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Methyl isocyanate

Methyl isocyanate is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3NCO. Synonyms are isocyanatomethane, methyl carbylamine and MIC. Methyl isocyanate is an intermediate chemical in the production of carbamate pesticides, it has been used in the production of rubbers and adhesives. As a toxic and irritating material, it is hazardous to human health, it was the principal toxicant involved in the Bhopal disaster, which killed 3,787 people and 19,787 people in total. Methyl isocyanate is a colorless, lachrymatory, flammable liquid, it is soluble in water to 6–10 parts per 100 parts, but it reacts with water. Methyl isocyanate is manufactured by the reaction of monomethylamine and phosgene. For large scale production, it is advantageous to combine these reactants at higher temperature in the gas phase. A mixture of methyl isocyanate and two moles of hydrogen chloride is formed, but N-methylcarbamoyl chloride forms as the mixture is condensed, leaving one mole of hydrogen chloride as a gas; the methyl isocyanate is obtained by treating the MCC with a tertiary amine, such as N,N-dimethylaniline, or with pyridine or by separating it by using distillation techniques.

Methyl isocyanate is manufactured from N-methylformamide and air. In the latter process, it is consumed in a closed-loop process to make methomyl. Other manufacturing methods have been reported. Methyl isocyanate reacts with many substances that contain N-H or O-H groups. With water, it forms 1,3-dimethylurea and carbon dioxide with the evolution of heat: At 25 °C, in excess water, half of the MIC is consumed in 9 min.. If MIC is in excess, 1,3,5-trimethylbiuret is formed along with carbon dioxide. Alcohols and phenols, which contain an O-H group, react with MIC, but the reaction can be catalyzed by trialkylamines or dialkyltin dicarboxylate. Oximes and enols react with MIC to form methylcarbamates; these reactions produce. Ammonia and secondary amines react with MIC to form substituted ureas. Other N-H compounds, such as amides and ureas, react much more with MIC, it reacts with itself to form a trimer or higher molecular weight polymers. In the presence of catalysts, MIC reacts with itself to form a solid trimer, trimethyl isocyanurate, or a higher molecular weight polymer: Sodium methoxide, triethyl phosphine, ferric chloride and certain other metal compounds catalyze the formation of the MIC-trimer, while the high-molecular-weight polymer formation is catalyzed by certain trialkylamines.

Since the formation of the MIC trimer is exothermic, the reaction can lead to violent boiling of the MIC. The high-molecular-weight polymer hydrolyzes in hot water to form the trimethyl isocyanurate. Since catalytic metal salts can be formed from impurities in commercial grade MIC and steel, this product must not be stored in steel drums or tanks. Methyl isocyanate is toxic; the threshold limit value set by the American Conference on Government Industrial Hygienists is 0.02 ppm. MIC is toxic by inhalation and contact in quantities as low as 0.4 ppm. Exposure symptoms include coughing, chest pain, asthma, irritation of the eyes and throat, as well as skin damage. Higher levels of exposure, over 21 ppm, can result in pulmonary or lung edema and hemorrhages, bronchial pneumonia and death. Although the odor of methyl isocyanate cannot be detected at 5 ppm by most people, its potent lachrymal properties provide an excellent warning of its presence. Proper care must be taken to store methyl isocyanate because of its ease of exothermically polymerizing and its similar sensitivity to water.

Only stainless steel or glass containers may be safely used. The toxic effect of the compound was apparent in the 1984 Bhopal disaster, when around 42,000 kilograms of methyl isocyanate and other gases were released from the underground reservoirs of the Union Carbide India Limited factory, over a populated area on December 3, 1984, killing about 3,500 people and 15,000 more over the next several years; until recent decades, the mechanism of methyl isocyanate toxicity in humans was unknown or unclear. Methyl isocyanate and other isocyanates are electrophiles and are thought to cause toxicity by the alkylation of biomolecules; the mechanism of methyl isocyanate was suspected to be the carbamylation of hemoglobin which would interfere with its oxygen binding capability causing hypoxia. However, experiments showed that when rats and guinea pigs were exposed to methyl isocyanate at concentrations above the LC50, only 2% of hemoglobin molecules were carbamylated suggesting that this is not the mechanism of toxicity.

On 30 July 2015, scientists reported that upon the first touchdown of the Philae lander on comet 67/P's surface, measurements by the COSAC and Ptolemy instruments revealed sixteen organic compounds, four of which were seen for the first time on a comet, including acetamide, methyl isocyanate and propionaldehyde. NIOSH Safety and Health Topic: Isocyanates, from the website of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. U. S. National Library of Medicine: Hazardous Substanc


Basudevapur is a town in Banke District in the Bheri Zone of south-western Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had 651 houses in the town; the purpose of Village Development Committees is to organise village people structurally at a local level and creating a partnership between the community and the public sector for improved service delivery system. A VDC has a status as an autonomous institution and authority for interacting with the more centralised institutions of governance in Nepal. In doing so, the VDC gives village people an element of control and responsibility in development, ensures proper utilization and distribution of state funds and a greater interaction between government officials, NGOs and agencies; the village development committees within a given area will discuss education, water supply, basic health and income and will monitor and record progress, displayed in census data. In VDCs there is one elected chief elected with over an 80% majority. From each ward, there is a chief, elected along with these there are four members elected or nominated

Bill Brookes

William "Bill"/"Billy" Brookes known by the nickname of "Tubby", was a professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1900s. He played at representative level for England, at club level for Outwood Church ARLFC, Kippax ARLFC, Hunslet, as a forward, during the era of contested scrums. Bill Brookes won caps for England while at Hunslet in 1905 against Other Nationalities, in 1906 against Other Nationalities. Bill Brookes played as a forward, i.e. number 9, in Hunslet's 14-0 victory over Hull F. C. in the 1907–08 Challenge Cup Final during the 1907–08 season at Fartown Ground, Huddersfield on Saturday 25 April 1908, in front of a crowd of 18,000. Bill Brookes played as a forward, i.e. number 8, in Hunslet's 13-3 victory over Halifax in the 1905–06 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1905–06 season at Park Avenue, Bradford on Saturday 2 December 1905, played as a forward, i.e. number 11, in the 17-0 victory over Halifax in the 1907–08 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1907–08 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 21 December 1907.

Bill Brookes was a member of Hunslet's 1907–08 season All Four Cups winning team, the Forwards were known as "The Terrible Six" they were.

Fight For Japan: Genki Desu Ka Omisoka 2011

Fight For Japan: Genki Desu Ka Omisoka 2011 known as Fight for Japan. How are you! New Year! 2011 was a mixed martial arts and kickboxing event in the annual New Year's Eve event promoted by FEG, M-1 Global and the Inoki Genome Federation that took place on December 31, 2011 at the Saitama Super Arena in Saitama, Japan. The event included bouts that encompassed K-1 World MAX and IGF banners; the event aired live on HDNet in North America, SKY PerfecTV! in Japan, online through Nico Nico Douga. The semi-finals and finals of DREAM's World Bantamweight Grand Prix were held at this event; the Nagashima/Kikuno mixed rules bout consisted of a three-minute first round under K-1 rules and a five-minute second round under DREAM rules. Kazushi Sakuraba was rumoured to be involved in a puroresu bout on this card. Tim Sylvia was expected to face Brett Rogers at this event, however the bout was scrapped because Rogers was unable to obtain a visa to enter Japan. Heavyweight bout: Fedor Emelianenko vs. Satoshi IshiiEmelianenko defeated Ishii via KO at 2:29 of round 1.

DREAM Lightweight Championship bout: Shinya Aoki vs. Satoru KitaokaAoki defeated Kitaoka via unanimous decision. DREAM Featherweight Championship bout: Hiroyuki Takaya vs. Takeshi InoueTakaya defeated Inoue via unanimous decision. IGF Rules bout: Atsushi Sawada and Shinichi Suzukawa vs. Kazushi Sakuraba and Katsuyori ShibataSakuraba/Shibata defeated Sawada/Suzukawa via TKO at 13:46 of round 1. IGF Rules bout: Kazuyuki Fujita vs. Peter AertsFujita defeated Aerts via submission at 3:36 of round 1. IGF Championship bout: Jerome Le Banner vs. Tim SylviaLe Banner defeated Sylvia via TKO at 2:57 of round 1. DREAM/K-1 Special Rules bout: Yuichiro Nagashima vs. Katsunori KikunoKikuno defeated Nagashima via TKO at 2:34 of round 2. IGF Rules bout: Josh Barnett vs. Hideki SuzukiBarnett defeated Suzuki via pinfall at 11:47 of round 1. Women's bout: Megumi Fujii vs. Karla BenitezFujii defeated Benitez via submission at 1:15 of round 1. Featherweight bout: Tatsuya Kawajiri vs. Kazuyuki MiyataKawajiri defeated Miyata via submission at 4:54 of round 2.

Welterweight bout: Hayato Sakurai vs. Ryo ChonanSakurai defeated Chonan via unanimous decision. K-1 MAX bout: Yuta Kubo vs. Nils WidlundKubo defeated Widlund via KO at 1:10 of round 3. K-1 MAX bout: Masaaki Noiri vs. Kengo SonodaNoiri defeated Sonoda via unanimous decision. Bantamweight Tournament Final: Antonio Banuelos vs. Bibiano FernandesFernandes defeated Banuelos via TKO at 1:21 of round 1. Bantamweight Tournament Semifinal Bout: Bibiano Fernandes vs. Rodolfo MarquesFernandes defeated Marques via unanimous decision. Bantamweight Tournament Semifinal Bout: Masakazu Imanari vs. Antonio BanuelosBanuelos defeated Imanari via split decision. Bantamweight Tournament Reserve Bout: Hideo Tokoro vs. Yusup SaadulaevSaadulaev defeated Tokoro via KO at 0:42 of round 1

Valiano Natali

Valiano Natali was an Italian operatic tenor. SourceValiano was the son of Giovanna Lunardi. Natali started his singing career as an Italian pop singer. Due to his vocal talent, he first got noticed at the fashionable nightlife spot Caffè Margherita, in Viareggio, during a singing festival. In the same seaside resort town he met Maresca Bacci, a Florentine girl, to become his inseparable life companion, they moved to Florence and married in 1942. After World War II. Natali, who had meanwhile embraced opera, won a contest at the world-famous Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, launching a brilliant career as a tenor that would soon bring him to sing in all the major theaters next to the great opera protagonists of the time, like Mario Del Monaco, Giuseppe Di Stefano, Tito Gobbi and Maria Callas. With Callas and Di Stefano, in 1953, at Teatro Comunale in Florence, Natali sang the part of Arturo in Lucia di Lammermoor, directed by maestro Franco Ghione. During the same year, again with Callas and Di Stefano, Natali recorded the opera, directed by maestro Tullio Serafin, in one of the most unforgettable recordings of Donizetti's masterpiece, remastered and been part of opera lovers' collections to this day.

In 1955, the tenor took on the role of Cassius in Otello by Giuseppe Verdi at Teatro Carlo Felice di Genova. In 1956 he was in the cast of Macbeth at the Opera di Roma. At the peak of his career, when he was sought by the main national and international opera productions, a serious car accident forced Natali to stop for months; when he recovered, he was left limping for life. Due to his condition, he had to fall back to singing secondary parts. In spite of this, he continued to be active until with the Teatro Florence. Here he continued to take part in representations of operas until the late 1970s, for instance, he was part of the cast of the Un ballo in Maschera, by Giuseppe Verdi, for the seasons of 1965-66, 1971–72 and 1973–74, this last under the direction of maestro Riccardo Muti. Once left the stage Natali moved to Torre del Lago Puccini in 1982, dedicating his talent to vocal teaching and joining the board of directors of the renowned Puccini Festival, that the city holds every year. Among his notable students were Italian tenor Sauro Casseri, from Agliana, soprano Mimma Briganti, from Versilia, who studied with Natali from 1985 to 1992.

Natali died of a heart attack in Pietrasanta, on 30 March 2000. His tomb is in the cemetery of Campi Bisenzio, where he rests beside his wife Maresca, who died a few years before him

Salem's Seven

Salem's Seven is a fictional team of magical beings and former supervillains appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. They were foes of the Scarlet Witch and the Fantastic Four, but in more recent years, they have become allies to both. All seven are the grandchildren of Agatha Harkness, they are humans with magic powers. The team first appeared in Fantastic Four vol. 1 #186, was created by Len Wein and George Pérez. Salem's Seven originated in New Salem, Colorado, a hidden town in an unsettled part of the Rocky Mountains populated by magic users who lived in fear and loathing of normal humanity due to the persecution, imposed on them during the Salem witch trials. All of Salem's Seven were fathered among different women by Nicholas Scratch. Scratch's own mother Agatha Harkness was the most powerful of the town's inhabitants, but she chose to leave the village and live among humanity. In time, she became the governess for Franklin Richards. Scratch had Salem's Seven abduct Agatha for purportedly betraying the New Salem community.

They brought back Franklin with them to give to Scratch as a new host-body, which forced the Fantastic Four to pursue. Although overcome and imprisoned, the Four defeated their captors, banished Scratch from this dimension, saved Harkness; when Salem's Seven much tried to avenge themselves on Harkness, she removed their ability to change forms. Over the years, Salem's Seven managed to reverse the spells locking them out of their enhanced forms weakening Harkness in the process, they took control of New Salem, with Vertigo as their leader, they turned the whole community against Harkness and burned her at the stake. The Scarlet Witch and the Vision were drawn to New Salem, where they were captured by the Seven. Gazelle dissented with the group's plans of sacrifice, was thrown in with the prisoners; the Vision escaped and battled Vertigo, who drew into herself the powers of the other 665 residents of New Salem. When the Vision defeated her, Vertigo lost control of the power; the Scarlet Witch managed to channel some of it off, but in the ensuing explosion all of New Salem was wiped out, including the Seven.

The next Halloween, Wanda attempted to commune with Agatha Harkness's spirit, but was drawn through into the land of the dead, where she was confronted with spirits of the Seven who had aligned themselves with a being that called itself Samhain. Wanda bound him within the spirits of the six of the Seven. Via samples of their DNA, Hydron, Reptilla and Vakume were re-animated as some of Arnim Zola's proto-husks; these were all introduced and promptly slain for humorous effect by Deadpool. All members of the Salem's Seven were resurrected when the Scarlet Witch's mental breakdown and manipulation of magic restored them to life, their father Nicholas Scratch manipulated them into releasing Shuma-Gorath, but aided the Fantastic Four and Doctor Strange in defeating Scratch and Shuma-Gorath. The seven are friends of the Fantastic Four. In the pages of the 2014 New Warriors series, the Salem's Seven have been seen living again in New Salem, which has become a haven for all people "born of magic" with Salem's Seven acting as the town's resident protectors.

Through the advice of a mysterious benefactor, Wizard enlisted Gazelle and Vertigo of the Salem's Seven to join his Frightful Four. They attacked Mister Fantastic in Chicago. During the "Hunted" storyline, Gazelle was among the animal-themed superhumans captured by Taskmaster and Black Ant for Kraven the Hunter's Great Hunt sponsored by Arcade's company Arcade Industries. In the ensuing chaos when the hunt begins, Gazelle is stabbed by a Hunter-Bot controlled by one of the participants. Brutacus - Son of Scratch who transforms into a lion-like humanoid with red horns. In this form, he has durability sufficient to match Thing or Vision. Gazelle - Daughter of Scratch who transforms into a cloven-hoofed deer-like person with super-speed and agility. Hydron - Son of Scratch who transforms into bipedal merman who can fire controllable streams of water from the stump-end of his left arm. Reptilla - Daughter of Scratch who transforms into a snake-like form with a single long snake tail instead of legs and two poisonous snakes instead of her arms.

She has the ability to constrict and to bite with her hand-snakes. Thornn - Son of Scratch who transforms into a yellow demon-like humanoid with large red thorns jutting from the arms and legs, he has the ability to throw stunning thorns. Vakume - Son of Scratch who transforms into a featureless purple humanoid, he has the ability to become intangible and control air, creating vacuums. Vertigo - An African-American and eldest daughter of Scratch with no special transformation, she is not the same character as Vertigo of the Savage Land Mutates, but possesses the same ability to attack a person's sense of balance. Appearing in Ultimate Fantastic Four operating out of Salem, the Seven are a new Super Hero team. Although they are saving many people, they are just as quick to fight the Fantastic Four to get the chance to do so first. Members Include: Alpha Dog - Leader of the Seven, he is able to alter density of objects allowing for the appearance of super-strength and invulnerability. Ghostware - Member of the Seven with the ability to phase others and self through solid matter.

Neuropath - Member of the Seven with emotional induc