Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is an agency that operates public transportation in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It was formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission, it is chartered under state law as a regional transportation planning agency. Metro directly operates light rail, heavy rail and bus rapid transit services, it directs planning for rail and freeway projects within Los Angeles County. It funds 27 local transit agencies as well as access paratransit services; the agency develops and oversees transportation plans, funding programs, both short-term and long-range solutions to mobility and environmental needs in the county. The agency is the primary transit provider for the City of Los Angeles, providing the bulk of such services, while the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation operates a much smaller system of its own: Commuter Express bus service to outlying suburbs in the city of Los Angeles and the popular DASH mini-bus service in downtown and other neighborhoods.
Metro's headquarters are in a high-rise building adjacent to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates the third-largest public transportation system in the United States by ridership with a 1,433 mi² operating area and 2,000 peak hour buses on the street any given business day. Metro operates 105 miles of urban rail service; the authority has 9,892 employees, making it one of the region's largest employers. The authority partially funds sixteen municipal bus operators and an array of transportation projects including bikeways and pedestrian facilities, local roads and highway improvements, goods movement, Metrolink regional commuter rail, Freeway Service Patrol and freeway call boxes within the greater metropolitan Los Angeles region. Security and law enforcement services on Metro property are provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Transit Services Bureau via contract, in conjunction with Metro Transit Enforcement Department, Los Angeles Police Department and Long Beach Police Department.
In 2006, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was named Outstanding Transportation System for 2006 by the American Public Transportation Association. Most buses and trains have "America's Best" decals affixed. Metro Rail is a rail mass transit system with four light rail lines; as of November 2016, the system runs a total of 105 miles, with 93 stations and over 316,000 daily weekday boardings. Starting in 2019, lines will be renamed with lettered designations, citing a lack of distinct colors available for future services; the Blue Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Long Beach. The Red Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los North Hollywood; the Green Line is a light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk in the median of the 105 Freeway. It provides indirect access to Los Angeles International Airport via a shuttle bus; the Purple Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and the Mid-Wilshire district of Los Angeles.
Most of its route is shared with the Red Line. The Gold Line is a light rail line running between East Los Angeles and Azusa via Downtown Los Angeles; the Expo Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Santa Monica. Metro Busway is an express bus system with characteristics of bus rapid transit with two lines operating on dedicated or shared-use busways; the system runs a total of 60 miles, with 28 stations and over 42,000 daily weekday boardings as of May 2016. The Metro Busway system is meant to mimic the Metro Rail system, both in the vehicle's design and in the operation of the line. Vehicles stop at dedicated stations, vehicles receive priority at intersections and are painted in a silver livery similar to Metro Rail vehicles; the Metro Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line running between North Chatsworth. The Metro Silver Line is a limited-stop bus line running between El Monte, Downtown Los Angeles, Harbor Gateway, with some buses serving San Pedro. Metro is the primary bus operator in the Los Angeles Basin, the San Fernando Valley, the western San Gabriel Valley.
Other transit providers operate more frequent service in the rest of the county. Regions in Los Angeles County that Metro Bus does not serve at all include rural regions, the Pomona Valley, the Santa Clarita Valley, the Antelope Valley. Metro operates two types of bus services. However, when mechanical problems or availability equipment occurs, a bus of any color may be substituted to continue service on the route. Metro Local buses are painted in an off-orange color which the agency has dubbed “California Poppy”; this type of service makes frequent stops along major thoroughfares. There are 18,500 stops on 189 bus lines; some Metro Local routes make limited stops along part of their trip but do not participate in the Rapid program. Some Metro Local bus lines are operated by contractors MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their bright red color which the agency has dubbed “Rapid Red”; this bus rapid transit service offers limited stops on many of the county's more heavi
Park and ride
Park and ride facilities are parking lots with public transport connections that allow commuters and other people heading to city centres to leave their vehicles and transfer to a bus, rail system, or carpool for the remainder of the journey. The vehicle is retrieved when the owner returns. Park and rides are located in the suburbs of metropolitan areas or on the outer edges of large cities. A park and ride that only offers parking for meeting a carpool and not connections to public transport may be called a park and pool. Park and ride is abbreviated as "P+R" on road signs in the UK, is styled as "Park & Ride" in marketing. In Sweden, a tax has been introduced on the benefit of free or cheap parking paid by an employer, if workers would otherwise have to pay; the tax has reduced the number of workers driving into the inner city, increased the usage of park and ride areas in Stockholm. The introduction of a congestion tax in Stockholm has further increased the usage of ride. In Prague and ride parking lots are established near some metro and railway stations.
These parking lots offer low prices and all-day and return tickets including the public transport fare. Park and ride facilities allow commuters to avoid a stressful drive along congested roads and a search for scarce, expensive city-centre parking, they may well reduce congestion by assisting the use of public transport in congested urban areas. There is not much research on the cons of park and ride schemes, it has been suggested that there is "a lack of clear-cut evidence for park and ride's assumed impact in reducing congestion". Park and ride facilities help commuters who live beyond practical walking distance from the railway station or bus stop, they may suit commuters with alternative fuel vehicles, which have reduced range, when the facility is closer to home than the ultimate destination. They are useful as a fixed meeting place for those carsharing or carpooling or using "kiss and ride"; some transit operators use park and ride facilities to encourage more efficient driving practices by reserving parking spaces for low emission designs, high-occupancy vehicles, or carsharing.
Many park and rides toilets. Travel information, such as leaflets and posters, may be provided. At larger facilities, extra services such as a travel office, food shop, car wash, or cafeteria may be provided; these are encouraged by municipal operators to encourage use of park and ride. Park and ride facilities, with dedicated parking lots and bus services, began in the 1960s in the UK. Oxford operated the first such scheme with an experimental service operating part-time from a motel on the A34 in the 1960s and on a full-time basis from 1973. Better Choice Parking first offered an airport park and ride service at London Gatwick Airport in 1978. Oxford now operates ride from 5 dedicated parking lots around the city; as of 2015, Oxford has the biggest urban park & ride network in the UK with a combined capacity of 5,031 car parking spaces. One of the largest park and rides in Saudi Arabia is located at Kudai in Mecca, it helps people go the Masjid al-Haram. There is a Shuttle Service operated by SAPTCO that takes people during Ramadan from the Kudai Parking to the Masjid al-Haram.
Some railway stations are promoted as a park and ride facility for a town some distance away, for instance Liskeard for Looe and Lelant Saltings for St Ives, both in Cornwall, England. Names of stations in the UK with large parking lots outside the main urban area are suffixed with "Parkway", such as Bristol Parkway, Tiverton Parkway, Oxford Parkway. At Luton Airport Parkway and Southampton Airport Parkway, the stations are there to serve air as well as road passengers. In the United States, it is common for outlying rail stations to include automobile parking with hundreds of spaces. Boston, for example, has built several large parking facilities at its commuter rail and metro stations near major highways and large arterial surface roads around the periphery of the city: Alewife, Forest Hills, Hyde Park, Quincy Adams, Route 128, Woburn; the local transit operator, the MBTA, offers ride spaces. B & R is a name for using cycle boxes or racks near public transport terminals together with P & R parking lots.
This system can be promoted through integrated fare and tickets with public transport system. Many railway stations and airports feature a "kiss-and-ride" or "kiss-and-fly" area in which cars can stop to discharge or, less pick up passengers; the term first appeared in a 20 January 1956 report in the Los Angeles Times. It refers to the nominal scenario whereby a passenger is driven to the station by partner. Deutsche Bahn has announced that it will be changing the English expressions for Kiss and Ride, Service Points and Counters to German ones. In Italy the new Bologna Centrale railway station uses the "ride" signs; some high-speed railway stations in Taiwan have signs outside stations reading "Kiss and Ride" in English, with Chinese characters above the words that read "temporary pick-up and drop-off zone". Kiss and Ride are getting popular in Poland. Cities with such areas include Kraków, Warsaw or Toruń. Locally they are known by its English name, i.e. "Kiss and ride" and while the sign is non-standardized, all of them contain the letters K+R.
Park and ride schemes do not necessarily
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
California Department of Transportation
The California Department of Transportation is an executive department of the US state of California. The department is part of the cabinet-level California State Transportation Agency. Caltrans is headquartered in Sacramento. Caltrans manages the state's highway system, which includes the California Freeway and Expressway System, is involved with public transportation systems throughout the state, it supports Amtrak's Capitol Corridor. In 2015, Caltrans released a new mission statement: "Provide a safe, sustainable and efficient transportation system to enhance California’s economy and livability." The earliest predecessor of Caltrans was the Bureau of Highways, created by the California Legislature and signed into law by Governor James Budd in 1895. This agency consisted of three commissioners who were charged with analyzing the state road system and making recommendations. At the time, there was no state highway system. California's roads consisted of crude dirt roads maintained by county governments, as well as some paved roads within city boundaries, this ad hoc system was no longer adequate for the needs of the state's growing population.
After the commissioners submitted their report to the governor on November 25, 1896, the legislature replaced the Bureau with the Department of Highways. Due to the state's weak fiscal condition and corrupt politics, little progress was made until 1907, when the legislature replaced the Department of Highways with the Department of Engineering, within which there was a Division of Highways. California voters approved an US$18 million bond issue for the construction of a state highway system in 1910, the first California Highway Commission was convened in 1911. On August 7, 1912, the department broke ground on its first construction project, the section of El Camino Real between South San Francisco and Burlingame, which became part of California State Route 82; the year 1912 saw the founding of the Transportation Laboratory and the creation of seven administrative divisions, which are the predecessors of the 12 district offices in use as of 2018. The original seven division headquarters were located in: Willits Mercantile Building for Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino counties Redding C.
R. Briggs Building for Lassen, Shasta, Siskiyou and Trinity counties Sacramento Forum Building for Alpine, Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Nevada, Plumas, San Joaquin, Solano, Sutter, Tuolumne and Yuba counties San Francisco Rialto Building for Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, Sonoma counties San Luis Obispo Union National Bank Building for Monterey, San Benito, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo counties Fresno Forsythe Building for Fresno, Kern, Madera, Merced and Tulare counties Los Angeles Union Oil Building for Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura countiesIn 1913, the California State Legislature began requiring vehicle registration and allocated the resulting funds to support regular highway maintenance. In 1921, the state legislature turned the Department of Engineering into the Department of Public Works; the history of Caltrans and its predecessor agencies during the 20th century was marked by many firsts. It was one of the first agencies in the United States to paint centerlines on highways statewide.
In late 1972, the legislature approved a reorganization, suggested by a study initiated by then-Governor Ronald Reagan, in which the Department of Public Works was merged with the Department of Aeronautics to become the modern California Department of Transportation. For administrative purposes, Caltrans divides the State of California into 12 districts, supervised by district offices. Most districts cover multiple counties; the largest districts by population are District 4 and District 7. Like most state agencies, Caltrans maintains its headquarters in Sacramento, covered by District 3. Transportation in California State highways in California United States Department of Transportation List of roads and highways Official website Named Highways, Freeways and Other Appurtenances in California
Interstate 10 in California
Interstate 10, a major east–west Interstate Highway, runs in the U. S. state of California east from Santa Monica, on the Pacific Ocean, through Los Angeles and San Bernardino to the border with Arizona. In the Greater Los Angeles area, it is known as the Santa Monica Freeway and the San Bernardino Freeway, linked by a short concurrency on Interstate 5 at the East Los Angeles Interchange. Interstate 10 has portions designated as either the Rosa Parks Freeway, the Redlands Freeway, or the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway; the California Streets and Highways Code defines Route 10 from Route 1 in Santa Monica to Route 5 near Seventh Street in Los Angeles. Route 101 near Mission Road in Los Angeles to the Arizona state line at the Colorado River via the vicinity of Monterey Park, Colton and Chiriaco Summit and via Blythe. Despite the legislative definition, Caltrans connects the two sections of the route by cosigning I-10 down Interstate 5 between the East LA Interchange and the Santa Monica Freeway, negating a section of the San Bernardino Freeway west of I-5.
This short section of Route 10 between Route 5 and Route 101, defined as Route 110 until 1968, is signed overhead for I-10 eastbound and for U. S. 101 westbound. This I-5/I-10 cosigning is consistent with the Federal Highway Administration's Interstate Highway route logs that such an overlap exists for the segment of I-10 in California. I-10 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. I-10 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation; the Santa Monica Freeway is Route 10 from Route 1 to Route 5, as named by the State Highway Commission on April 25, 1957. The section between the Harbor and San Diego freeways is signed as the Rosa Parks Freeway, after the African American civil rights activist; the I-10 freeway is signed as the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway in Santa Monica.
The Santa Monica Freeway is the westernmost segment of Interstate 10 and a small section of State Route 1, beginning at the McClure Tunnel in Santa Monica and ending southeast of downtown Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange. Interstate 10 begins in the city of Santa Monica when State Route 1 turns into a freeway and heads east. SR heads south while I-10 continues east. Soon after it enters the city of Los Angeles, I-10 has a four-level interchange with Interstate 405. Interstate 10 continues through Sawtelle, Rancho Park, Cheviot Hills and Crestview in West Los Angeles, Lafayette Square and Wellington Square in Mid-City, Arlington Heights, West Adams and Jefferson Park into downtown Los Angeles. On the western edge of downtown, I-10 has an interchange with Interstate 110 to the south and State Route 110 to the north. I-10 travels along the southern edge of downtown to the East Los Angeles Interchange. At the East Los Angeles Interchange, State Route 60 diverges east towards Pomona.
I-10 turns north, running concurrently with Interstate 5 for one mile. Interstate 10 heads east and merges with the traffic from the spur to US 101 onto the San Bernardino Freeway; the freeway is 14 lanes wide from the Harbor Freeway interchange to the Arlington Avenue off-ramp. Most of these lanes are full at peak travel times; the remainder of the freeway varies between 10 lanes in width. The whole freeway opened in 1965, with a formal dedication held in 1966. While the construction of the Century Freeway several miles to the south reduced traffic congestion to a considerable amount by creating an alternate route from downtown to the Los Angeles International Airport, the Santa Monica Freeway is still one of the busiest freeways in the world. All three freeway-to-freeway interchanges along its length are notorious for their congestion, are ranked among the top 10 most congested spots in the United States. Due to the high traffic volume, car accidents are so common that Caltrans has constructed special Accident Investigation Sites separated from the freeway by fences.
These enable the California Highway Patrol to clear accidents from the through traffic lanes, the fences reduce congestion by preventing rubbernecking. The Santa Monica Freeway is considered the border between South Los Angeles. Part of the freeway skims the Byzantine-Latino quarter, home to many immigrants affiliated with the Eastern Orthodox Church. Interstate 10 heads east from the Downtown Los Angeles Eastside Los Angeles region, with two HOV lanes paralleling it on the north side called the El Monte Busway; these roadways extend to Alameda Street on US 101, following the spur west to where I-10 passes California State University Los Angeles. However, after the Interstate 710 interchange, these lanes merge back into the typical left lanes of each roadway. East of Interstate 710, I-10 continues through Monterey Park, Rosemead, San Gabriel, El Monte, Baldwin Park before intersecting with Interstate 605, it travels through West Covina and Covina before heading up Kellogg Hill into San Dimas, where I-10 intersects with State Route 57 and State Route 71 at the Kellogg Interchange.
I-10 heads east through Pomona and Clare
Interstate 605 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in the Greater Los Angeles urban area of Southern California, running about 27 miles in length from Seal Beach to Duarte. The San Gabriel River Freeway parallels the San Gabriel River for most of its alignment, hence its name, one of the few Southern California freeways not named after a city along its route. Though this does not include the improvements with the interchange with I-105, reconstruction of I-10 between I-605 and I-405, the addition of an HOV lane between I-405 and I-10, I-605 is one of the only remaining freeways that kept its original alignment throughout its run through Los Angeles County since it first opened; the California Streets and Highways Code defines Route 605 as " Route 1 near Seal Beach to Route 405. Route 405 to Route 210 near Duarte." However, the portion in subsection A has yet to be constructed. The southern terminus of I-605 is at the San Garden Grove Freeways in Seal Beach. From there, it runs north through the Gateway Cities of the Los Angeles Basin.
It shifts north-northeast, crossing the Whittier Narrows and across the San Gabriel Valley. I-605 ends at its junction with the Foothill Freeway, in Duarte, a small city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains. I-605 follows most of the length of the San Gabriel River from the San Diego Freeway in Seal Beach to the Santa Fe Dam. Dry riverbed and flood basins are visible from many portions of the route near the northern terminus. In the mid 2000s, a HOV lane was added for motorists with two or more people to use between I-405 and I-10; the HOV lane ends at Interstate 10. There are no plans to extend it to Interstate 210 at this time. With the addition of the HOV lane, the left shoulder was eliminated to avoid massive costs to widen the freeway; the highway suffers from traffic jams especially the junction with I-5. Newer signs with exit numbers replaced the older signs between the Orange County line and Interstate 10 in 2016, with the completion of the I-605 and I-10 junction improvement.
Guide signs along I-605 never included destinations such as "Seal Beach" or "Irwindale" since its opening. Rather, cardinal directions, a simple "THRU TRAFFIC" designation in place of control cities, are used on signs along I-605 itself. I-605 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. I-605 from I-405 to I-10 is known as the San Gabriel River Freeway, as named by Senate Bill 99, Chapter 1101 in 1967. In 1957, the number for this route was proposed as I-13, as it is positioned midway between I-5 and I-15; that number was rejected, as was the second proposed number, I-102. The designation I-605 was accepted in 1958. Interstate 605 began construction in 1963 and the first section was opened in 1964 from Interstate 405 to Pomona Freeway CA 60; the newest section was opened in 1971 was signed as SR 243. There are plans to extend it to SR 1 further south in Orange County as SR 605, but strong community opposition means that it is unlikely that the alignment will be built.
California Roads portal Greater Los Angeles portal California @ AARoads.com - I-605 Caltrans: Route 605 highway conditions California Highways: I-605
High-occupancy toll lane
A high-occupancy toll lane is a type of traffic lane or roadway, available to high-occupancy vehicles and other exempt vehicles without charge. Unlike toll roads, drivers have an option to use general purpose lanes, on which a fee is not charged. Express toll lanes, which are less common, operate along similar lines, but do not exempt high-occupancy vehicles; the concept developed from high-occupancy vehicle lane systems in order to increase use of the available capacity. Most implementations are in the USA; the first practical implementation was California's private toll 91 Express Lanes, in Orange County, California, in 1995, followed in 1996 by Interstate 15 north of San Diego. According to the Texas A&M Transportation Institute, as of 2012 there were 294 corridor-miles of HOT/Express lanes in operation in the United States and 163 corridor-miles under construction; the first HOT lane implementation in Canada was along the Queen Elizabeth Way freeway in Ontario. Existing high-occupancy vehicle lanes were redesignated as HOT lanes for a 16.5-kilometre stretch of the QEW between Oakville and Burlington.
The initial system consisted of $180 permits valid for three months, though HOT lanes with electronic tolling infrastructure were announced as part of forthcoming expansions to Ontario Highway 427. Some systems are reversible, operating in one direction during the morning commute and in the reverse direction during the evening commute; the toll is collected using electronic toll collection systems, automatic number plate recognition, or at manned toll booths. Exempt vehicles include those with at least two, three or four occupants, those that use approved alternative fuels, transit vehicles and emergency vehicles; the fee, displayed prominently at entry points to the lanes, is adjusted in response to demand to regulate the traffic volume and thereby provided a guaranteed minimum traffic speed and level of service. The Los Angeles Metro ExpressLanes HOT system requires vehicles to be fitted with manually "switchable" transponders where the driver selects the number of occupants, based on which the appropriate fee is charged.
California Highway Patrol officers have in-vehicle devices which display the declared occupancy of a vehicle, which they can verify visually and cite any driver with fewer occupants than declared. The new system proved itself to be effective in reducing the rate of lane-use violations, with it falling to 40-50% of the violation rates of other comparable CA highways, from more than 20-25% to just 10%. Other transportation officials in California took note of this, subsequently leading to the Bay Area officials of Alameda County to adopt a similar system for the planned Interstate 580. Implementation of these systems can be prohibitively expensive, due to the initial construction required—particularly with regard to providing access to and from the express toll lanes at interchanges. However, the long-term benefits—the decrease in delay to able motorists and increased funding for the transportation agency—may outweigh the costs. To offset costs of construction, many transportation agencies lease public roads to a private institution.
As a result, construction may be or funded by the private institution, which receives all of the income from tolling for a specified period. Because HOT lanes and ETLs are constructed within the existing road space, they are criticized as being an environmental tax or beneficial to higher-income individuals "Lexus lanes," since one toll category is charged the same rate regardless of socioeconomic status and the working poor thus suffer greater financial burden. Supporters of HOT lanes counter with the fact that because HOT lanes encourage the use of public transit and ride sharing, they reduce transportation demands and provide a benefit for all. However, current American public transportation is still viewed and characterized as a form of welfare, leading to paradoxical expenses as public tax dollars across the US bear high subsidies for transit services, while delivering low ridership levels, fewer service hours than other major countries with public transit systems, longer wait times between trip destinations.
Furthermore, HOT lanes have demonstrated no guarantees in eliminating traffic congestion, bringing into question, their fundamental usefulness aside from raising funds for private institutions and local governments. High Occupancy Toll Lanes Metro ExpressLanes in California Virginia HOT lanesExpress Toll Lanes Northwest Corridor Express Lanes in Georgia. 91 Express Lanes in California Road space rationing Transportation demand management List of toll roads in the United States Feebate "HOT for Transit? Transit's Experience of High-Occupancy Toll Lanes". National Center for Transit Research at the University of South Florida. 2014. Various HOT lane articles on website dedicated to road pricing "Impacts of Increasing Vehicle-Occupancy Requirements on HOV/HOT Lanes". Caltrans Traffic Operations. 2013. "Review of Road Pricing to Reduce Congestion". U. S. Government Accountability Office. 2012. - includes evaluation of 21 HOT lane projects in the U. S. "High Occupancy Toll lane Performance Under Alternative Pricing Policies".
Transportation Research Forum. 2012. "A Lukewarm Report Card for High-Occupancy Toll Lanes". City Labs. 2012-02-02. "An evaluation of a high occupancy toll lane demonstrator project in San Diego". Association for European Transport. 1998