Canadian National Railway
Canadian National is a Canadian Class I freight railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec that serves Canada and the Midwestern and Southern United States. CN is Canada's largest railway, in terms of both revenue and the physical size of its rail network, is Canada's only transcontinental railway company, spanning Canada from the Atlantic coast in Nova Scotia to the Pacific coast in British Columbia across about 20,400 route miles of track. CN is a public company with 24,000 employees and as of September 2018 it had a market cap of $84 billion Canadian dollars. CN was government-owned, having been a Canadian Crown corporation from its founding to its privatization in 1995. In 2011, Bill Gates was the largest single shareholder of CN stock; the railway was referred to as the "Canadian National Railways" between 1918 and 1960, as "Canadian National"/"Canadien National" from 1960 to the present. The Canadian National Railways was incorporated on June 6, 1919, comprising several railways that had become bankrupt and fallen into federal government hands, along with some railways owned by the government.
On November 17, 1995, the federal government privatized CN. Over the next decade, the company expanded into the United States, purchasing Illinois Central Railroad and Wisconsin Central Transportation, among others. Now a freight railway, CN operated passenger services until 1978, when they were assumed by Via Rail; the only passenger services run by CN after 1978 were several mixed trains in Newfoundland, a several commuter trains both on CN's electrified routes and towards the South Shore in the Montreal area. The Newfoundland mixed trains lasted until 1988, while the Montreal commuter trains are now operated by Montreal's AMT. In response to public concerns fearing loss of key transportation links, the government of Canada assumed majority ownership of the near bankrupt Canadian Northern Railway on September 6, 1918, appointed a "Board of Management" to oversee the company. At the same time, CNoR was directed to assume management of Canadian Government Railways, a system comprising the Intercolonial Railway of Canada, National Transcontinental Railway, the Prince Edward Island Railway, among others.
On December 20, 1918, the federal government created the Canadian National Railways – a title only with no corporate powers – through a Canadian Privy Council Order in Council as a means to simplify the funding and operation of the various railway companies. The absorption of the Intercolonial Railway would see CNR adopt that system's slogan The People's Railway. Another Canadian railway, the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, encountered financial difficulty on March 7, 1919, when its parent company Grand Trunk Railway defaulted on repayment of construction loans to the federal government; the federal government's Department of Railways and Canals took over operation of the GTPR until July 12, 1920, when it too was placed under the CNR. The Canadian National Railway was organized on October 10, 1922; the bankrupt GTR itself was placed under the care of a federal government "Board of Management" on May 21, 1920, while GTR management and shareholders opposed to nationalization took legal action. After several years of arbitration, the GTR was absorbed into CNR on January 30, 1923.
In subsequent years, several smaller independent railways would be added to the CNR as they went bankrupt, or it became politically expedient to do so, however the system was more or less finalized following the addition of the GTR. Canadian National Railways was born out of both domestic urgency. Railways, until the rise of the personal automobile and creation of taxpayer-funded all-weather highways, were the only viable long-distance land transportation available in Canada for many years; as such, their operation consumed a great deal of political attention. Many countries regard railway networks as critical infrastructure and at the time of the creation of CNR during the continuing threat of the First World War, Canada was not the only country to engage in railway nationalization. In the early 20th century, many governments were taking a more interventionist role in the economy, foreshadowing the influence of economists like John Maynard Keynes; this political trend, combined with broader geo-political events, made nationalization an appealing choice for Canada.
The Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 and allied involvement in the Russian Revolution seemed to validate the continuing process. The need for a viable rail system was paramount in a time of civil unrest and foreign military intervention. CN Telegraph originated as the Great North West Telegraph Company in 1880 to connect Ontario and Manitoba and became a subsidiary of Western Union in 1881. In 1915, facing bankruptcy, GNWTC was acquired by the Canadian Northern Railway's telegraph company; when Canadian Northern was nationalized in 1918 and amalgamated into Canadian National Railways in 1921, its telegraph arm was renamed the Canadian National Telegraph Company. CN Telegraphs began co-operating with its Canadian Pacific owned rival CPR Telegraphs in the 1930s, sharing telegraph networks and co-founding a teleprinter system in 1957. In 1967 the two services were amalgamated into a joint venture CNCP Telecommunications which evolved into a telecoms company. CN sold its stake of the company to CP in 1984.
In 1923 CNR's second president, Sir Henry Thornton who succeeded David Blyth Hanna, created the CNR Radio Department to provide passengers with entertainment radio reception and give the railway a competitive advantage over its rival, CP
Railway Lands is an area in Downtown Toronto, Canada. A large railway switching yard near the Toronto waterfront, including the CNR Spadina Roundhouse and the CPR John Roundhouse, it has since been redeveloped and today is home to mixed-used development, including the CN Tower and the Rogers Centre; the lands were owned and maintained by the Canadian National Railway and transferred to the federal crown corporation Canada Lands Company. The area is bounded by Yonge Street, Gardiner Expressway and Bathurst Street; the western portion of the Railway Lands is now part of the CityPlace neighbourhood and the eastern portion is now called South Core. The first railway, Ontario and Huron arrived in Toronto in 1853 with a station located near the current Union Station. Rivals Grand Trunk Railway and Great Western Railway arrived in Toronto to compete with OS&H; the competition placed a strain on the new station and by 1873 a new Union Station was built by the GTR. In the 1880s Grand Trunk Railway acquired rival railways and the Canadian Pacific Railway arrived in the city in 1888.
The competition soon meant the second station was strained as well and by 1900 there was a need for a newer station. From the 1850s to 1920s the area south of the railway lands were filled in to accommodate railway needs. From 1858 onwards the railway expanded in area. From the 1850s to 1920s, the area south of Front Street was filled in to provide more room for railways, industrial growth and harbour needs. On July 13, 1906, the Toronto Terminals Railway was incorporated to "construct, provide and operate at the City of Toronto a union passenger station", it was responsible for the entire 6.4 kilometres long railway corridor on either side of the station, between west of Bathurst Street and the Don River, known as the Union Station Rail Corridor. The TTR was jointly owned by the Grand Trunk Railway and the Canadian Pacific Railway who each held 50% of the TTR shares. During station construction, the Grand Trunk Railway went bankrupt, was nationalized by the Government of Canada, merged into the Canadian National Railway which would assume the Grand Trunk's 50% ownership of the TTR.
Union Station was opened on August 6, 1927 by the Prince of Wales, although it was not completed yet. Four days the track network was shifted from the former second Union Station. To get to trains, passengers would walk from the south doors to the tracks located several hundred feet to the south while the new USRC viaduct and train shed was under construction. Demolition of the second Union Station began immediately and was completed in 1928; the third Union Station was not completed until 1930 when construction of the train shed had finished. The first major change to the Station took place in 1954 when the Toronto Transit Commission opened its Union subway station adjacent to Union Station, buried beneath Front Street. Going as far back as 1965, when CN began to shift the functions of many of its yards in the Greater Toronto Area to a centralized facility in the northern suburb of Vaughan, the railways lands were made redundant; the area was slated for re-development for post-railway beginning with plans for the building of a communications tower and the massive Metro Centre.
Two years into the construction of the CN Tower, plans for Metro Centre were scrapped, leaving the tower isolated on the Railway Lands in what was a abandoned light-industrial space. Development of the Railway Lands slowed between the 1970s and 1980; the early 1980s saw more redevelopment, with the opening of the Metro Convention Centre in 1984. The late 1980s saw the building of the SkyDome and the SkyWalk connecting the SkyDome with Union Station. In the early 1990s redevelopment slowed, but it did see the expansion of the convention centre and the John Street Roundhouse redeveloped into the Roundhouse Park, though it would not be restored until the 2000s, it saw the building of Scotiabank Arena in the late 1990s along the eastern boundary of the Railway Lands. In the early 21st Century, the remaining area began to change with residential and commercial development changing the area's past use; the western portion of the Railway Lands, defined by the city as Railway Lands West, is today home to the CityPlace neighbourhood built just west of Spadina Avenue, south of Front Street and north of the Gardiner Expressway.
Railway Lands Central is mixed use land east of Spadina to the area east of the CN Tower is home to Rogers Centre and CN Tower and parts of CityPlace. Railway Lands East is now the South Core neighbourhood and is a mixed used land east of Rogers Centre and is home to Union Station, Dominion Public Building, SkyWalk, Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Roundhouse Park, Steam Whistle Brewing, Southcore Financial Centre, Delta Hotel Toronto, Maple Leaf Square and Scotiabank Arena. On August 3, 2016, Mayor John Tory announced a proposal to create a Rail Deck Park, decking over the Railway Lands West section to provide additional parkland in Downtown Toronto; the proposed greenspace would comprise 8.3 hectares. The only remaining rail connection is the Union Station Rail Corridor, maintained by Toronto Terminals Railway and consists of the narrow area used by tracks leading into and out of Union Station; the SkyWalk transverses a large part of the former Railway Lands, connecting Union Station with the lands south of the rail corridor.
Old Canadian National rail yard, a similar redevelopment in Edmonton Simulation of the history of the Railway Lands A visual
Roy Thomson Hall
Roy Thomson Hall is a concert hall in Toronto, Canada. Located downtown in the city's entertainment district, it is home to the Toronto Symphony Orchestra and Toronto Mendelssohn Choir. Opened in 1982, its circular architectural design exhibits a curvilinear glass exterior, it was designed by Canadian architects Mathers and Haldenby. The hall seats 2,630 guests and features a pipe organ built by Canadian organ builders Gabriel Kney from London, Ontario; the hall was known as The New Massey Hall during its construction and pre-construction phase. It acquired its official name on January 14, 1982, as thanks to the family of Roy Thomson, who had donated C$4.5 million to complete the fundraising efforts for the new hall. The hall was renovated over a period of six months in 2002, after years of complaints from musicians about the quality of its acoustics. Filmmaker Jeffery Klassen's 2005 film, Toronto Architecture, interviews Arthur Erickson about the structure. Erickson talks of the point of the grey structure being that of a container which people were to fill up with their own decorations.
The pond was designed to be used as a skating rink in the winter. The building was influenced by Erickson's journeys in Japan and his relationship with the North American Aboriginals; the hall is one of the main venues used by the Toronto International Film Festival, with many gala screenings held there each year including a festival-closing screening of the year's People's Choice Award winner. The concert hall was used in scenes of the film X-Men; the hall was the venue of the state funeral of federal Leader of the Official Opposition and NDP leader Jack Layton on August 27, 2011. Other performing arts venues in the city include: Four Seasons Centre Massey Hall Molson Canadian Amphitheatre Sony Centre for the Performing Arts Toronto Centre for the Arts The Corporation of Roy Thomson Hall and Massey Hall About Massey Hall
Fan Expo Canada
Fan Expo Canada is an annual speculative fiction fan convention held in Toronto, Ontario. It was founded as the Canadian National Comic Book Expo in 1995 by Hobby Star Marketing Inc, it includes distinctly branded sections, including GX and SFX, CNAnime. It is a four-day event held the weekend before Labour Day during the summer at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre and is now owned by Informa. Showcasing comic books, science fiction/fantasy and film/television and related popular arts, Fan Expo Canada has expanded over the years to include a larger range of pop culture and fandom elements, such as horror, manga, toys, collectible card games, video games, web entertainment; the convention is the largest of its kind in Canada and among the largest in world, filling the entire North and South Buildings of the MTCC with over 130,000 attendees in 2016. In 2013, Fan Expo Canada's parent company Hobby Star Marketing was acquired by Informa Canada Inc, which now organizes the event. Along with panels and workshops with comic book professionals, there are previews of upcoming feature films, portfolio review sessions with top comic book and video game companies, evening events such as the Masquerade, special screenings and the Diamond Distribution Industry Night Dinner and Reception for industry professionals only.
Traditional events include screening rooms devoted to Japanese animation and over 300 hours of other programming on all aspects of comic books and popular culture. Like most comic book conventions, Fan Expo Canada features a large floorspace for exhibitors; these include media companies such as movie studios and TV networks, as well as comic book dealers and collectibles merchants. Fan Expo Canada includes a large autographs area, as well as an Artists Alley where comic book artists can sign autographs and sell or do free sketches. In recent years, Fan Expo Canada has become one of the few events that provides selling "exclusive" products to attendees; the vast majority of the exclusives offered at Fan Expo Canada are licensed properties of popular movie, comic book and related characters. |} Fan Expo Canada is the site of many unique attractions that include Exclusive Pre-screenings and live presentations of upcoming television series and feature films including live introductions from the Directors and Cast members.
Some recent projects featured at Fan Expo Canada included the television series: Revolution cast Billy Burke, Tracy Spiridakos and Giancarlo Esposito Arrow cast Stephen Amell, Willa Holland, Colin Donnell and Katie Cassidy Criminal Minds cast A. J. Cook and Matthew Gray Gubler Flashpoint cast David Paetkau, Sergio Di Zio and Oluniké Adeliyi entire cast for Bitten entire casts and producers for Continuum, Dead Before Dawn and Lost Girl Harry Potter Reunion with Tom Felton, Rupert Grint and James and Oliver PhelpsIn 2012, for the first time Fan Expo Canada was the site of a wedding. Two longtime Fan Expo attendees were married in front of a live audience of thousands of fans on the afternoon of August 24. There was a proposal of marriage that took place between two attendees on the afternoon of August 26; the engaged couple credited Fan Expo Canada’s Nerd Speed Dating event from the previous year in finding one another. Some attractions at Fan Expo Canada have become standard from year to year due to their continued popularity.
Some of these attractions include the aforementioned Speed Dating, Steampunk activities, Web series presentations, Star Wars sessions provided by the 501st Legion, Lolita fashion and others. Capacity attendance at Fan Expo Canada in 2005 has raised crowding issues. Concerns have been that the event is too big for the Metro Toronto Convention Centre though they have moved to the largest halls in the facility; the worry of fans is that the event will sell out and potential attendees will be denied entry as has happened at similar events such as Anime North, the New York Comic Con and San Diego Comic-Con International. The 2010 event left thousands of fans standing outside as capacity became an issue, many waiting several hours for re-entry. At one point during Saturday afternoon organizers announced that they would not be letting anyone else in, including those who had purchased tickets in advance, but the majority of fans remained unaware of this and continued to line up in ignorance until word-of-mouth reached them.
They announced that they would be staying open an extra hour to try to accommodate the lines, though many had waited for more than 2 hours for re-entry. Due to additional space, more staff, a new advance ticketing system, expanded hours and the additional day added to the event, capacity issues were avoided in 2011. In recent years, HSM has cleaned up their organization and become more respectful to attendees of their fan-based events. After the capacity issue at Fan Expo 2010 and extending the event, CEO and President Aman Gupta released an apology statement to the fans, stated that while no refunds would be made under any circumstances, the South Building of the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, the location in previous years, was booked for the 2011 edition. Public relations employees at Hobby Star contacted as many of the fans who had expressed their dissatisfaction, gathering feedback on the convention and expressing personal apologies; some of the negative aspects described by fans is the overpricing of the conventions, including entry fees, merchandise and poor services.
Canadian journalist and book writer Jonathan Kay, an attender at the convention with his daughters, criticized the high pr
Aviva Centre Rexall Centre, is a tennis stadium in Toronto, Canada. The 12,500-capacity Stadium Court is the largest stadium at the tennis complex. Aviva Centre is the venue for the Rogers Cup, a professional tournament on the ATP World Tour and WTA circuits, held annually; the Aviva Centre hosts the men's tournament in even-numbered years and the women's event in odd-numbered years, with the other gender's event held in Montreal in those years. The facility is a year-round tennis training facility; the main stadium is used for seasonal concerts. Aviva Centre is located on the grounds of York University in Toronto. Built in 2004, the main venue holds 12,500 spectators. There are 11 other small courts next to the stadium. All twelve courts use the DecoTurf cushioned acrylic surface, the same surface as the US Open Grand Slam event; the stadium has two party suites. Aviva Centre is the home of the Toronto offices of Tennis Canada and the Ontario Tennis Association; the grounds serve as the national and provincial tennis training centre year-round, offering 16 courts.
The stadium is used for the staging of interuniversity competitions and practices and winter training. During the academic year, a discounted fee on indoor courts is offered to York students weekdays during daytime hours; this is the veni for York University's Convocation Ceremony every year. The facility is located on the western edge of the York University campus, south-east of Jane Street and Steeles Avenue West, at the intersection of Shoreham Drive, Pond Road. To the west of the facility are forested park lands along the Black Creek; the Saywell Woods and Stong Pond are located to east of the facility. The stadium was built to replace the National Tennis Centre, demolished in 2003; the facility opened on July 26, 2004. The first match at the stadium was an opening round match between Andre Agassi and Tommy Haas attended by 10,500; the Aviva Centre is one of two venues for the Canadian Open. The tennis tournament alternates venues year-to-year, between the Aviva Centre, the IGA Stadium in Montreal.
In 2011, the stadium became the venue for the BlackCreek Summer Music Festival, a series of concerts of jazz, opera and symphonic music. In 2014, the venue was named as the host of the tennis events at the 2015 Pan American Games. In 2017, the Aviva Centre hosted the opening ceremonies for the 2017 North American Indigenous Games. In February 2015, Toronto Police Service announced the discovery of a "mystery" tunnel located a few hundred metres from the facility, a story which became viral, it was revealed to be a "man cave." The two men in their mid-20s who excavated the cave had no criminal intent and are not affiliated with York University, Rexall Centre, or the Pan Am Games. The Toronto Sun identified one of the men as 22-year-old Elton McDonald, he faced an $800 fine instead of receiving a criminal record. McDonald's employer said that he lost his tools used to dig the tunnel; the facility is located on Shoreham Road, which connects to Jane Street, just south of Steeles Avenue. There are an estimated 7,000 parking spaces in the vicinity.
Pioneer Village subway station is situated a short walk from the stadium, or transit users can take the 106 Sentinel bus between the stadium and the subway station. Venues of the 2015 Pan American and Parapan American Games List of tennis stadiums by capacity Aviva Official Website Black Creek Summer Music Festival
Downtown Toronto is the city centre and main central business district of Toronto, Canada. Located within the district of Old Toronto, it is 14 square kilometers in area, bounded by Bloor Street to the north, Lake Ontario to the south, the Don Valley to the east, Bathurst Street to the west, it is the governmental centre of the City of Toronto and the Province of Ontario. The area is made up of the Canada’s largest concentration of skyscrapers and businesses that form Toronto's skyline. Downtown Toronto has the third most skyscrapers in North America exceeding 200 metres in height, behind New York City and Chicago; the retail core of the downtown is located along Yonge Street from Queen Street to College Street. There is a large cluster of retail centres and shops in the area, including the Toronto Eaton Centre indoor mall. There are an estimated 600 retail stores, 150 bars and restaurants, 7 hotels. In recent years the area has been experiencing a renaissance as the Business Improvement Area has brought in new retail and improved the cleanliness.
The area has seen the opening of the Dundas Square public square, a public space for holding performances and art displays. The area includes several live theatres, a movie complex at Dundas Square and the historic Massey Hall. Historical sites and landmarks include the Arts & Letter Club, the Church of the Holy Trinity, Mackenzie House, Maple Leaf Gardens, Old City Hall, the Toronto Police Museum and Discovery Centre; the Financial District, centred on the intersection of Bay Street and King Street is the centre of Canada's financial industry. It contains the Toronto Stock Exchange, the largest in Canada and seventh in the world by market capitalization; the construction of skyscrapers in downtown Toronto had started to increase during the 1960s. The area of St. Lawrence to the east of the financial district is one of the oldest area of Toronto, it features heritage buildings, music and many pubs. It is a community of distinct downtown neighbourhoods including the site of the original Town of York, Toronto's first neighbourhood, dating back to 1793.
The area boasts one of the largest concentrations of 19th century buildings in Ontario. Of particular note are the St. Lawrence Hall, St. James' Cathedral, St. Michael's Cathedral, St. Paul's Basilica, the Enoch Turner School House, the Bank of Upper Canada, Le Royal Meridien King Edward Hotel, the Gooderham Building. On Saturday there is a farmers market. Other historical districts in downtown Toronto include Cabbagetown, the Distillery District, Old Town. To the west of the financial district is the Entertainment District, it is home to hundreds of restaurants, sporting facilities, hotels and live theatre. The district was an industrial area and was redeveloped for entertainment purposes in the early 1980s, becoming a major centre for entertainment; the redevelopment started with the Mirvish family refurbishing of the Royal Alexandra Theatre and their construction of the Princess of Wales Theatre. The area is now the site of the Canadian Broadcasting Centre; the Yorkville area, to the north, north of Bloor Street and the Mink Mile, has more than 700 designer boutiques, restaurants and world class galleries.
It is a former village in its own right and since the early 1970s has developed into an up-scale shopping district. The intersection of Bloor and Yonge Streets is the intersection of the city's subway lines and is one of the busiest intersections in the city. At the intersection of Avenue Road and Bloor Street is the Royal Ontario Museum, the largest museum of the city, with a diverse anthropological and natural history collection; the Harbourfront area to the south was an industrial and railway lands area. Since the 1970s, it has seen extensive redevelopment, including the building of the Rogers Centre stadium, numerous condominiums and the Harbourfront Centre waterfront revitalization; the area to the east of Yonge Street is still in transition, with conversion of industrial lands to mixed residential and commercial uses planned. Among the important government headquarters in downtown Toronto include the Ontario Legislature, the Toronto City Hall. In the 1970s, Toronto experienced major economic growth and surpassed Montreal to become the largest city in Canada.
Many international and domestic businesses relocated to Toronto and created massive new skyscrapers downtown. All of the Big Five banks constructed skyscrapers beginning in the late 1960s up until the early 1990s. Today downtown Toronto contains dozens of notable skyscrapers; the area's First Canadian Place is the tallest building in Canada at height of 298 metres. The CN Tower, once the tallest free-standing structure in the world, remains the tallest such structure in the Americas, standing at 553.33 metres. Other notable buildings include Scotia Plaza, TD Centre, Commerce Court, the Royal Bank Plaza, The Bay's flagship store, the Fairmont Royal York Hotel. Since 2007, urban consolidation has been centred in downtown Toronto and as a result has been undergoing Manhattanization with the construction of new office towers and condos. Downtown Toronto is home to three public universities, OCAD University, Ryerson University, the University of Toronto. OCAD University is Canada's oldest post secondary institution for art and design.
Ryerson University is a research university. The University of Toronto is a collegiate research university, whose St. George campus is situated downtown. Established in 1827, the University of Toronto is the oldest university in the province of Ontario. In ad
BMO Field is an outdoor stadium located at Exhibition Place in Toronto, Canada, home to Toronto FC of Major League Soccer and the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League. Constructed on the site of the former Exhibition Stadium and first opened in 2007, it is owned by the City of Toronto, managed by Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment; the stadium's naming rights are held by the Bank of Montreal, branded as "BMO". BMO Field was constructed as a soccer-specific stadium to serve as the home field of the expansion Toronto FC, hosted matches during the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup and 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup. In 2010, when it was still a neutral-site game, BMO Field hosted the MLS Cup, it has since hosted the 2016 and 2017 finals featuring Toronto FC, under the current practice of giving home field advantage to the side with the better regular season record. The venue has hosted rugby union, including matches of Canada's national team, rugby sevens during the 2015 Pan-American Games.
From 2014 to 2016, the stadium underwent a series of major renovations, which added an upper deck to the east grandstand, a roof over the seating areas and lengthened the field to make it suitable for hosting Canadian football. The latter allowed for the Toronto Argonauts to move to BMO Field beginning with the 2016 CFL season, which saw the 104th Grey Cup played at the stadium. BMO Field is the fifth stadium to be built at its exact location at Exhibition Place; the most recent was Exhibition Stadium, which lost its primary tenants, the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League and Toronto Blue Jays of Major League Baseball, with the opening in 1989 of the SkyDome. Exhibition Stadium was demolished in 1999. A number of proposals to build a stadium in Toronto were considered in the 2000s; the Argonauts submitted a proposal to the city to renovate Lamport Stadium and expand it to 19,000. In March 2003 the proposal was modified to constructing a new 22,000 seat stadium at Exhibition Place.
That July the Canadian Soccer Association announced separate plans for a 30,000 seat $82 million stadium at the site, to host the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup which it had bid on. The governments of Canada and Ontario agreed to provide a combined C$35 million in funding for a new stadium if the CSA was successful in acquiring the rights to the tournament. At the time, Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment, owners of the National Hockey League's Toronto Maple Leafs and the National Basketball Association's Toronto Raptors, was looking for a stadium to host a new Major League Soccer team they were considering launching; the league considered soccer-specific stadiums to be necessary for an expansion franchise to be granted, due to the improved atmosphere and control of revenue streams. The Argonauts, CSA and MLSE agreed to partner to build a new 25,000-seat, $80 million Varsity Stadium at the University of Toronto. Aside from the committed government funding, $15 million was to come from the UofT, which would own the stadium, a $30 million loan would be taken out by the University with the annual $2.1 million financing charges paid by the Argos.
However, MLSE backed out of the stadium due to a lack of financial return, the deal fell through in 2004 when the University's new President withdrew his support after its cost rose over $100 million. That year, the Argos and CSA announced plans to build a 25,000-seat, $70 million stadium at York University, which would contribute the land and $15 million, with the Argos adding $20 million to the government funding. MLSE was not involved in this project. However, the Argos pulled out of the stadium after signing a new 15-year lease at Rogers Centre with reduced rent. In 2005, the stadium site was moved back to Exhibition Place, on the location of the demolished Exhibition Stadium and then-existing Sports Hall of Fame building, in a partnership between MLSE and the CSA. With a total costs of $62.9 million to build the stadium, financial contributions came from multiple sources. The Canadian Federal Government contributed $27 million, the Government of Ontario added an additional $8 million, the City of Toronto paid $9.8 million and contributed the land for the project, while retaining ownership of the stadium.
MLSE was responsible for any cost overruns. In return, they got the management rights for the stadium. MLSE committed to purchase a MLS soccer team to play in the stadium; the remaining funds came from MLSE, which paid $10 million for the naming rights of the stadium for the duration of the 20-year management agreement, which they resold to the Bank of Montreal for $27 million over the first 10 years. The proposal approved by the City of Toronto was for a stadium, "capable of a conversion to a football format." The Argonauts attempted to join the project at the last minute, but MLSE, citing budget and time limitations, constructed the stadium such that it could not fit a CFL field without demolition and reconstruction of the end zone stands. The field of play dimensions are 74 yards wide × 115 yards long; the stadium features seats which are red with the exception of a design on each of the main stands. On the east side, the design is a large maple leaf while on the lower west stand the design spells out "TORONTO", has a portion of the Toronto FC logo.
The south stand has "BMO" spelled out. On May 11, 2006, Major League Soccer announced that Toronto FC would join the league as its 13th team in 2007, with BMO Field serving as its home. BMO Field used Field