Metro Manila

Metropolitan Manila the National Capital Region, is the seat of government and one of three defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines. It is composed of 16 cities: the city of Manila, Quezon City, Las Piñas, Malabon, Marikina, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasig, San Juan and Valenzuela, as well as the municipality of Pateros; the region encompasses an area of 619.57 square kilometers and a population of 12,877,253 as of 2015. It is the most densely populated region of the Philippines, it is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in Asia and the 5th most populous urban area in the world. The region is the center of culture, economy and government of the Philippines. Designated as a global power city, the region exerts a significant impact on commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, both locally and internationally, it is the home to all the consulates and embassies in the Philippines, thereby making it an important center for international diplomacy in the country. Its economic power makes the region the country's premier center for commerce.

The region accounts for 37.2% of the gross domestic product of the Philippines. The region was established in 1975 through Presidential Decree No. 824 in response to the needs to sustain the growing population and for the creation for the center of political power and the seat of the Government of the Philippines. The Province of Manila, the predecessor entity of the region, is one of the first eight provinces that revolted against the Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines at the end of the 19th century. Manila's role in the Revolution is honored in the Flag of the Philippines, where the sun's eight rays symbolize the eight revolutionary provinces. A historical province known as Manila encompassed territories once held by various pre-Hispanic polities; this included the well-known Pasig River delta settlements of Maynila and Tondo, but smaller settlements such as those at Tambobong, Taguig and the fortified polity of Cainta. It became the capital of the colonial Philippines, with Manila serving as the center of colonial power.

In 1898, it included the City of 23 other municipalities. Mariquina served as the capital from 1898–1899, just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States; the province was dissolved and most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the original global cities; the Manila galleon was the first known commercially traveled trade route that sailed the Pacific for 250 years, bringing to Spain their cargoes of luxury goods, economic benefits, cultural exchange. During the American period, at the time of the Philippine Commonwealth, American architect and urban designer Daniel Burnham was commissioned to create the grand Plan of Manila to be approved by the Philippine Government; the creation of Manila in 1901 is composed of the places and parishes of Binondo, Intramuros, Manila, Quiapo, San Andrés Bukid, San Fernando de Dilao, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana de Sapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo.

Meanwhile, the towns and parishes of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Pasig, Parañaque, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri and the Taguig-Pateros area were incorporated into the province of Rizal. Pasig serves as its provincial capital. In 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City with a goal to replace Manila as the capital city of the country. A masterplan for Quezon City was completed; the establishment of Quezon City meant the demise of the grand Burnham Plan of Manila, with funds being diverted for the establishment of the new capital. World War II further resulted in the loss most of the developments in the Burnham Plan, but more the loss of more than 100,000 lives at the Battle of Manila in 1945. On, Quezon City was declared as the national capital in 1948; the title was re-designated back to Manila in 1976 through Presidential Decree No. 940 owing to its historical significance as the uninterrupted seat of government of the Philippines since the Spanish colonial period.

Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city of the Philippines being the center of trade, commerce and culture. During the war, President Manuel L. Quezon created the City of Greater Manila as an emergency measure, merging the cities of Manila and Quezon City, along with the municipalities of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Pasig, Parañaque, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri and the Taguig-Pateros area. Jorge Vargas was appointed as its mayor. Mayors in the cities and municipalities included in the City of Greater Manila served as vice mayors in their town; this was in order to ensure Vargas, Quezon's principal lieutenant for administrative matters, would have a position of authority recognized under international military law. The City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country.

The City of Greater Manila served as a model for the present-day Metro Manila and the administrative functions of the Governor of Metro Manila, established during the Marcos administration. On November 7, 1975, Metro Manila was formally established through Presidential Decree No. 824. The Metropolitan Manila Commission was created to manage the region. On

History of business architecture

The history of business architecture has its origins in the 1980s. In the next decades business architecture has developed into a discipline of "cross-organizational design of the business as a whole" related to enterprise architecture; the concept of business architecture has been proposed as a blueprint of the enterprise, as business strategy, as the representation of business design. The concept of business architecture has evolved over the years, it was introduced as activity of business design. In the 2000s the study and concept development of business architecture accelerated. By the end of the 2000s the first handbooks on business architecture were published, separate frameworks for business architecture were being developed, separate views and models for business architecture were further under construction, the business architect as a profession evolved, more businesses added business architecture to their agenda. By 2015 business architecture has evolved into a common practice; the business architecture body of knowledge has been developed and is updated multiple times each year, the interest from the academic world and from top management is growing.

Business architecture has its roots in traditional cross-organizational design. Bodine and Hilty stipulated, that the "responsibility for the cross-organizational design of the business as a whole, the work of the Business Architect, has fallen to the CEO or their assignee, supported by generalist management consulting firms whose teams of MBAs work with corporate managers to transform strategy into new business configurations using the newest tools." John Zachman commented in this context, that "a lot of material has been written about business architecture, going back to The Principles of Scientific Management by Frederick Taylor."One of the roots of business architecture lies in the proposals for enterprise architecture made since the 1980s and 1990s. Bernus & Noran distinguished two types of proposals. On the one hand "Proposals that created applicable ‘blueprints’ so that the activities involved in the creation of the enterprise could refer to such a common model." And on the other hand "proposals which claimed that to be able to organise the creation, the change, of enterprises one needs to understand the life cycle of the enterprise and of its parts... the ‘Enterprise Reference Architecture’."More specific about the emerge of business architecture Whelan & Meaden described, that this emerged against a backdrop of change.

The business architecture is "maturing into a discipline in its own right, rising from the pool of inter-related practices that include business strategy, enterprise architecture, business portfolio planning and change management – to name but a few. The concept of business architecture emerged in the 1980s in the field of information systems development. One of the first to mention business architecture was the British management consultant Edwin E. Tozer in the 1986 article "Developing strategies for management information systems." He introduced the concept of business architecture in the context of business information systems planning, distinguished: Business architecture, Information architecture,And he explained, that "each entity class in the Information Architecture is represented in some database and each business function may be supported by one or more systems." In this paper Tozer was "prescriptive about the order in which issues should be identified.", focussed on "IS adaptability to organizational strategies."

The American organizational theorist William R. Synnott presented one of the first models of business architecture, in the context of data management. Synnott wanted to develop an overall Information Resource Management architecture, proposed business architecture as its foundation, he described: Business architecture is the foundation upon which the IRM architecture rests. The architectural model consists of a set of building-blocks of linked architectures which together form the basis for the technology infrastructure of the firm... In the figure data architecture and communication architecture are shown as horizontal bars because these are corporate-wide information resource components, they serve all business units. The four vertical resource components are business specific; the resources can be divided according to the business units they serve. That us, data and communication might be centralizes resources, whereas human resources, user-computing, systems could all be decentralized resources to one degree or another.

This model of Information Resource Management distinguished seven types of architecture: Centralized: Business architecture, Data architecture, Communication architecture Decentralized: Human resources architecture, Computer architecture, User-computing architecture, Systems architecture. This type of architectural model classifies different types of architecture. In the theories and models different sets of architectures have been proposed. For example, the late 1980s NIST Enterprise Architecture Model distinguished five types, this was incorporated in the 1990s Federal Enterprise Architecture, which contained four types of architecture. Synnott furthermore described, how business architecture should work and introduced the idea of architectural planning: The business architecture of the company is the foundation of IRM planning. Since every company has an existing architecture, architectural planning begins wi

Cerro Maravilla

Cerro Maravilla is Puerto Rico's fourth highest peak at 1,205 meters. It is located on the northern edge Barrio Anón in Ponce, close to the border with the municipality Jayuya, is part of the Cordillera Central, it is known as El Cerro de los Mártires and characterized as the most infamous peak in Puerto Rico, due to the 1978 Cerro Maravilla murders which took place here. The peak is located at the end of the 0.5 km-long Puerto Rico Highway 577, accessible via Puerto Rico Highway 143, traveling either westbound or eastbound. PR-143 is a secondary two-way, two-lane mountainous road, well traveled; the peak's coordinates are: 18°9′8.34″N 66°33′17.63″W. The height of the mountain makes for some interesting sights. For example, on clear days both the northern and southern coasts of the island can be appreciated simultaneously. In the winter season, the air is crisp and the temperature at night will fluctuate between the 40s and 60s degrees Fahrenheit; the chirping of the familiar "coquies" is prominent after nightfall.

The peak might be best known for being the place where two Puerto Rico independence activists were slain on 25 July 1978 in a police ambush This controversy has since turned the mountain into a meeting point for supporters of the independence of the Puerto Rican Commonwealth to gather annually to remember the murdered activists and condemn the current colonial status. The following table charts the climate at Cerro Marravilla throughout the year. Cerro Maravilla experienced severe flooding after 24 hours of rainfall on October 6–7, 1985. Cerro Maravilla incident