M (New York City Subway service)
The M Queens Boulevard/Sixth Avenue Local is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored orange since it uses the IND Sixth Avenue Line in Manhattan; the M operates at all times. Weekday service operates between 71st Avenue in Forest Hills and Metropolitan Avenue in Middle Village, via the IND Queens Boulevard Line and Sixth Avenue, the Williamsburg Bridge, the BMT Jamaica and Myrtle Avenue lines; this makes the M the only service that travels through the same borough via two different, unconnected lines. The M short turns at Essex Street in the Lower East Side of Manhattan on weekends, at Myrtle Avenue–Broadway in Brooklyn during nights; the M is the only non-shuttle service. Though the full route length between 71st Avenue and Metropolitan Avenue is about 18.2 miles, the stations are geographically located 2.47 miles apart, marking this as the shortest geographic distance between termini for any New York City Subway service, not a shuttle service.
An MJ service ran the entire BMT Myrtle Avenue Line until 1969, when the section west of Broadway in Brooklyn was demolished. Before 2010, the full-length M ran from Middle Village to southern Brooklyn via the BMT Nassau Street Line and Montague Street Tunnel; the M had run on the BMT Brighton Line to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue until 1987. Afterward, it used the BMT Fourth Avenue Line, BMT West End Line in Brooklyn, terminating at Ninth Avenue or Bay Parkway. From July 2017 to April 2018, the full-length M terminated at Broadway Junction in Brooklyn, instead of Metropolitan Avenue due to construction on the Myrtle Avenue Line; until 1914, the only service on the Myrtle Avenue Line east of Grand Avenue was a local service between Park Row and Middle Village. The Myrtle Viaduct, a two-track ramp connecting the Myrtle Avenue Line with the BMT Broadway Elevated Line at the Myrtle Avenue–Broadway station was opened on July 29, 1914, allowing for a second service, the daytime Myrtle Avenue–Chambers Street Line.
These trains ran over the Williamsburg Bridge to Chambers Street station on the BMT Nassau Street Line in Lower Manhattan, ran over the express tracks on the Broadway Elevated during weekday and Saturday rush hours. The number 10 was assigned to the service in 1924. Sunday service was removed in June 1933. All Saturday trains began running local on June 28, 1952, on June 28, 1958, all Saturday and midday service was cut, leaving only weekday rush hour service, express in the peak direction. Marcy Avenue was a local stop, but beginning on February 23, 1960 all trains stopped there. M was assigned to the service in the early 1960s, with a single letter because it was an express service. Since the new cars using letter designations were not yet running on the Myrtle–Chambers service, it remained signed as 10; the line was designated "M" after the Chrystie Street changeover on November 27, 1967, but did not appear on the trains until the transition to rolling stock equipped with appropriate roll signs.
The second half of the Chrystie Street Connection opened on July 1, 1968, the JJ, which had run along Nassau Street to Broad Street, was relocated through the new connection to the IND Sixth Avenue Line. To augment QJ service to Broad Street, the M was extended two stations, from Chambers Street to Broad Street. Beginning Monday, October 6, 1969, to make up for the discontinuation of the MJ due to the closing of the Myrtle Avenue El south of Myrtle Avenue to Jay Street, the M was expanded to run middays and a new SS shuttle ran between Myrtle Avenue-Broadway and Metropolitan Avenue at other times. Effective January 2, 1973, the daytime QJ was truncated to Broad Street as the J, the M was extended beyond Broad Street during the day along the QJ's former route to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue, via the Montague Street Tunnel and Brighton Line local tracks. By this time, the off-hour SS shuttle had been renamed as part of the M; the local K was eliminated on August 27, 1976, the M express service between Myrtle Avenue and Marcy Avenue ended in order to provide adequate service in Williamsburg, Brooklyn.
Reconstruction of the Brighton Line began on April 26, 1986, the weekday daytime M was shifted to the Fourth Avenue Line's express tracks south of DeKalb Avenue and the BMT West End Line terminating at Ninth Avenue during middays, with an extension to Bay Parkway during rush hours. This service duplicated a pattern that had last been operated as the TT until late 1967. M service along Fourth Avenue was switched to the local tracks on May 31, 1994, switching with the N, which had run local since the M was moved in 1987; the midday M was temporarily truncated to Chambers Street on April 30, 1995 from Ninth Avenue in Brooklyn due to the closure of the Manhattan Bridge during weekday middays for structural repairs. The change was made permanent on November 12, 1995, after the six-month repair project was completed. From April 1997 to August 1997, during late nights and weekends, the M terminated at Essex Street due to reconstruction of Myrtle Avenue. From May 1 to September 1, 1999, the Williamsburg Bridge subway tracks were closed for reconstruction, splitting M service in two sections.
One service ran at all times between Middle Village–Metropoli
Jamaica is a middle-class neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens. The neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 12, which includes Hollis, St. Albans, Springfield Gardens, Baisley Pond Park, Rochdale Village, South Jamaica. Jamaica is patrolled by the 113th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Jamaica was settled under Dutch rule in 1656 in New Netherland as Rustdorp. Under British rule, Jamaica became the center of the "Town of Jamaica". Jamaica was the first county seat of Queens County, holding that title from 1683 to 1788, was the first incorporated village on Long Island; when Queens was incorporated into the City of Greater New York in 1898, both the Town of Jamaica and the Village of Jamaica were dissolved, but the neighborhood of Jamaica regained its role as county seat. Today, some locals group Jamaica's surrounding neighborhoods into an unofficial Greater Jamaica corresponding to the former Town of Jamaica. Jamaica is the location of several government buildings including Queens Civil Court, the civil branch of the Queens County Supreme Court, the Queens County Family Court and the Joseph P. Addabbo Federal Building, home to the Social Security Administration's Northeastern Program Service Center.
The U. S. Food and Drug Administration's Northeast Regional Laboratory as well as the New York District Office are located in Jamaica. Jamaica Center, the area around Jamaica Avenue, is a major commercial center; the New York Racing Association, based at Aqueduct Racetrack in South Ozone Park, lists its official address as Jamaica. John F. Kennedy International Airport and the hotels nearby use Jamaica as their address. Although many current residents of the Jamaica neighborhood are immigrants from the Caribbean country of the same name, the origins and meanings of the two names differ entirely; the neighborhood was named Yameco, a corruption of a word for "beaver" in the Lenape language spoken by the Native Americans who lived in the area at the time of first European contact. The liquid "y" sound of English is spelled with a "j" in Dutch, the language of the first people to write about the area. Jamaica Avenue was an ancient trail for tribes from as far away as the Ohio River and the Great Lakes, coming to trade skins and furs for wampum.
It was in 1655 that the first settlers paid the Native Americans with two guns, a coat, some powder and lead, for the land lying between the old trail and "Beaver Pond". Dutch Director-General Peter Stuyvesant dubbed the area Rustdorp in granting the 1656 land patent; the English made it part of the county of Yorkshire. In 1683, when the British divided the Province of New York into counties, Jamaica became the county seat of Queens County, one of the original counties of New York. Colonial Jamaica had a band of 56 minutemen who played an active part in the Battle of Long Island, the outcome of which led to the occupation of the New York City area by British troops during most of the American Revolutionary War. Rufus King, a signer of the United States Constitution, relocated here in 1805, he added to a modest 18th-century farmhouse. King Manor was restored at the turn of the 21st century to its former glory, houses King Manor Museum. By 1776, Jamaica had become a trading post for their produce.
For more than a century, their horse-drawn carts plodded along Jamaica Avenue called King's Highway. The Jamaica Post Office opened September 25, 1794, was the only post office in the present-day Boroughs of Queens or Brooklyn before 1803. Union Hall Academy for boys, Union Hall Seminary for girls, were chartered in 1787; the Academy attracted students from all over the United States and the West Indies. The public school system was started in 1813 with funds of $125. Jamaica Village, the first village on Long Island, was incorporated in 1814 with its boundaries being from the present-day Van Wyck Expressway and Jamaica Avenue to Farmers Boulevard and Linden Boulevard in what is now St. Albans. By 1834, the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad company had completed a line to Jamaica. In 1850, the former Kings Highway became the Brooklyn and Jamaica Plank Road, complete with toll gate. In 1866, tracks were laid for a horsecar line, 20 years it was electrified, the first in the state. On January 1, 1898, Queens became part of the City of New York, Jamaica became the county seat.
The present Jamaica station of the Long Island Rail Road was completed in 1913, the BMT Jamaica Line arrived in 1918, followed by the IND Queens Boulevard Line in 1936 and the IND/BMT Archer Avenue Lines in 1988, the latter of which replaced the eastern portion of the Jamaica Line, torn down in 1977–85. The 1920s and 1930s saw the building of the Valencia Theatre, the "futuristic" Kurtz furniture store and the Roxanne Building. In the 1970s, it became the headquarters for the Islamic Society of North America; the many foreclosures and the high le
The Bushwick Branch called the Bushwick Lead Track, is a freight railroad branch in New York City. It runs from Bushwick in Brooklyn to Fresh Pond Junction in Maspeth, where it connects with the Montauk Branch of the Long Island Rail Road, it is owned by the LIRR but operated under lease by the New York and Atlantic Railway, which took over LIRR freight operations in May 1997. The Bushwick Branch dates back to the South Side Railroad of Long Island; the South Side had been chartered on March 23, 1860 to build a railroad from Jamaica, all the way to Islip along the south shore of Long Island. The South Side sought to build a line west of Jamaica to the East River so its passengers could connect to ferries that would take them into Manhattan; the South Side wanted to build to Long Island City, tried to buy out the interest of the New York and Flushing Railroad, a small competitor to the FNSRR. However, the LIRR, looking for access to Long Island City, beat out the South Side bid for the New York and Flushing and bought it out instead.
Thus, the only recourse for the South Side was to build a line from Jamaica to Fresh Pond and southwest into Bushwick. On July 18, 1868, service on the branch began running to Bushwick, on November 4 to the East River at the South Eighth Street station in Williamsburg, where passengers would take a ferry into a Manhattan. Due to a law in Brooklyn banning steam locomotives, horses pulled trains from the Bushwick Depot to the East River Ferry Terminal in 1868. Steam dummy engines pulled trains from Bushwick depot to East River Ferry Terminal between 1869 and 1873; the two main railroad routes leading to the East River ferry terminals were along Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn, a route owned by the LIRR, in Long Island City, a route owned by the Flushing and North Side Railroad. To provide a marine freight terminal, in the summer of 1869, a spur was built to the Newtown Creek at Furman's Island, which today is connected by landfill to the rest of Brooklyn; the LIRR service to Long Island City via the old New York and Flushing route was not well run and disliked by the public.
Most chose the far superior Long Island City service offered by the Flushing and North Side Railroad. The LIRR abandoned its Long Island City service and sold its tracks east of Winfield, Queens, to the FNSRR; the rest of the route west of Winfield to Long Island City remained unused. Seeking an opportunity, the South Side decided to buy up the remaining tracks in 1872, extended service west from Fresh Pond to Maspeth along Newtown Creek and on to Long Island City, thus gaining a new terminal on the East River. However, the South Side only used this new line for freight service, due to the competing passenger service offered by FNSRR. Passenger trains still ran through Bushwick to Williamsburg. In 1874, the South Side, along with other railroads on Long Island such as the Central Railroad of Long Island and the FNSRR, came under control of wealthy Brooklyn rubber baron Conrad Poppenhusen; the South Side was reorganized as the Southern Railroad of Long Island. By 1876, Poppenhusen took control of the LIRR.
Seeing the LIRR as the most formidable of his newly acquired railroads, he began to consolidate the competing roads into the LIRR. The LIRR thus gained the FNSRR tracks to Long Island City, making it the primary route for passengers and freight looking to reach Manhattan; the LIRR Atlantic Avenue line was cut back from South Ferry, Brooklyn, to a terminal at Flatbush Avenue, where passengers could transfer to the Fifth Avenue Elevated to reach Manhattan, thereby making Flatbush Avenue a secondary terminal for the LIRR. In 1876, most of the lines of the ex-Southern, referred to as the old Southern Road division, were rerouted to Long Island City via the Lower Montauk branch; the ex-Southern line between Bushwick and Williamsburg was abandoned and cut back to a terminal at Bushwick. By the 1880s, Poppenhusen's successor Austin Corbin had consolidated all the railroads; the Bushwick Branch, much like the Atlantic Branch to Flatbush Avenue, acted as a secondary terminal for the LIRR. The line was double-tracked in 1868 reduced to single track in 1876, but double-tracked again in 1892.
In 1877, a station house was built at the Bushwick station. Heavy industry in the area saw much use for the line in freight service, while the many industrial jobs in Bushwick warranted passenger commuter service for workers traveling to factories in the area; the Bushwick Branch became a less and less important terminal, the increasing prevalence of cars, as well as the fact of the branch having no direct transit connections into Manhattan, caused the branch's main passenger trade to begin to dwindle. By the early 1900s, LIRR began a series of electrification and grade elimination projects for its routes throughout Brooklyn and Queens. While its Main Line, Montauk Branch, Rockaway Beach Branch, Atlantic Branch received these improvements, the Bushwick did not. By 1913, steam trains were eliminated along the line and replaced with battery-powered electric multiple unit trains that were used on the West Hempstead Branch; these trains ran from Bushwick Junction to Bushwick. The last timetable to show this passenger service is from October 1923.
Timetables from the era show fewer trains leaving from Bushwick Terminal. On May 13, 1924, passenger service was discontinued. Despite the end of passenger service, limi
Middle Village–Metropolitan Avenue (BMT Myrtle Avenue Line)
Middle Village–Metropolitan Avenue is a terminal station of the BMT Myrtle Avenue Line of the New York City Subway. It is located at the intersection of Metropolitan Avenue and Rentar Plaza in Queens; the station is served by the M train at all times. The station opened on October 1, 1906, to serve the adjacent Lutheran cemetery, it was part of an extension of the line past Wyckoff Avenue along a former steam dummy surface line. A second station opened on August 9, 1915, west of the original facility, while the other former surface stations were elevated. On July 16, 1974, a fire destroyed the original wooden platform and station house along with R27 cars 8202, 8203, 8237 and R30 car 8512 along with some fire damage done to R32 cars 3549, 3659, 3694 and 3695, the station had to be rebuilt, it reopened in 1980 with the current concrete brick stationhouse. By railroad and service directions, the station is the southern terminal of both the Myrtle Avenue Line and full-length M train, it was the northern terminal of the M train by service direction before its reroute on June 27, 2010.
Though this is the M's southern terminal by railroad direction, the service's late-night terminus, Myrtle Avenue, is geographically further south, but the weekend and weekday terminals at Essex Street and Forest Hills–71st Avenue are geographically further north. The station, built on an embankment with the north end at street level, has two tracks and a concrete island platform with benches; the tracks end at bumper blocks at the north end of the platform. A steel canopy with fluorescent lights and supported by silver columns covers the entire platform. On the side of the westernmost track opposite from the platform is an employee-only facility; the control tower for the Myrtle Avenue Line is at the south end of the platform. Just to the south of the station lies the Fresh Pond Yard, it is only accessible from this station, so trains coming from Manhattan and Brooklyn must first enter the station reverse into the yard. The grade-level station house, the station's only entrance, is located at the eastern corner of Rentar Plaza and Metropolitan Avenue.
It is made of bricks with glass windows. There are two pairs of doors leading to turnstile bank and token booth. There are two pairs of doors out to the street corner and another door along Metropolitan Avenue; because the station house is at ground level and the platform extends out of the station house, this station is ADA-accessible, but does not have an elevator or ramp. The New York Connecting Railroad travels in an open-cut, directly east of and parallel to the station. To the station's east is Christ the King Regional High School. Directly to the west of the station is Metro Mall, a large shopping mall with few stores; the station is located at Metropolitan Avenue's intersection with Rentar Plaza, the access road to the mall's parking lots. The Lutheran All Faiths Cemetery is located on the eastern sides of the station. Nycsubway.org – BMT Myrtle Avenue Line: Metropolitan Avenue Station Reporter — M train The Subway Nut — Middle Village–Metropolitan Avenue Pictures Metropolitan Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View Platform from Google Maps Street View
Middle Village, Queens
Middle Village is a residential neighborhood in the central section of the borough of Queens, New York City, bounded to the north by the Long Island Expressway, to the east by Woodhaven Boulevard, to the south by Cooper Avenue and the Montauk Branch railroad tracks, to the west by Mount Olivet Cemetery. A small trapezoid-shaped area bounded by Mt. Olivet Crescent to the east, Fresh Pond Road to the west, Eliot Avenue to the north, Metropolitan Avenue to the south, is counted as part of Middle Village but is sometimes considered part of nearby Ridgewood. Middle Village is bordered by the neighborhoods of Elmhurst to the north and Ridgewood to the west, Glendale to the south, Rego Park to the east. In 2003, South Elmhurst, an area between Eliot Avenue and the Long Island Expressway, was reassigned from Elmhurst's ZIP code of 11373 to Middle Village's ZIP code of 11379; the neighborhood is part of Queens Community District 5, served by Queens Community Board 5. Housing in the neighborhood is single-family homes with many attached homes, small apartment buildings.
The area was settled around 1816 by people of English descent and was named in the early nineteenth century for its location as the midpoint between the then-towns of Williamsburg and Jamaica, Queens, on the Williamsburgh and Jamaica Turnpike, which opened in 1816. It was sparsely populated because the large Juniper Swamp was in the area; the swamp, an area where the Americans hid from British in the American Revolutionary War, was circumscribed by a "Juniper Round Swamp Road". In 1852, a Manhattan Lutheran church purchased the farmland on the western end of the hamlet. After the Civil War, the area became predominantly German; the Williamsburgh and Jamaica Turnpike became an un-tolled road by 1873, St. John Roman Catholic Cemetery was laid out on the eastern side of the town in 1879. Hotels and other services appeared to meet the needs of cemetery visitors; the western part of Middle Village was called "Metropolitan" until prior to World War I. The Juniper Swamp was filled in 1915. In 1920, the area was renamed "Juniper Valley" as part of a revitalization project.
Shortly after, gangster Arnold Rothstein bought 88 acres of the land, erected facades of houses on that land, tried to sell these houses, but not before he tried to sell the land to the city as an airport. A housing boom that began in the 1920s consumed the surrounding farmland and became continuous with neighboring towns and neighborhoods. Homes were built by two major builders—the Nansen Building Corporation, Baier & Bauer. Charles Baier's first project in the area was the Parkville Homes in 1927, a group of 30 homes at Juniper Valley Road and 77th Place. With Ridgewood developer August Bauer, they built 150 single-family row houses by 1928. In 1931, collaborating with builder Paul Stier, built some 7-room houses at 78th Street and Furmanville Avenue. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Middle Village was 37,929, an increase of 300 from the 37,629 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 1,329.29 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 28.5 inhabitants per acre.
The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 74.0% White, 0.9% African American, 0.1% Native American, 8.1% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.8% of the population. The entirety of Community Board 5, which comprises Maspeth, Middle Village, Glendale, had 166,924 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 81.4 years. This is about equal to the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are youth and middle-aged adults: 22% are between the ages of 0–17, 31% between 25–44, 26% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 8% and 13% respectively. As of 2017, the median household income in Community Board 5 was $71,234. In 2018, an estimated 19% of Middle Village and Maspeth residents lived in poverty, compared to 19% in all of Queens and 20% in all of New York City. One in seventeen residents were unemployed, compared to 9 % in New York City.
Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 46% in Middle Village and Maspeth, lower than the boroughwide and citywide rates of 53% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Ridgewood, Middle Village, Glendale are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying; the population in Middle Village has been German American. It became Irish American, Italian American, Yugoslavian-American, although Middle Village has seen an influx of Polish people, Eastern Europeans, Hispanic Americans, Chinese Americans. Many of the older families have left Middle Village but have not sold their homes but rather passed them down to their children; the population of Middle Village has been consistent: 28,984 in 2000, compared to 28,981 in 1990. Metro Mall is a shopping mall on Metropolitan Avenue just west of the neighborhood's subway station. In 1920, the C. B. French Company, which made telephone booths for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, built a factory on what is now the site of Metro Mall.
After the C. B. French Company was acquired by the Turner-Armour Company, in turn acquired by the Western Electric Company, Western Electric continued to opera
Maspeth is a residential and commercial community in the borough of Queens in New York City. It was founded in the early 17th century by English settlers. Neighborhoods sharing borders with Maspeth are Woodside to the north; the name "Maspeth" is derived from the name of Mespeatches Indians, one of the 13 main Indian tribes that inhabited Long Island. It is translated to mean "at the bad waterplace" relating to the many stagnant swamps that existed in the area; the area known today as Maspeth was chartered by New Netherlanders and British settlers in the early 17th century. The Dutch had purchased land in the area known today as Queens in 1635, within a few years began chartering towns. In 1642, they settled Maspat, under a charter granted to Rev. Francis Doughty, making Maspeth the first English settlement in Queens; as part of the deed's signature, the "Newtown Patent" granted 13,000 acres to settlers. Conflicts with the Maspat tribe forced many settlers to move to what is now Elmhurst in 1643.
The settlement was leveled the following year in an attack by Native Indians, the surviving settlers returned to Manhattan. In 1652, settlers ventured back to the area, settling an area inland from the previous Maspat location; this new area was called Middleburg, developed into what is now Elmhurst, bordering Maspeth. 28 English Quakers had founded the village of Maspeth, which had sizable water and milling industries along Newtown Creek and Maspeth Creek. Two storekeepers, Nathanial Hazard and Francis T. White, sold food and clothes at the Maspeth Town Docks, at what is now 56th Terrace and Rust Street, by the late 18th century. After the American Revolutionary War, villagers repaved roads with crushed oyster shells or wooden planks. Columbusville was the name applied to a section of Maspeth, it was a development of Edward Dunn that took place on 69th Place between Grand Avenue and Caldwell Avenue during 1854–55, was subsequently absorbed into Maspeth. The name fell into disuse in the 1890s.
Following waves of immigration during the 19th century, Maspeth was home to a shanty town of Boyash Gypsies between 1925 and 1939, though this was bulldozed. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Maspeth was 30,516, an increase of 1,600 from the 28,916 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 818.44 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 37.3 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 79.2% White, 0.8% African American, 0.1% Native American, 12.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.6% of the population. The entirety of Community Board 5, which comprises Maspeth, Middle Village, Glendale, had 166,924 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 81.4 years. This is about equal to the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are youth and middle-aged adults: 22% are between the ages of 0–17, 31% between 25–44, 26% between 45–64.
The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 8% and 13% respectively. As of 2017, the median household income in Community Board 5 was $71,234. In 2018, an estimated 19% of Maspeth and Ridgewood residents lived in poverty, compared to 19% in all of Queens and 20% in all of New York City. One in seventeen residents were unemployed, compared to 9 % in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 46% in Maspeth and Ridgewood, lower than the boroughwide and citywide rates of 53% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Ridgewood, Middle Village, Glendale are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying. Most people who live in Maspeth are of Italian, or Irish descent; this is reflected in the many businesses in the neighborhood like Irish pubs and Italian and Polish specialty stores and markets. Many people of Eastern European, Chinese, or Hispanic origin have moved to the area.
Maspeth is zoned for a mixture of uses. The area consisting of 43rd Street through 58th Street, including the former Furman Island, is industrial lowlands; the blocks from 60th Street to 74th Street are residential, but there is a small industrial presence on Grand Avenue. The Phelps Dodge Corporation was present from 1920 to 1983, during which matter from their premises contaminated Newtown Creek, which separates northern Brooklyn from western Queens and serves barge traffic. In the 2000s, politicians started to make efforts to clean up the Maspeth Creeks. Freight train traffic moves on the Long Island Rail Road Montauk Branch and the lightly-used Bushwick Branch, both of which are used by the LIRR, New York and Atlantic Railway, Conrail. A new West Maspeth rail freight station has been proposed in connection with a Cross-Harbor Rail Tunnel to diminish truck traffic across New York City, it is opposed by residents. The Elmhurst gas tanks were located in the area and were demolished in 2001; the Maspeth gas
Richmond Hill, Queens
Richmond Hill is a commercial and residential neighborhood located in the southwestern section of the borough of Queens, in New York City, New York, United States. The neighborhood is split between Queens Community Board 9 and 10; the area borders Kew Gardens and Forest Park to the north and South Jamaica to the east, South Ozone Park to the south, Woodhaven and Ozone Park to the west. Richmond Hill is known as Little Guyana-Trinidad and Tobago, for its large Indo-Guyanese, Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian, Indo-Caribbean immigrant population, as well as Little Punjab, for its large Punjabi immigrant population. Richmond Hill is home to a density of Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Sikh, Hindu and Muslim places of worship. Main commercial streets in the neighborhood include Jamaica Avenue, Atlantic Avenue and Liberty Avenue; the portion of the neighborhood south of Atlantic Avenue is known as South Richmond Hill. The Long Island Rail Road provides freight access via the Montauk Branch, which runs diagonally through the neighborhood from northwest to southeast.
The ZIP codes are 11418 for 11419 for South Richmond Hill. Many residents own homes, though some rent within small apartment buildings. Richmond Hill is located between Kew Gardens and Forest Park to the north and South Jamaica to the east, South Ozone Park to the south, Woodhaven and Ozone Park to the west. Hillside Avenue forms its northern boundary with Kew Gardens east of Lefferts Boulevard, while Forest Park and the right-of-way of the Long Island Rail Road's Montauk Branch form its northern edge west of Lefferts, its western boundary north of Atlantic Avenue is formed by the LIRR's abandoned Rockaway Beach Branch. The southern border extends to around 103rd Liberty Avenue; the Van Wyck Expressway abuts the eastern end of the community. The portion of the neighborhood south of Atlantic Avenue is known as South Richmond Hill; the area is well known for its large-frame single-family houses, many of which have been preserved since the turn of the 20th century. Many of the Queen Anne Victorian homes of old Richmond Hill still stand in the area today.
The hill referred to as Richmond Hill is a moraine created by debris and rocks collected while glaciers advanced down North America during the Wisconsin glaciation. Prior to European colonization, the land was occupied by the Rockaway Native American group, for which the Rockaways were named. In 1660, the Welling family purchased land in what was the western portion of the colonial town of Rustdorp; the land would become the Welling Farm, while Rustdorp would be renamed Jamaica under British rule in 1664. The Battle of Long Island, one of the bloodiest battles of the Revolutionary War, was fought in 1776 along the ridge in present-day Forest Park, near what is now the golf course clubhouse. Protected by its thickly wooded area, American riflemen used guerrilla warfare tactics to attack and defeat the advancing Hessians. One of the sites that would make up modern Richmond Hill, Lefferts Farm, was said to be the site of a Revolutionary War battle. In January 1853, a Farming community was established on the south side of Jamaica Avenue between 110th and 112th Streets, known as Clarenceville.
This land was purchased from the Welling estate. Richmond Hill's name was inspired either by a suburban town near London or by Edward Richmond, a landscape architect in the mid-19th century who designed much of the neighborhood. In 1868, Albon Platt Man, a successful Manhattan lawyer, purchased the Lefferts and Bergen farms along with other plots amounting to 400 acres of land, hired Richmond to lay out the community; the tract extended as far north as White Pot Road near modern Queens Boulevard. The area reminded Man of the London suburb. Man's sons would found the nearby Kew Gardens neighborhood from the northern portion of the land. Streets, schools, a church, a railroad were built in Richmond Hill over the next decade, thus making the area one of the earliest residential communities on Long Island; the streets were laid down to match the geography of the area. The development of area was facilitated by the opening of two railroad stations; these were the Clarenceville station on the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad, at Atlantic Avenue and Greenwood Avenue.
By 1872, a post office was established in the neighborhood, while the Clarenceville neighborhood was merged into Richmond Hill. Richmond Hill was incorporated as an independent village in 1894, by which time it had absorbed the Morris Park neighborhood, established in 1885. In 1898, Richmond Hill and the rest of Queens county were consolidated into the City of Greater New York; the New York City Subway's BMT Fulton Street Line was extended east along Liberty Avenue into the area on September 25, 1915, terminating at Lefferts Avenue. It is now the southern terminal of the A train; the area received further development when the BMT Jamaica Line elevated, now served by the New York City Subway's J and Z trains, was extended east into the neighborhood at Greenwood Avenue on May 28, 1917. As the neighborhood's population continued to grow into the 1920s, smaller spaced houses and apartment buildings began to replace large private houses. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Richmond Hill was 62,982, a decrease of 3 from the 62,985 counted in 2000.
Covering an area of 1,171.55 a