the majority owner of the Toronto Blue Jays from their inception in 1976 until 1995, when Interbrew purchased Labatt. Labatt's innovations include the introduction of the first twist-off cap on a refillable bottle in 1984. In 1989, Labatt's had the opportunity to hire Canadian model Pamela Anderson as a Labatt's Blue Zone Girl after she was picked out of the crowd by a TV camera man at a BC Lions football game wearing a Blue Zone crop-top. Photographer and boyfriend Dann Ilicic produced the Blue Zone Girl poster on his own after Labatt's refused to have anything to do with it. Labatt's did buy 1000 posters to deal with consumer demand. In 1995, Labatt was acquired by the large Belgian multinational brewer Interbrew, the world market leader.
Labatt is part-owner of Brewers Retail Inc. operator of The Beer Store retail chain, which—protected by legislation—has over 90% market share of Ontario off-premises beer sales. In early 2007, Labatt acquired Lakeport Brewing Company of Hamilton, Ontario. In 2009, the company sold Labatt USA, including the American rights to its core Labatt products to FIFCO USA, agreed to brew those brands on Labatt USA's behalf until 2012; this sale was mandated by the U. S. Department of Justice for competitive reasons following InBev's merger with Anheuser-Busch, since Budweiser and Labatt Blue were both among the top brands in upstate New York, despite the latter having less than 1% market share in the U. S. overall. The sale did not include U. S. rights to Labatt products not carrying the "Labatt" label, such as Kokanee or Alexander Keith's, which are now distributed in the U. S. by Anheuser-Busch. Moreover, the underlying intellectual property remains the property of the Canadian firm; the sale did not affect Labatt's Canadian operations in any way, however Anheuser-Busch InBev retains full control of the Labatt brand portfolio within Canada.
Canada London, Ontario St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador Montreal, Quebec Halifax, Nova Scotia Creston, British Columbia Edmonton, AlbertaUnited States Buffalo, New York Norwalk, Connecticut Labatt's US headquarters were located in Buffalo for some years. Labatt decided to relocate their headquarters to Norwalk, Connecticut for a time. In 2007 Labatt decided to relocate their US operations back to Buffalo due to strong sales in the city and closer proximity to their Ontario operations. Labatt USA is now owned by FIFCO USA of New York. Labatt's Toronto brewery was built in 1970 and ceased operations in 2005 and was demolished by 2007, thus ending the brewery's ties to the city. Labatt 50 is a 5% abv ale launched in 1950 to commemorate 50 yea
Li Marlene Pamp, is a Swedish television presenter and expert on antiquities. Pamp was born in Malmö and grew up in Bjärred in Skåne and moved to Saltsjöbaden in Stockholm, she studied art science at Lunds University and has worked at Bukowskis in Malmö and Stockholms Auktionsverk. She has created the antiquities site Deconet. Li Pamp presents the show Antikmagasinet and is an expert at Antikrundan, Go'kväll and Nordiska Rum which are all broadcast on SVT. In 2008 she made her TV-debut at Antikdeckarna on TV4 Plus. On 20 July 2013 she was the presenter for an episode of the Sveriges Radio show Sommar i P1. Media related to Li Pamp at Wikimedia Commons
Ion Cebanu is a Moldovan politician. He was Minister of Youth and Sports between September 25, 2009 and February 26, 2013, in the First Vlad Filat Cabinet and in the Second Filat Cabinet as well, President of the Liberal Party Territorial Organization, Centru branch of Chisinau, member of the Central Permanent Bureau of the Liberal Party, president of the Public Association "Optimus". Between February 27 and May 16, 2013 he was General Manager of the Agency for Forestry "Moldsilva". From September 4, 2013, Ion Cebanu is Chief of the Chișinău Mine, he is a member of the Liberal Party. 1991-2003: Theoretical High School "Princess Natalia Dadiani" 2003-2007: Faculty of Law at the State University of Moldova 1 November 2007 - 9 July 2008: Master in Constitutional and Administrative Law at the State University of Moldova Training practice - Chisinau Prosecutor's Office, Buiucani District Court in Chișinău. November 14, 2007 - November 14, 2008: Lawyer at the Municipal Enterprise Regia Autosalubritate.
Ion Cebanu begins his political activity within the Youth Organization of the Liberal Party. On November 26, 2007, at the Second Youth Conference of the PL Youth Organization is elected vice-president. During the general local elections on 3 June 2007, he is a candidate for the Liberal Party and is elected councilor in the Chisinau Municipal Council, he becomes one of the youngest councilors in the city of Chisinau. At the parliamentary elections of April 5, 2009, Ion Cebanu is placed on the 34th place in the list of candidates for the position of deputy in the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova. In the early parliamentary elections, the young Ion Cebanu is promoted among the places of passage in the legislative, being proposed on the 16th place on the list of candidates; the Liberal Party accounted for 14.61 % of the votes. Ion Cebanu held the post of Minister of Youth and Sport from September 25, 2009, after the Filat Cabinet was invested by the legislature. Ion Cebanu became the youngest minister in the new government at the age of 25.
Joachim Jean-Marie Forget, known as Joachim Son-Forget, is a South Korean-born, French-Kosovar politician and radiologist. Since 2017, he has been a member of the National Assembly, representing the sixth constituency for French residents overseas. Adopted by a French family as a child, Son-Forget, who holds a doctorate in cognitive neuroscience, was active within the Socialist Party and La République En Marche! until he resigned from the party in late 2018. He works part-time as a radiologist in Switzerland and has held Kosovar citizenship since 2018. Born in South Korea, Joachim Son-Forget was adopted by a French family as a child and grew up in Langres, before studying in Dijon and Lausanne. In 2005, he received a Master 2 in cognitive science from CogMaster with cognitive psychologist Stanislas Dehaene. In 2008 he graduated at the end of the second cycle of medical studies at the University of Burgundy. In 2015, he obtained a doctorate MD-PhD in cognitive neuroscience; the subject of his thesis was "Visuo-vestibular mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness".
He supported Socialist candidate François Hollande during the 2012 French presidential election. He was secretary of the Geneva section of the French Socialist Party within the Federation of French Abroad, chairman of the committee of activists of the Party of European Socialists in Switzerland, before taking leave in 2014. In 2017, he joined then-presidential candidate Emmanuel Macron's political movement, En Marche! Son-Forget was the REM candidate in the 2017 French legislative election for the sixth constituency for French residents overseas, which covers Switzerland and Liechtenstein. In the first round, he obtained 63.55% of valid votes, far ahead of his main opponent, then-incumbent Republican candidate Claudine Schmid who got 15.76%. However, the rules of the French electoral system did not secure a first-round victory for Son-Forget as the turnout was only 20.19%. Therefore, a second round was held, opposing only Joachim Son-Forget and Claudine Schmid: it was won by Son-Forget with 74.94% of valid votes, while the turnout was lower than the first round, with 18.78%.
Son-Forget was one of 10 successful candidates for overseas constituencies from either LaREM or its ally the Democratic Movement, over 11 overseas constituencies in total. As a member of the National Assembly, he sits on the Foreign Affairs Committee and serves as president of the France-South Korea Friendship Group and vice-president of the France-Kosovo Friendship Group. With La France Insoumise member Jean-Luc Mélenchon, he co-wrote a report on France's strategy on seas and oceans; when Christophe Castaner was appointed Minister of the Interior in October 2018, Joachim Son-Forget declared himself a candidate to succeed him as Executive Officer of La République En Marche! The internal election was held in November 2018, opposing Joachim Son-Forget and fellow LaREM Member of Parliament Stanislas Guerini. On 1 December 2018, Stanislas Guerini, forecast as Castaner's successor, won the election with 82% of valid votes. On 29 December 2018, Son-Forget resigned from both the party La République En Marche! and its parliamentary group amidst controversy over his recent activity on social networks and an online spat with Green Senator Esther Benbassa.
Now an independent member of the National Assembly, Son-Forget declared he was still supporting President Macron. On 31 December 2018, Son-Forget announced he would create his own political party, Je suis français et européen abbreviated as JSFee; the party was renamed in July 2019 as Valeur Absolue. In January 2019, Son-Forget joined Agir and Independents, he resigned from the group in December 2019, following controversy about a Twitter post showing Son-Forget in the company of Marion Maréchal, member of French nationalist party National Rally. In February 2020, Son-Forget was involved in more controversy as he unsuccessfully attempted to have former presidential security officer Alexandre Benalla hired as his parliamentary assistant. A few days invited on the set of talk show Touche pas à mon poste!, Son-Forget announced he would run for the 2022 French presidential election, claiming support from Benalla. Son-Forget was accused of being involved in a leak of sex videos picturing Benjamin Griveaux the LaREM candidate for the 2020 Paris municipal election.
Son-Forget claimed. During an interview in June 2017, Son-Forget was asked to comment on the controversy surrounding the past use of public funds by Richard Ferrand a candidate to preside the REM parliamentary group and former member of the General Council of Finistère. After discoursing on the difference between what is legal and what is moral, Son-Forget declared: "I believe we should not have a return to morality, as that would be the beginning of Sharia law." Before apologising for "using big words". These comments by Son-Forget, who had just been elected a member of the National Assembly, drew attention from the French press. In September 2018, while travelling funfair personality and entrepreneur Marcel Campion was under controversy for remarks that were considered homophobic, Son-Forget defended Campion on Twitter, arguing his speech was not homophobic. Son-Forget was in turn cri
The National Archives of Australia is an Australian Government agency that collects and encourages access to important Australian Government records. It describes itself as the memory of the nation; the Archives’ collection of 40 million items traces events and decisions that have shaped the nation and the lives of Australians. Visitors are welcome to explore the collection, online or in person. Established under the Archives Act 1983, the National Archives reports to its Minister, the Attorney-General. Like all government agencies, it is accountable to the Australian Parliament; the National Archives of Australia Advisory Council provides advice to the Minister responsible for the Archives and the Director-General. Under the Act, the National Archives has two main roles: to collect and preserve Australia’s most valuable government records and encourage their use by the public to promote good information management by Commonwealth government agencies in meeting the challenges of the digital age.
In addition to caring for its collection, the National Archives develops exhibitions, publishes books and guides to the collection and delivers educational programs. After World War I the Commonwealth National Library was responsible for collecting Australian Government records; the library appointed its first archives officer in 1944. In March 1961 the Commonwealth Archives Office formally separated from the National Library of Australia and was renamed as the Australian Archives in 1975; the Archives Act 1983 gave legislative protection to Commonwealth government records for the first time, with the Australian Archives responsible for their preservation. The agency was renamed the National Archives of Australia in February 1998; the National Archives of Australia’s collection of 40 million items covers records pertaining to the government of Australia, including Federation, Governors-General, Prime Ministers and Ministers. Among the most popular with the public are defence service and immigration records which contain valuable family history.
The Archives' repositories are not open to the public but items can be requested for digitisation or for viewing in reading rooms. Most records over 26 years old are released for public access on request; however some have certain information exempted from access. These exemptions may include documents relating to defence and security and sensitive personal information. Cabinet notebooks have a longer closed period decreasing from 50 years to 30 years by 2021. Access to items of cultural sensitivity to Indigenous Australians may be restricted. There are several notable collections held by the National Archives of Australia, they include: founding documents, including the Royal Commission of Assent, the Constitution Act and other records created when the six colonies federated to create the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901 World War I and World War II service records. Some 376,000 service records for men and women who served in World War I have been digitised and are available online at the Discovering Anzacs website.
The Griffin drawings – Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin's winning entry for the design of Australia's Federal Capital Mildenhall glass plate photographs taken by government photographer Jack Mildenhall – the 7700 images record Canberra during the 1920s and 1930s more than 34,000 immigration photographs copyright and trademark registration records documenting Australian creativity and ingenuity. In 2014, the National Archives of Australia, in partnership with Archives New Zealand, created the digital repository Discovering Anzacs to commemorate the centenary of World War I and each nation's role in the war effort at home and abroad; the repository features the complete and digitized service records of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. Service records are displayed geographically on a map of the world to indicate each individual's place of birth, enlistment and burial. Users are encouraged to transcribe the official records to improve access and add personal comments and stories to give greater context to each record.
On October 27th, 2015, the National Archives of Australia announced its Digital Continuity 2020 program to modernize the information management practices of the government for the digital age. The policies of Digital Continuity 2020 issued by the authority of the National Archives apply to the whole of the Australian government and seek to improve efficiency and access of all services. Deadline 2025 is a collaboration between the National Archives of Australia and the National Film and Sound Archive to prioritize digitization of valuable media stored on magnetic tape which may deteriorate to the point of being unusable by 2025. In 2014, the National Archives of Australia announced its Reconciliation Action Plan to foster better relations with its indigenous population, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples; the RAP is a multifaceted approach to drawing attention to the history of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and illustrating their culture respectfully, providing improved access to their historical records.
A main feature of this initiative is the Bringing Them Home name index which leverages the National Archives' collection of records to facilitate genealogical research for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The National Archives seeks to have 3% of their workforce be those who identify themselves as indigenous to foster diversity and increase representation in the archival profession; the Archives’ National Office is in Canberra. It has temporarily been relocated to Old Parliament House until the end of 2018 when it will return to East Block. In 1998 the Canberra read