Methanol known as methyl alcohol amongst other names, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH. A polar solvent, methanol acquired the name wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly by the destructive distillation of wood. Today, methanol is produced industrially by hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. Methanol is the simplest alcohol, consisting of a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, it is a light, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor similar to that of ethanol. Methanol is however far more toxic than ethanol. With more than 20 million tons produced annually, it is used as a precursor to other commodity chemicals, including formaldehyde, acetic acid, methyl tert-butyl ether, as well as a host of more specialized chemicals. Small amounts of methanol are present in healthy human individuals. One study found a mean of 4.5 ppm in the exhaled breath of test subjects. The mean endogenous methanol in humans of 0.45 g/d may be metabolized from pectin found in fruit. Methanol is produced by anaerobic bacteria and phytoplankton.
Methanol is found in abundant quantities in star-forming regions of space and is used in astronomy as a marker for such regions. It is detected through its spectral emission lines. In 2006, astronomers using the MERLIN array of radio telescopes at Jodrell Bank Observatory discovered a large cloud of methanol in space, 288 billion miles across. In 2016, astronomers detected methanol in a planet-forming disc around the young star TW Hydrae using ALMA radio telescope. Methanol has low acute toxicity in humans, but is dangerous because it is ingested in large volumes together with ethanol; as little as 10 mL of pure methanol can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerve. 30 mL is fatal. The median lethal dose is i.e. 1 -- 2 mL/kg body weight of pure methanol. The reference dose for methanol is 0.5 mg/kg in a day. Toxic effects begin hours after ingestion, antidotes can prevent permanent damage; because of its similarities in both appearance and odor to ethanol, it is difficult to differentiate between the two.
However, cases exist of methanol resistance, such as that of Mike Malloy, the victim of a failed murder attempt by methanol in the early 1930s. Methanol is toxic by two mechanisms. First, methanol can be fatal due to effects on the central nervous system, acting as a central nervous system depressant in the same manner as ethanol poisoning. Second, in a process of toxication, it is metabolized to formic acid via formaldehyde in a process initiated by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver. Methanol is converted to formaldehyde via alcohol dehydrogenase and formaldehyde is converted to formic acid via aldehyde dehydrogenase; the conversion to formate via ALDH proceeds with no detectable formaldehyde remaining. Formate is toxic because it inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, causing hypoxia at the cellular level, metabolic acidosis, among a variety of other metabolic disturbances. Outbreaks of methanol poisoning have occurred due to contamination of drinking alcohol; this is more common in the developing world.
In 2013 more than 1700 cases nonetheless occurred in the United States. Those affected are adult men. Outcomes may be good with early treatment. Toxicity to methanol was described as early as 1856; because of its toxic properties, methanol is used as a denaturant additive for ethanol manufactured for industrial uses. This addition of methanol exempts industrial ethanol from liquor excise taxation in the US and some other countries. Methanol is converted to formaldehyde, used in many areas polymers; the conversion entails oxidation: 2 CH3OH + O2 → 2 CH2O + 2 H2OAcetic acid can be produced from methanol. Methanol and isobutene are combined to give methyl tert-butyl ether. MTBE is a major octane booster in gasoline. Condensation of methanol to produce hydrocarbons and aromatic systems is the basis of several technologies related to gas to liquids; these include methanol-to-hydrocarbons, methanol to gasoline, methanol to olefins, methanol to propylene. These conversions are catalyzed by zeolites as heterogeneous catalysts.
The MTG process was once commercialized at Motunui in New Zealand. The European Fuel Quality Directive allows fuel producers to blend up to 3% methanol, with an equal amount of cosolvent, with gasoline sold in Europe. China uses more than 4.5 billion Liters of methanol per year as a transportation fuel in low level blends for conventional vehicles, high level blends in vehicles designed for methanol fuels. Methanol is the precursor to most simple methylamines, methyl halides, methyl ethers. Methyl esters are produced from methanol, including the transesterification of fats and production of biodiesel via transesterification. Methanol is a promising energy carrier because, as a liquid, it is easier to store than hydrogen and natural gas, its energy density is however low reflecting the fact that it represents combusted methane. Its energy density is 15.6 MJ/L, whereas ethanol's is 24 and gasoline's is 33 MJ/L. Further advantages for methanol is its ready low toxicity, it does not persist in either anaerobic environments.
The half-life for meth
John Henry Windhurst was a jazz trumpet player, who played in the swing, big-band, dixieland styles. Windhurst was a self-taught musician and known for his solos, his playing style was considered to be a mixture of the delicate playing style of Bobby Hackett with his own feathery vibrato and mobility. Ruby Braff has cited Windhurst as one of his biggest inspirations as a jazz artist. At the age of 15 he played his first public performance at Nick's in New York City. Windhurst made his professional debut during the spring of 1944 at one of Eddie Condon's concerts at the Town Hall in New York City. At 18 years old, he was chosen by Sidney Bechet to play at the Savoy Cafe in Boston, replacing Bunk Johnson. Windhurst was recruited to the band to play the cornet; this engagement launched his career as a trumpeter and he went on to play with Art Hodes and James P. Johnson at the Jazz at Town Hall concert in September 1946, he moved to the midwest and after a brief stint in the Chicago Jazz scene he returned to the Savoy Cafe as a member of Edmond Hall's band and moved west to experience the west coast jazz scene in California.
His inability to read music forced him to decline gigs with Benny Goodman and Woody Herman while emphasizing his preference of informal jamming. Over the years, he played for musicians such as Louis Armstrong, Nappy Lamare, Eddie Condon, he led his own band, Riverboat Five, through Columbus and Boston for several years, but for such endeavors he chose to refrain from playing the most popular east coast venues and nightclubs and instead played college campuses and other small venues. In the early 1950s Windhurst worked with Ruby Braff in one of the groups known as Jazz at Storyville in 1951. During the following two years he performed at Condon's club and went on to perform alongside George Wettling and Jack Teagarden in 1954 as well as Barbara Lea from 1995 through 1957. Windhurst accompanied vocalists like Lea while in 1956 he took a stage role with actor Conrad Janis in an off-broadway musical titled, Joy Ride. Windhurst only made one recording with his swing quartet, the John Windhurst Quartet in which Buell Neidlinger was a sideman, a record called Jazz at Columbus Avenue, recorded for the Transition label in 1956.
In 1961 he performed with his band the Sheridan Squares, which included Cutty Cutshall and Cliff Leeman, during his return to Nick's, New York. He moved upstate to Poughkeepsie with his mother, where he finished his career in a dixieland band at Frivolous Sal's Last Chance Saloon. Trombonist Eddie Hubble commented on Windhurst's lack of motivation: "He won't do anything, won't travel, just wants to stay where he is, he should get out and let people know he's still alive". Throughout the 1960s and 70's he opted to perform in obscure venues in out-of-the-way corners of the USA. Despite his range of talent and success, Windhurst was content to hide from the big-time spotlight, his evasive, yet chosen lifestyle well could have robbed jazz of an important figure, but he chose to live his life the way he wanted to. Several years after receiving an invitation to play the Manassas jazz festival in 1981, Windhurst died of a heart attack, he is interred at Woodlawn Cemetery in the New York City. Only the third release from George Buck's up and coming label, the Johnny Windhurst Quartet's LP Jazz at Columbus Ave was a "obscure but valuable" project.
The LP features Windhurst's unique trumpet style, Buell Neidlinger on the bass, Jim Andrews on the piano. The piece titled "When You're Smiling" additionally features Bud Blacklock on the piano and Hamilton Carson sitting in on the tenor saxophone; the LP was recorded at a showcase in Massachusetts, where the decision to record it was made on the spot just as the show began. The spontaneous set flaunt's Windhurst's innovative playing on timeless numbers such as "Back In Your Own Back Yard," "Strut Miss Lizzie" and "Lover Come Back to Me." As leader Jazz at Columbus Avenue with Buell Neidlinger, Walt Gifford, Jimmy Andrews As sideman Woman in Love with Barbara Lea Barbara Lea Walt Gifford's New Yorkers with Walt Gifford Jazz Band Ball: Volume 2 with Eddie Condon Dr. Jazz Series, Vol. 1 with Eddie Condon Dr. Jazz Series, Vol. 16 with Eddie Condon 1947–1950 with Eddie Condon Flyin' High 1949–1959 with Edmond Hall Windhurst playing with Art Ford Video on YouTube Windhurst playing with Sydney Bechet Video on YouTube Windhurst playing with Barbara Lea Video on YouTube Windhurst playing with his Quartet Video on YouTube
The 2001 Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré was the 53rd edition of the cycle race and was held from 10 June to 17 June 2001. The race finished in Chambéry; the race was won by Christophe Moreau of the Festina team. Thirteen teams, containing a total of 104 riders, participated in the race: "53rd Criterium du Dauphiné Libére - 2. HC". Cycling News. "Mayo, séptimo en el prólogo del Dauphiné Liberé". El Mundo Deportivo. 11 June 2001. P. 47. "Iban Mayo se mantiene 7º en la Dauphiné". El Mundo Deportivo. 12 June 2001. P. 44. "Roux le quita el liderato a Rous y Mayo queda a 1' 44"". El Mundo Deportivo. 13 June 2001. P. 40. "Millar se pone líder de la Dauphiné tras la contrarreloj". El Mundo Deportivo. 15 June 2001. P. 49. "El Galibier debe decidir hoy el Dauphiné Libéré". El Mundo Deportivo. 16 June 2001. P. 54. "Mayo sigue haciendo suyo el mes de junio". El Mundo Deportivo. 17 June 2001. P. 48. "La Dauphiné más ajustada, para Moreau". El Mundo Deportivo. 18 June 2001. P. 49. "Prologue: Dimanche 10 juin 2001". Le Dauphine. Archived from the original on 21 October 2005.
"1ère étape: Lundi 11 juin 2001". Le Dauphine. Archived from the original on 20 October 2005. "2è étape: Mardi 12 juin 2001". Le Dauphine. Archived from the original on 20 October 2005. "3è étape: Mercredi 13 juin 2001". Le Dauphine. Archived from the original on 20 October 2005. "4è étape: Jeudi 14 juin 2001". Le Dauphine. Archived from the original on 20 October 2005. "5è étape: Vendredi 15 juin 2001". Le Dauphine. Archived from the original on 20 October 2005. "6è étape: Samedi 16 juin 2001". Le Dauphine. Archived from the original on 20 October 2005. "7è étape: Dimanche 17 juin 2001". Le Dauphine. Archived from the original on 21 October 2005. "53ème Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré - Site officiel". Archived from the original on 7 July 2004