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Metre

The metre or meter is the base unit of length in the International System of Units. The SI unit symbol is m; the metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299 792 458 of a second. The metre was defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole along a great circle, so the Earth's circumference is 40000 km. In 1799, the metre was redefined in terms of a prototype metre bar. In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a certain number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86. In 1983, the current definition was adopted. Metre is the standard spelling of the metric unit for length in nearly all English-speaking nations except the United States and the Philippines, which use meter. Other Germanic languages, such as German and the Scandinavian languages spell the word meter. Measuring devices are spelled "-meter" in all variants of English; the suffix "-meter" has the same Greek origin as the unit of length. The etymological roots of metre can be traced to the Greek verb μετρέω and noun μέτρον, which were used for physical measurement, for poetic metre and by extension for moderation or avoiding extremism.

This range of uses is found in Latin, French and other languages. The motto ΜΕΤΡΩ ΧΡΩ in the seal of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, a saying of the Greek statesman and philosopher Pittacus of Mytilene and may be translated as "Use measure!", thus calls for both measurement and moderation. The use of the word metre in English began at least as early as 1797. In 1671 Jean Picard measured the length of a "seconds pendulum" at the Paris observatory, he found the value of 440.5 lines of the Toise of Châtelet, renewed. He proposed a universal toise, twice the length of the seconds pendulum. However, it was soon discovered that the length of a seconds pendulum varies from place to place: French astronomer Jean Richer had measured the 0.3% difference in length between Cayenne and Paris. Jean Richer and Giovanni Domenico Cassini measured the parallax of Mars between Paris and Cayenne in French Guiana when Mars was at its closest to Earth in 1672, they arrived at a figure for the solar parallax of 9.5 arcseconds, equivalent to an Earth–Sun distance of about 22000 Earth radii.

They were the first astronomers to have access to an accurate and reliable value for the radius of Earth, measured by their colleague Jean Picard in 1669 as 3269 thousand toises. Picard's geodetic observations had been confined to the determination of the magnitude of the Earth considered as a sphere, but the discovery made by Jean Richer turned the attention of mathematicians to its deviation from a spherical form. In addition to its significance for cartography, the determination of the Figure of the Earth became a problem of the highest importance in astronomy, inasmuch as the diameter of the Earth was the unit to which all celestial distances had to be referred; as a result of the French Revolution, the French Academy of Sciences charged a commission with determining a single scale for all measures. On 7 October 1790 that commission advised the adoption of a decimal system, on 19 March 1791 advised the adoption of the term mètre, a basic unit of length, which they defined as equal to one ten-millionth of the distance between the North Pole and the Equator along the meridian through Paris.

In 1793, the French National Convention adopted the proposal. The French Academy of Sciences commissioned an expedition led by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre and Pierre Méchain, lasting from 1792 to 1799, which attempted to measure the distance between a belfry in Dunkerque and Montjuïc castle in Barcelona at the longitude of Paris Panthéon; the expedition was fictionalised in Le Mètre du Monde. Ken Alder wrote factually about the expedition in The Measure of All Things: the seven year odyssey and hidden error that transformed the world; this portion of the Paris meridian, was to serve as the basis for the length of the half meridian connecting the North Pole with the Equator. From 1801 to 1812 France adopted this definition of the metre as its official unit of length based on results from this expedition combined with those of the Geodesic Mission to Peru; the latter was related by Larrie D. Ferreiro in Measure of the Earth: The Enlightenment Expedition that Reshaped Our World. A more accurate determination of the Figure of the Earth would soon result from the measurement of the Struve Geodetic Arc and would have given another value for the definition of this standard of length.

This did not invalidate the metre but highlighted that progresses in science would allow better measurement of Earth's size and shape. After the July Revolution of 1830 the metre became the definitive French standard from 1840. At that time it had been adopted by Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler for the U. S Survey of the Coast."The unit of length to which all distances measured in the Coast Survey are referred is the French metre, an authentic copy of, preserved in the archives of the Coast Survey Office. It is the property of the American Philosophical Society, to whom it was presented by Mr. Hassler, who had received it from Tralles, a member of the French Committee charged with the construction of the standa

Steal (game show)

Steal is a British game show that aired on ITV from 17 February 1990 to 30 May 1992. It is hosted by Mark Walker with Stephen Rhodes as the voiceover. Contestants competed to win cash and prizes by uncovering symbols on a gameboard in a test of their recall abilities, its mascot was Jools, a computer-animated, thieving orange cat in a red cap and a black-and-white striped sweater. Two teams, each consisting of one man and one woman, competed through two rounds in the main game to win cash and prizes by uncovering them on a 4-by-4 grid of squares. Various symbols were in the squares: Green cash square: Win between £0 and £25 by pressing the buzzer to stop a randomiser. Swag bag: Win a prize, which may be valuable or worthless. Burglar mask: Steal a prize from the opposing team. Jools: Play an arcade-style computer game for additional cash; these games involved Jools' cat sidekick Scruff and/or his arch-enemy, Boxer the guard dog. Jail: Awarded nothing. A toss-up question open to all contestants on the buzzer.

A correct answer awarded initial control to that team. The board was displayed to the teams for 10 seconds covered up and rotated 90 degrees clockwise; the team in control was asked to find a particular symbol. If they succeeded, they won. If they found the wrong type or a jail square, they won nothing for that turn. Finding the burglar mask allowed a team to steal one prize from their opponents at any time until the end of the round; the teams alternated choosing squares, the round ended when all the cash and swag had been uncovered. Gameplay proceeded as in Round 1, with the following changes: There was no initial toss-up question; the board was displayed for only 5 seconds and turned 180 degrees. Green cash squares were now worth between £0 and £50. Finding a jail square deducted £5 from a team's score. Three of the six cash squares now displayed a red background instead of green. If a team found one of these, they had to press their buzzer to stop a randomiser between £0 and £50, they lost that much cash to their opponents.

When teams were asked to find cash on the board, they needed to uncover only the green squares. The team with the higher cash total at the end of this round won the game and advanced to the bonus round. Both teams kept. Only one member of the winning team played this round. Five special symbols were hidden on the board: a key, alarm and safe; the contestant had eight chances to find these symbols in any order. Hidden on the board were six cash squares, five police helmets that each deducted 5 seconds from the clock if found; the board was shown for 5 seconds before being covered up. If all five symbols were found, the team won the jackpot, which started at £1,000 and increased by £500 for each game in which it went unclaimed; the jackpot maximum was £3,000. Series 1 - 17 February 1990 – 12 May 1990 - 12 Episodes Series 2 - 23 February 1991 – 11 May 1991 - 12 Episodes Series 3 - 21 March 1992 – 30 May 1992 - 11 Episodes Steal at UKGameshows.com

History of the Jews in the United States

There have been Jewish communities in the United States since colonial times. Early Jewish communities were Sephardi, composed of immigrants from Brazil and merchants who settled in cities; until the 1830s, the Jewish community of Charleston, South Carolina, was the largest in North America. In the late 1800s and the beginning of the 1900s, many Jewish immigrants left from various nations to enter the U. S. as part of the general rise of immigration movements. For example, many German Jews arrived in the middle of the 19th century, established clothing stores in towns across the country, formed Reform synagogues, were active in banking in New York. Immigration of Eastern Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, in 1880–1914, brought a large, traditional element to New York City, they were Conservative in religion. They founded the Zionist movement in the United States, were active supporters of the Socialist party and labor unions. Economically, they concentrated in the garment industry. Refugees arrived from Europe after World War II and, after 1970, from the Soviet Union.

Politically, American Jews have been active as part of the liberal New Deal coalition of the Democratic Party since the 1930s, although there is a conservative Republican element among the Orthodox. They have displayed high education levels, high rates of upward social mobility; the Jewish communities in small towns have declined, with the population becoming concentrated in large metropolitan areas. In the 1940s, Jews comprised 3.7% of the national population. As of 2019, at about 7.1 million, the population is 2% of the national total—and shrinking as a result of low birth rates and Jewish assimilation. The largest Jewish population centers are the metropolitan areas of New York, Los Angeles, Washington, D. C. Chicago and Philadelphia; the Jewish population of the U. S. is the product of waves of immigration from Europe. Few returned to Europe, although committed advocates of Zionism have made aliyah to Israel. From a population of 1,000–2,000 Jewish residents in 1790 Dutch Sephardic Jews, Jews from England, British subjects, the American Jewish community grew to about 15,000 by 1840, to about 250,000 by 1880.

Most of the mid-19th century Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants to the U. S. came from German-speaking states, among the general German migration to the U. S, they spoke German, settled across the nation, assimilating with their new countrymen. Between 1880 and the start of World War I in 1914, about 2,000,000 Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews immigrated from Eastern Europe, where repeated pogroms made life untenable, they came from Russia, the Pale of Settlement, the Russian-controlled portions of Poland. The latter group clustered in New York City, created the garment industry there, which supplied the dry goods stores across the country, were engaged in the trade unions, they immigrated among other, non-Jewish and southern European immigrants, unlike the predominant American demographic from northern and western Europe. This feared change caused renewed nativist sentiment, the birth of the Immigration Restriction League, congressional studies by the Dillingham Commission from 1907 to 1911; the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 established immigration restrictions on these groups, the Immigration Act of 1924 further tightened and codified these limits.

With the ensuing Great Depression, despite worsening conditions for Jews in Europe with the rise of Nazi Germany, these quotas remained in place with minor alterations until the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. Jews created support networks consisting of many small synagogues and Ashkenazi Jewish Landsmannschaften for Jews from the same town or village. Leaders of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture, Jews became part of American life. During World War II, 500,000 American Jews, about half of all Jewish males between 18 and 50, enlisted for service, after the war, Jewish families joined the new trend of suburbanization, as they became wealthier and more mobile; the Jewish community expanded to other major cities around Los Angeles and Miami. Their young people attended secular high schools and colleges and met non-Jews, so that intermarriage rates soared to nearly 50%. Synagogue membership, grew from 20% of the Jewish population in 1930 to 60% in 1960.

The earlier waves of immigration and immigration restriction were followed by the Holocaust that destroyed most of the European Jewish community by 1945. In 1900 there were 1.5 million American Jews. See Historical Jewish population comparisons On a theological level, American Jews are divided into a number of Jewish denominations, of which the most numerous are Reform Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Orthodox Judaism; however 25% of American Jews are unaffiliated with any denomination. Conservative Judaism arose in America and Reform Judaism was founded in