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Methodist Episcopal Church

The Methodist Episcopal Church was the oldest and largest Methodist denomination in the United States from its founding in 1784 until 1939. It was the first religious denomination in the US to organize itself on a national basis. In 1939, the MEC reunited with two breakaway Methodist denominations to form the Methodist Church. In 1968, the Methodist Church merged with the Evangelical United Brethren Church to form the United Methodist Church; the MEC's origins lie in the First Great Awakening when Methodism emerged as an evangelical revival movement within the Church of England that stressed the necessity of being born again and the possibility of attaining Christian perfection. By the 1760s, Methodism had spread to the Thirteen Colonies, Methodist societies were formed under the oversight of John Wesley; as in England, American Methodists remained affiliated with the Church of England, but this state of affairs became untenable after the American Revolution. In response, Wesley ordained the first Methodist elders for America in 1784.

Under the leadership of its first bishops, Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury, the Methodist Episcopal Church adopted episcopal polity and an itinerant model of ministry that saw circuit riders provide for the religious needs of a widespread and mobile population. Early Methodism was countercultural in that it was anti-elitist and anti-slavery, appealing to African Americans and women. While critics derided Methodists as fanatics, the Methodist Episcopal Church continued to grow during the Second Great Awakening in which Methodist revivalism and camp meetings left its imprint on American culture. In the early 19th century, the MEC became the largest and most influential religious denomination in the United States. With growth came greater institutionalization and respectability, this led some within the church to complain that Methodism was losing its vitality and commitment to Wesleyan teachings, such as the belief in Christian perfection and opposition to slavery; as Methodism took hold in the Southern United States, church leaders became less willing to condemn the practice of slavery or to grant African American preachers and congregations the same privileges as their white counterparts.

A number of black churches were formed as African Americans withdrew from the MEC, including the African Methodist Episcopal Church and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. By the 1830s, however, a renewed abolitionist movement within the MEC made keeping a neutral position on slavery impossible; the church divided along regional lines in 1844 when pro-slavery Methodists in the South formed their own Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Around the same time, the holiness movement took shape as a renewal movement within the MEC focused on the experience of Christian perfection, but it led a number of splinter groups to break away from the church. Due to large-scale immigration of Catholics, the Catholic Church displaced the MEC as the largest US denomination by the end of the 19th century; the Methodist Episcopal Church originated from the spread of Methodism outside of England to the Thirteen Colonies in the 1760s. Earlier, Methodism had grown out of the ministry of John Wesley, a priest in the Church of England who preached an evangelical message centered on justification by faith, the possibility of having assurance of salvation, the doctrine of Christian perfection.

Wesley was loyal to the Anglican Church, he organized his followers into parachurch societies and classes with the goal of promoting spiritual revival within the Church of England. Members of Methodist societies were expected to attend and receive Holy Communion in their local parish church, but Wesley recruited and supervised lay preachers for itinerant or traveling ministry. Around fifteen or twenty societies formed a circuit. Anywhere from two to four itinerant preachers would be assigned to a circuit on a yearly basis to preach and supervise the societies within their circuit. One itinerant preacher in each circuit would be made the "assistant", he would direct the activities of the other itinerant preachers in the circuit, who were called "helpers". Wesley gave out preaching assignments at an annual conference. In 1769, Wesley sent itinerants Robert Williams, Richard Boardman, Joseph Pilmore to oversee Methodists in America after learning that societies had been organized there as early as 1766 by Philip Embury, Robert Strawbridge, Thomas Webb.

In 1773, Wesley appointed Thomas Rankin general assistant, placing him in charge of all the Methodist preachers and societies in America. On July 4, 1773, Rankin presided over the first annual conference on American soil at Philadelphia. At that time there were 1,160 Methodists in America led by ten lay preachers. Itinerant Methodist preachers would become known as circuit riders. Methodist societies in America operated within the Church of England. There were several Anglican priests who supported the work of the Methodists, attending Methodist meetings and administering the sacraments to Methodists; these included Charles Pettigrew of North Carolina, Samuel Magaw of Dover and Philadelphia, Uzel Ogden of New Jersey. Anglican clergyman Devereux Jarratt was a active supporter, founding Methodist societies in Virginia and North Carolina; the American Revolution left America's Anglican Church in disarray. Due to the scarcity of Anglican ministers, Methodists in the United States were unable to receive the sacraments of baptism and Holy Communion.

On September 1, 1784, Wesley responded to this situation by ordaining two Methodists a

1828 in art

Events in the year 1828 in Art. December 3 – The Musée Fabre opens in the refurbished Hôtel de Massillian in Montpellier, France. Thomas ColeThe Garden of Eden John ConstableHampstead Heath, Branch Hill Pond William Etty The Dawn of Love The World Before the Flood Sarah GoodridgeBeauty Revealed Orest Kiprensky – Self-portrait August Kopisch – The Crater of Vesuvius with the Eruption of 1828 Sir Thomas Lawrence – Portrait of Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey James Arthur O'Connor The Devil's Glen, Co. Wicklow, with a fisherman A View on the Liffey View on the Shannon, with figures in a rowing boat Rembrandt Peale – Self-portrait Joseph Karl Stieler – Charlotte von Hagn John Trumbull - The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776 J. M. W. TurnerChichester Canal Walenty Wańkowicz – Portrait of Adam Mickiewicz February 11 – Emily Mary Osborn, English painter March 28 – Étienne Carjat, French caricaturist and portrait photographer March 30 – François Bocion, Swiss architect and painter April 1 – George Barbu Știrbei, Romanian patron of the arts May 10 – James McDougal Hart, Scottish-born painter of the Hudson River School May 11 – Alfred Stevens, Belgian portrait painter May 12 – Dante Gabriel Rossetti, English Pre-Raphaelite painter and poet May 21 – Rudolf Koller, Swiss painter June 13 – Jules-Élie Delaunay, French academic painter June 20 – John Wharlton Bunney, English Pre-Raphaelite topographical and landscape painter July 9 – Adolf Schreyer, German painter July 14 – Jervis McEntee, American painter of the Hudson River School July 30 – Paul Gachet, French physician to artists, Impressionist art collector and amateur painter date unknown Pietro Pezzati, Italian painter of church murals Jan Wnęk, Polish carpenter and sculptor January 1 – Johann Samuel Arnhold, German painter in oil and water-colours, on porcelain and enamel January 4 – Sakai Hōitsu, Japanese painter of the Rinpa school January 23 – Giuseppe Quaglio, Italian painter and stage designer February 28 – Simon Charles Miger, French engraver April 16 – Francisco Goya, Spanish painter May 8 – Christian August Lorentzen, Danish painter May 28 – Anne Seymour Damer, English sculptor July 9 – Gilbert Stuart, American painter July 15 – Jean Antoine Houdon, French neoclassical sculptor September 28 – Richard Parkes Bonington, English landscape painter November 8 – Thomas Bewick, English engraver November 17 – Franz Caucig, Slovene painter and drawer date unknown William Billingsley, English painter of porcelain Thomas Kerrich, English clergyman, antiquary and gifted amateur artist Wilhelmina Krafft, Swedish painter and portrait miniaturist Giuseppe Levati, Italian painter and designer in the Neoclassicist style John Webb, English landscape designer

Tijuana International Airport

Tijuana International Airport, sometimes referred to as General Abelardo L. Rodríguez International Airport, in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, is Mexico's second northernmost airport after Mexicali International Airport; the airport is located in the city's Otay Centenario borough, just south of the U. S border, it is one of the 20 busiest airports in Latin America, handling 8,925,900 passengers in 2018, the fifth busiest in Mexico after Mexico City, Cancun and Monterrey airports. The airport can handle up to 360 flights per day; as of December 9, 2015, with the opening of the Cross Border Xpress bridge and terminal, Tijuana airport can be accessed directly from the U. S.. S.-Mexico border between a terminal on the U. S. side and the main facility on the Mexican side. The airport serves as the only one operating at both concourses, it used to be a focus city for Aero California, Aerolíneas Internacionales, Líneas Aéreas Azteca, ALMA de Mexico. Tijuana's airport was the largest and main hub for Avolar, a new low-cost airline, the airport's second leading airline at a time.

It was one of the first low-cost airlines in Mexico, such as SARO and TAESA. It is operated by Grupo Aeroportuario del Pacífico, a holding group that controls 12 international airports in central and northern Mexico. In terms of domestic destinations, it is the best connected airport after Mexico City; the Tijuana airport opened as the "Aeropuerto Federal de Tijuana" on May 1, 1951, replacing Tijuana's former airport located on today's Aguacaliente Boulevard. The airport's runway had an orientation of 10/28 and was 2 kilometers in length and the first terminal was built on the southwest part of the airport, facing the current terminal built in 1970; the airport was named after General Abelardo L. Rodríguez, Governor of Baja California, late President of Mexico. In 1954, Mexicana de Aviacion began direct Tijuana-Mexico City flights; the airport was incorporated to ASA in 1965. Under President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, a National Plan of Airports was initiated and headed by Gilberto Valenzuela Ezquerro, Secretary of Public Works.

As more people arrived and settled in Tijuana in the 1960s, demand for flights increased. At the inauguration of the Amistad Dam between Texas and Mexico in 1969, President Richard Nixon notified President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz of his intent to initiate Operation Intercept to stem the flow of narcotics between the U. S. and Mexico. As political pressure rose between Washington and Mexico City, to minimize incursion into U. S. airspace, Gilberto Valenzuela Ezquerro, Secretary of Public Works and in charge of the Tijuana airport’s expansion, re-oriented the runway from 10/28 to 09/27. The change in orientation impacted Tijuana's approach over Cerro San Isidro, a 2,600 foot land obstacle which increased the east approach glide slope above 3 degrees and prevented a full Instrument Landing System on the 27 runway required during foul weather landings. Due to prevailing winds, the 27 runway is Tijuana's main approach pattern; the construction of the new terminal and a 2.5 kilometer 09-27 runway to accommodate larger aircraft was finished in July 1970 and inaugurated on November 19, 1970, by then-President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz and Gilberto Valenzuela Ezquerro, Secretary of Public Works.

The total cost for the improvements in 1970 was $108,487,000 Pesos. The original terminal was assigned as an air base for the Mexican Armed Forces, it is now known as the aeropuerto viejo, or old airport; the terminal, however, is referred as Terminal 1, with Main Terminal being referred as Terminal 2. In 1983, Tijuana became Mexico's fastest growing city. In 1987, air traffic suffered a sharp decline due to the suspension of service by Aeromexico. With the restructuring of Aeromexico in 1988, service and air traffic increased causing delays in service. Terminal space and parking for passengers became inadequate. To meet airport demand, Mexico issued its first two 10 year private sector airport "co-investments" to expand both the departure lounges and parking areas. Construction of both were completed in 1991 Mexico’s airport privatization program was initiated on December 22, 1995, when the Secretariat of Communications and Transportation published the "Ley de Aeropuertos"; the Tijuana airport became part of the Pacific Airport Group consisting of 12 airports and headquartered in Guadalajara.

In 1999, a consortium consisting of the Spanish investors Unión Fenosa and Aeropuertos Españoles y Navegación Aérea, together with the Mexican strategic investor Grupo Empresarial Ángeles, collectively known as Aeropuertos Mexicanos del Pacifico, S. A. de C. V. won the Pacific 12 airport package. As part of the airport privatization concession, the airport terminal was expanded and renovated in 2002, when the extension of concourse A and B was built, allowing the terminal to double its capacity. Several taxiways were expanded to allow the operations of larger aircraft such as the Boeing 747; as the airport has become one of the most important hubs and gateways in the country, the only non-stop international gateway from Asia to Latin America, there is a plan of a new terminal, which could house the operations of the major airline at the airport: Aeroméxico. As of today, both of the concourses have been expanded and remodeled, including the progressive introduction of glass-je

Polski Trambesh

Polski Trambesh is a town in central northern Bulgaria, part of Veliko Tarnovo Province. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Polski Trambesh Municipality, which lies in the northeastern part of the Province; the town is located 36 kilometres from the provincial capital of Veliko Tarnovo, 45 km from Svishtov, 35 km from Pavlikeni, 33 km from Gorna Oryahovitsa, 22 km from Byala, Rousse Province and 40 km from Strazhitsa. As of December 2009, Polski Trambesh has a population of 4,546 inhabitants; the town is situated in the central Danubian Plain. Polski Trambesh's name means "Trambesh of the fields", to distinguish it from Gorski Goren Trambesh and Gorski Dolen Trambesh in Gorna Oryahovitsa municipality, it is not known when Polski Trambesh was established, but in 1865 it was a village of 40-50 houses populated by Bulgarians and Turks. The construction of the Rousse-Gorna Oryahovitsa railway boosted its development in 1917, the village turned into an important merchant centre and some industry was established after World War I.

Polski Trambesh was proclaimed a town in 1964. Polski Trambesh Municipality has an area of 463.6 square kilometres and includes the following 15 places: Trambesh Peak on Brabant Island, Antarctica is named after the town. Polski Trambesh municipality website

Micha Sharir

Micha Sharir is an Israeli mathematician and computer scientist. He is a professor at Tel Aviv University, notable for his contributions to computational geometry and combinatorial geometry, having authored hundreds of papers. Sharir was born in Tel Aviv in 1950; as a secondary school student he won the first place in the youth mathematics olympics of the Weizmann Institute of Science and Grossman Award from the Technion. In 1970, he completed his undergraduate studies and served in unit 8200 of the Israel Defense Forces, during his service he was involved in a research team which won the 1975 Israel Defense Prize. In 1976, Sharir completed his doctoral studies in pure mathematics under the supervision of Aldo Lazar in Tel Aviv University, he began his postdoctoral studies at the Courant Institute of New York University, where he worked with Jack Schwartz. In 1980, he joined the faculty of Tel Aviv University, where he holds the Isaias Nizri Chair in Computational Geometry and Robotics as of 2020.

He is a visiting research professor at the Courant Institute, where he has been the deputy head of the Robotics Lab. At Tel Aviv University, he has served as head of the computer science department, head of the school of mathematics, is one of the cofounders of the Minerva Center for Geometry. Sharir was named a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1997, he received an honorary doctorate from Utrecht University in 1996, the Feher Foundation Prize in Computer Science from the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies in 1999, the Landau Prize for Science and Research in 2002, the million-dollar The EMET Prize for Art and Culture in the Exact Sciences from the A. M. N. Foundation in 2007. Sharir is an Institute for ISI Highly Cited researcher, he was a member of the International Federation for Information Processing IFIP Working Group 2.1, which supports and maintains the programming languages ALGOL 60 and ALGOL 68. Official website, Tel Aviv University

North Bohemia

North Bohemia, is a region in the north of the Czech Republic. North Bohemia covers the present-day NUTS regional unit of CZ04 Severozápad and the western part of CZ05 Severovýchod. From an administrative perspective, North Bohemia is made up of the present day Ústí nad Labem Region, Karlovy Vary Region and Liberec Region. In German language usage the term Nordböhmen refers to that part of the Sudetenland once populated by Germans in North Bohemia between Karlovy Vary in the west and the Krkonoše in the east. North Bohemia is divided into many landscape areas including the Ore Mountains, the Bohemian Switzerland national park, Mácha’s Country, the Lusatian Mountains and Ještěd Ridge, Frýdlantsko and the Jizera Mountains, it is a popular tourist destination, much of, inaccessible until recently. The Jizera and Lusatian Mountains are protected landscape areas; the summits of the Jizera Mountains climb to heights of about 1,000 metres above sea level, the region’s peat bogs have been opened up with interconnecting educational trails.

The national nature reserve of the Jizera Mountain Beechwood Forest contains the largest beech woodland in the Czech Republic, covering 27 square kilometres. Major cities and towns in North Bohemia include Česká Lípa, Děčín, Jablonec nad Nisou, Litoměřice and Teplice. In the administrative system of the former Czechoslovakia there was a North Bohemia province from 1960-1990 that consisted of the present-day region of Ústí nad Labem and parts of Liberecký kraj. Bohemia Central Bohemian Uplands North Bohemian Basin