The Metre Convention known as the Treaty of the Metre, is an international treaty, signed in Paris on 20 May 1875 by representatives of 17 nations. The treaty created the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, an intergovernmental organization under the authority of the General Conference on Weights and Measures and the supervision of the International Committee for Weights and Measures, that coordinates international metrology and the development of the metric system; as well as founding the BIPM and laying down the way in which the activities of the BIPM should be financed and managed, the Metre Convention established a permanent organizational structure for member governments to act in common accord on all matters relating to units of measurement. The three organs of the BIPM are: The General Conference on Weights and Measures – the plenary organ of the BIPM which consists of the delegates of all the contracting Governments, it employs around 70 people and has custody of the International Prototype Kilogram and hosts its formal meetings.
Only states can be Members as per the Metre Convention. In addition to Member status, the General Conference on Weights and Measures created in 1999 the status of Associate of the CGPM open to States and Economic Entities to enable them to participate in some activities of the BIPM through their National Metrology Institutes. Membership of the convention requires payment of substantial fees. Failure to pay these over a span of years, without any expectation of a payment agreement, has caused a number of nations such as North Korea to be removed from the protocol; as of 15 October 2019, there are 41 associate states and economies. The Metre Convention was only concerned with the units of mass and length but, in 1921, at the 6th meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures, it was revised and it extended the scope and responsibilities of the BIPM to other fields in physics. In 1960, at the 11th meetings of the CGPM, the system of units it had established was named the International System of Units, with the abbreviation SI.
Before the French Revolution, which started in 1789, French units of measurement were based on the Carolingian system, introduced by the first Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne which in turn were based on ancient Roman measures. Charlemagne brought a consistent system of measures across the entire empire. However, after his death, the empire fragmented and many rulers introduced their own variants of the units of measure; some of Charlemagne's units of measure, such as the pied du Roi remained unchanged for about a thousand years, while others, such as the aune and the livre varied from locality to locality. By the time of the revolution, the number of units of measure had grown to the extent that it was impossible to keep track of them. In England in 1215, clause 25 of the Magna Carta required that the same standards of measurement be applied throughout the realm; the wording of the clause emphasized that "There is to be a single measure... throughout our realm". Five centuries when in 1707 England and Scotland were united into a single kingdom, the Scots agreed to use the same units of measure that were established in England.
During the eighteenth century, in order to facilitate trade, Peter the Great, Czar of Russia adopted the English system of measure. From 1668 to 1776 the French standard of length was the Toise of Châtelet, fixed outside the Grand Châtelet in Paris. In 1735 two geodetic standards were calibrated against the Toise of Châtelet. One of them, the Toise of Peru was used for the Spanish-French Geodesic Mission. In 1766 the Toise of Peru became the official standard of length in France and was renamed Toise of the Academy. Profusion of units of measures was a practical problem of importance before the French Revolution and its reform was one of the items on the agenda of National Assembly. In 1799, after the remeasurement of the Paris meridian arc between Dunkirk and Barcelona by Delambre and Mechain, the metre was defined as a quarter of a 10-millionth of the Earth circumference or 3 pieds and 11.296 lignes of the Toise of the Academy. Talleyrand, an influential leader of the Assembly invited British and American participation in the establishment of a new system, but in the event, the Assembly went it alone and introduced the metre and the kilogram which were to form the basis of the metric system, manufacturing prototypes which, in 1799, were lodged with Archives.
The Helvetic Republic adopted the metric system in 1803. In 1805 a Swiss immigrant Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler brought copies of the French metre and kilogram in the United States. In 1830 the Congress decided to create uniform standards for weight in the United States. Hassler was proposed to adopt the metric system; the United States Congress opted for the British Parliamentary Standard from 1758 and the Troy Pound of Great Britain from 1824 as length and weight standards. The primary baseline of the U
Stephen James Metcalfe is a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom, first elected as the Member of Parliament for South Basildon and East Thurrock in 2010. He has served as the chairman of the Technology Select Committee. Before becoming an MP, Metcalfe worked in the family printing business, he stood unsuccessfully at the Conservative Parliamentary Candidate in Ilford South at the 2005 general election. Metcalfe was an Epping Forest District councillor and a portfolio holder for Customer Services, ICT & E-government until he stood down in order to concentrate on his campaign to be elected as an MP; as a councillor he campaigned on issues including green belt protection, the introduction of traffic calming schemes as well as working with communities to find ways of engaging the young. Metcalfe gained the seat at the general election in May 2010, defeating Labour's Third Sector and Social Exclusion minister Angela Evans Smith. In 2012, Metcalfe was named by Conservative Home as one of a minority of loyal Conservative backbench MPs not to have voted against the government in any significant rebellions.
He was subsequently one of 136 Conservative MPs to oppose the third reading of the Coalition's Marriage Act 2013. He is a Vice-President of the House of Commons Debating Group. Metcalfe is married with whom he has two children. Metcalfe was educated at the Davenant Foundation School at Loughton ·. Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou
She's in London is a British LGB web series set in London, England. The series is composed of six ten-minute episodes and revolves around the closure of a fictional lesbian Soho bar and a love triangle between a bar tender, her best friend and her best friend's ex, it stars Miri, Clare Hopes, Joanna Ludlow and is distributed via the US-based subscription site TelloFilms. She's in London marks the first non-US series for TelloFilms. Funding for the series was raised through a successful Kickstarter campaign; the soundtrack includes tracks from a number of LBQ artists and bands including Lucy Spraggan, MIRI, ME and Deboe, Playing House and DJ Sarah Cooper. The series bills itself as the first LBQ web series to come out of the United Kingdom. Theo tends bar in a lesbian bar in Soho. While the bar is iconic a mainstream property developer wants to close the venue, forcing its owner Jill to launch a campaign to keep it alive. Complicating matters is Theo's relationship with her best friend Sam, as Theo has slept with her beautiful ex Mel.
Miri as Theo Clare Hopes as Mel Joanna Ludlow as Sam Kerry Leigh as Jill Lauren Karl as Hana Natasha Rebuck as Alex Rachael Cooksey as Jo Jake Graf as John Adwoa-Alexsis Mintah as Adi Sarah Lavender as Ella Episode 1 - 27 September 2015 Episode 2 - 4 October 2015 Episode 3 - 11 October 2015 Episode 4 - 18 October 2015 Episode 5 - 25 October 2015 Episode 6 - 1 November 2015 Diva rated the series and wrote that it was "a love letter from the queer community of Soho to itself and that's what makes it worth the watching." Official website She's in London on IMDb She's in London at Tellofilms.com Interview at The Human Experience
Tu Tithe Mee is a Marathi movie released on 22 April 1998. The film is directed by Sanjay Surkar, it is based on family values and the bitter truth when the children take decisions for their old age parents. It received the Best Feature Film in Marathi award at the 46th National Film Awards. Nanasaheb Date retires at the age of 60 and realizes that he has missed out on simple pleasures of life while attending to household duties and work responsibilities, he decides to enjoy. His content upper-middle-class family consists of his wife, daughters-in-law and grandchildren, his younger son is transferred to another town. The sons decide with their wives that their father should stay back with the elder son, while their mother should accompany the younger son; the parents hesitate to say it openly. They find a solution. Mohan Joshi as Nanasaheb Date Suhas Joshi Smita Talwalkar Prashant Damle Kavita Lad Sudhir Joshi Sunil Barve Sharvani Pillai The music has been provided by Anand Modak. Winner of 2 National Awards 46th National Film Awards Best Feature Film in Marathi category Winner of 12 State Awards Winner of 5 Filmfare Awards
Season 3 of the American competitive reality TV series MasterChef had a 2-night premiere on Fox on June 4 and 5, 2012. The season concluded on September 10, 2012, with the first blind contestant, Christine Hà, winning the MasterChef title. Runner-up Josh Marks committed suicide on October 12, 2013, at age 26, he had been diagnosed with schizophrenia the day before his death, had been suffering from bipolar disorder. This cook won the competition; this cook finished in second place. The cook won the individual challenge; the cook directly advanced to the next round. The cook didn't win; the cook wasn't selected as a bottom entry in an individual challenge. The cook wasn't selected as a bottom entry in a Team Challenge; the cook was safe from elimination. The cook was on the losing team in the Team Challenge, competed in the Pressure Test, advanced; the cook was on the losing team in the Team Challenge, did not compete in the Pressure Test, advanced. The cook returned to the competition; the cook advanced.
The cook advanced. The cook was eliminated from Masterchef. Paula Deen - Episode 13
Tang dynasty tomb figures are pottery figures of people and animals made in the Tang dynasty of China as grave goods to be placed in tombs. There was a belief that the figures represented would become available for the service of the deceased in the afterlife; the figures are made of moulded earthenware with colour being added, though not over the whole figure, or in naturalistic places. Where the colouring was in paint it has not survived, but in many cases it was in sancai ceramic glaze, which has lasted well; the figures, called mingqui in Chinese, were most of servants and attendants such as dancers and musicians, with many no doubt representing courtesans. In burials of people of high rank there may be officials as well; the animals are most horses, but there are surprising numbers of both Bactrian camels and their Central Asian drivers, distinguished by thick beards and hair, their facial features. The depictions are realistic to a degree unprecedented in Chinese art, the figures give archaeologists much useful information about life under the Tang.
There are figures of the imaginary monster "earth spirits" and the fearsome human Lokapala, both in pairs and acting as tomb guardians to repel attacks by both spirits and humans. Sets of the twelve imaginary beasts of the Chinese Zodiac are found unglazed; the figures represent a development of earlier traditions of Chinese tomb figures, in the Tang elaborate glazed figures are restricted to north China largely to the areas around the capitals. They "virtually disappear" from 755 when the disruptive An Lushan Rebellion began, which affected the kilns in Henan and Hebei making the pieces as well as their elite clientele. A much diminished tradition continued in dynasties until the Ming; the use of sancai glazing on figures was restricted to the upper classes, production was controlled by the imperial bureaucracy, but a single burial of a member of the imperial family might contain many hundreds of figures. A thousand years before the Tang figures, the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng contained the bodies of 22 musicians, as well as the instruments they played.
Traces of wooden figures wearing textiles are known from similar dates, the First Emperor's Terracotta Army is famous. The excavated Han dynasty tombs we know about contained bronze or pottery figures of horses, groups of soldiers, well below life-size, in the tombs of commanders. Lower down the social scale, pottery models of houses and animals were common, continued into the Tang. By the time of the short-lived but effective Sui dynasty, the pattern of Tang tomb figures was established, though the polychromy of sancai colours did not appear until the Tang; the size and number of the figures in a grave depended on the rank of the deceased, as did the number that were glazed. Servants and farm animals were glazed, painted or slip-painted white, or brown in the case of animals; the figures were paraded on carts as part of the funeral procession. They were lined up outside the tomb before the coffin was taken inside. Once this was in place they were taken inside the tomb and arranged in the tomb along the sloping access way to the underground burial chamber, or in an ante-chamber to it.
In large tombs there were niches built into the tomb walls for them to occupy. Until recent years most pieces came from excavations that were not done by archaeologists and knowledge of the context of pieces was lacking; the important tomb of the Tang Princess Li Xianhui from 705 was discovered in 1960 in the imperial Qianling Mausoleum complex, professionally excavated from 1964, the first of a number of excavations of major tombs, though others have been left deliberately undisturbed. It had been robbed in the past soon after the burial, items in precious materials taken, but the thieves had not bothered with the 777 unglazed and painted and around 60 glazed tomb figures; these were in "solid ranks" in stepped niches off the long sloping entrance way. Grand tombs were conceived as "a personalized paradise mirroring the best aspects of the earthly world", approached by a spirit road with stone statues, ministered to by priests in temples and altars around the mound. Underground, they contained extensive frescos with painted representations of the same types of figure as the pottery, the images in the two media worked together to recreate a palace geography evoking the residence and lifestyle of the deceased before death.
The entrance ramp recreated the approach to a grand palace, the sections with frescos and figure niches reflecting the various enclosures and courtyards of the sprawling palace complexes of Tang royalty. Niches with horses and grooms were nearer the entrance than those with musicians and court ladies; this was imagined as much from the tomb chamber outwards as from the tomb entrance inwards. Indeed, within tomb complexes such as the Qianling Mausoleum complex, visits by the deceased to the neighbouring tombs of the imperial family, accompanied by huge processions, were envisaged, saddled pottery horses stood waiting for the entourage, for visits or hunting; the size of figures varies from about 10 to 110 centim