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Metropolitan Borough of Wigan

The Metropolitan Borough of Wigan is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, in North West England. It is named after the former county borough and includes the towns and villages of Leigh, part of Ashton-in-Makerfield, Ince-in-Makerfield, Orrell, Atherton, Golborne, Billinge, Astley and Aspull; the borough was formed in 1974 and is an amalgamation of several former local government districts and parishes. The borough has three civil parishes and lies directly to the west of the City of Salford and southwest of the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton; the local authority is Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council. Wigan metropolitan borough was created on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, it was formed from the former county borough of Wigan along with other local government units from the administrative county of Lancashire. These were the Municipal Borough of Leigh, the urban districts of Abram, Atherton, Ince-in-Makerfield, Orrell and Tyldesley. Ashton-in-Makerfield except for the parish of Seneley Green, the Golborne Urban District except for the parish of Culcheth and Glazebury in Warrington, the Higher End part of Billinge and Winstanley Urban District and the civil parishes of Haigh and Worthington from the Wigan Rural District were included.

Before its creation, the name Wigan-Leigh was used in the Redcliffe-Maud Report. It was suggested; however both names were rejected by a vote of 12 to 2. According to an opinion poll in 2003, 26% of 299 residents surveyed felt they belonged "very strongly" or "fairly strongly" to Greater Manchester, 64% to the borough of Wigan, 63% to Lancashire; the metropolitan borough was created from a industrialised area of Lancashire, part of the Lancashire Coalfield and had an important textile industry. Wigan borough covers an area of 77 square miles and is the 9th largest metropolitan borough, out of 36, in England; the borough is the most north western in Greater Manchester. Within Greater Manchester, it borders the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton to the north-east and east, the City of Salford to the east. Outwith Greater Manchester, in the south it borders Warrington. To the west it borders the West Lancashire borough, to the north it borders the Chorley borough, both in Lancashire. Wigan borough has seven Local Nature Reserves: including Wigan Flashes LNR, Borsdane Wood LNR, between Hindley and Aspull, Greenslate Water Meadows LNR within Orrell Water Park in Orrell, Low Hall LNR between Hindley and Platt Bridge, Pennington Flash LNR, Kirkless LNR at Ince and Three Sisters LNR, Ashton-In-Makerfield.

For 12 years after the county was created in 1974, the borough had a two-tier system of local government, Wigan Council shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council. The county council was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. In April 2011 the Greater Manchester Combined Authority became the top tier of local government within Greater Manchester covering ten boroughs including Wigan; the first elections to the borough council were held on 10 May 1973. The Metropolitan Borough Council is divided into 25 wards. Elections are with one councillor from each ward up for re-election in each election year; the borough council has a cabinet system. The current leader is David Molyneux who took over from Peter Smith, who resigned in May 2018, having been leader since 1991; the council rejected the idea of a directly-elected mayor following a consultation in 2001. The Metropolitan Borough of Wigan is traditionally a Labour stronghold - the council has been Labour Party-controlled since its creation.

The local elections in 1998 resulted in a council with only 2 non-Labour members. Labour had a majority with 43 seats at the 2006 election; the second largest party was the local Community Action Party. Community Action first contested Wigan elections in 2002, won 18 seats in the 2004 election following the re-warding - their councilors are for wards in the middle of the borough, between Wigan and Leigh; the Conservative Party had nine seats, the Liberal Democrats eight. At the 2008 elections Labour was the largest party with 41 seats out of a total of 75, the Conservative Party had 14 seats, Community Action Party 8 seats, Independent 7 seats, Liberal Democrats 4 seats and one was vacant; as of November 2010, Labour was the largest party with 51 seats out of a total of 75, the Conservative Party had 8 seats, 7 Independent, Community Action Party 4 seats and Liberal Democrats seats and the'Independent Conservative' members with 2 seats. As of June 2011, Labour continued to be the largest party with 58 seats out of 75, the Independent Councillor group with 8 seats form the official opposition, the Conservative Party had 5 seats, the Liberal Democrats hold 2 seats, Community Action Party 1 seat and 1 Independent councillor.

In May 2012 the composition of the council was Labour 63, Others 9, Liberal Democrats 2 and Conservatives 1. Presently in May 2018, the Council's political composition is: Labour 60, Conservatives 7, Independent 4, Independent Network 2, Shevington Independents 1, Standish Independents 1; the council uses Wigan Town Hall as its main headquarters. Leigh Town Hall is used as a secondary base; the borough is divided into 25 electoral wards. The present wards were adopted in 2003, following a review b

Sir Francis Vincent, 10th Baronet

Sir Francis Vincent, 10th Baronet was an English Whig politician. He was elected at the 1831 general election as one of the two Members of Parliament for the borough of St Albans in Hertfordshire, he was re-elected in 1832, held the seat until the 1835 general election, when he did not stand again. He married the daughter of Richard Muilman Trench Chiswell. Who inherited Debden Hall, Uttlesford from her father. On his own death in 1880 it passed to his daughter Blanche Cely-Trevilian, who sold it to William Fuller-Maitland two years later. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Francis Vincent

Pecaut Square

Pecaut Square is a large concrete-and granite-clad plaza located in front of Metro Hall in Toronto, Canada. The square supports the PATH network connection between Metro Hall and nearby buildings such as Metro Centre. Glass pavilions provide access to the PATH network. Pecaut Square was built as part of Toronto's postmodern Metro Hall project, meant to house the government of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, which existed from 1954 to 1998; the agreement to build Metro Hall was signed in 1988, the project was completed in 1992. It was known as Metro Square but was renamed in April 2011 by a unanimous Toronto City Council vote to honour the late civic leader David Pecaut; the public space features Canadian sculptor Bernie Miller's The Poet, The Fever Hospital, a 1992 piece made up of galvanized steel, bronze and marble. The sculpture incorporates a fountain and reflecting pool; the title refers to the poet Isabella Valancy Crawford, who stayed for a brief time in a house, demolished for the construction of Metro Hall at the southeast corner of King and John Streets.

The fever hospital refers to one of Toronto's first hospitals, which stood at the northeast corner of King and John Streets from 1829 to 1856. Sheltered by a large granite wall, four bronze boxes evoking television monitors stacked nearly 5 metres high form a fountain; the water flows into the reflecting pool. The boxes are framed with a semi-circular steel beam, perforated with small holes and mounted at a gentle tilt; the reflecting pool has an eternal flame fueled by natural gas, unveiled in 1996. The Eternal Flame of Hope is inspired by the perseverance of disabled people, burns as a reminder that society must be all-inclusive. Located at the southwestern part of the square is Jaan Poldaas' Surface Design for Tampered Windscreens, a sculpture composed of tempered glass screens which functions as a windbreak; the screens are etched with vertical and horizontal lines to create different relationships, are arranged so that people can walk between them. Cynthia Short's Remembered Sustenance is piece composed of 19 small and generic bronze animals on the grass just off the sidewalk on Wellington Street West.

Half the animals appear to be headed for a bronze feeding dish while the other half seem to be walking away. Pecaut Square has a lawn and trees along its outer edges; the public space allows for unique views of Metro Hall, Roy Thomson Hall and the Royal Alexandra Theatre. It is used for free concerts, film screenings, other events. Albert Campbell Square Nathan Phillips Square Yonge-Dundas Square

Sample complexity

The sample complexity of a machine learning algorithm represents the number of training-samples that it needs in order to learn a target function. More the sample complexity is the number of training-samples that we need to supply to the algorithm, so that the function returned by the algorithm is within an arbitrarily small error of the best possible function, with probability arbitrarily close to 1. There are two variants of sample complexity: The weak variant fixes a particular input-output distribution; the No Free Lunch theorem, discussed below, proves that, in general, the strong sample complexity is infinite, i.e. that there is no algorithm that can learn the globally-optimal target function using a finite number of training samples. However, if we are only interested in a particular class of target functions the sample complexity is finite, it depends linearly on the VC dimension on the class of target functions. Let X be a space which we call the input space, Y be a space which we call the output space, let Z denote the product X × Y.

For example, in the setting of binary classification, X is a finite-dimensional vector space and Y is the set. Fix a hypothesis space H of functions h: X → Y. A learning algorithm over H is a computable map from Z ∗ to H. In other words, it is an algorithm that takes as input a finite sequence of training samples and outputs a function from X to Y. Typical learning algorithms include empirical risk minimization, without or with Tikhonov regularization. Fix a loss function L: Y × Y → R ≥ 0, for example, the square loss L = 2, where h = y ′. For a given distribution ρ on X × Y, the expected risk of a hypothesis h ∈ H is E:= E ρ = ∫ X × Y L d ρ In our setting, we have h = A, where A is a learning algorithm and S n = ∼ ρ n is a sequence of vectors which are all drawn independently from ρ. Define the optimal riskSet h n = A, for each n. Note that h n is a random variable and depends on the random variable S n, drawn from the distribution ρ n; the algorithm A is called consistent if E probabilistically converges to E H ∗.

In other words, for all ϵ, δ > 0, there exists a positive integer N, such that, for all n ≥ N, we have The sample complexity of A is the minimum N for which this holds, as a function of ρ, ϵ, δ. We write the sample complexity as N {\d

John de Rantau

John de Rantau is an Indonesian film director. His film Denias Senandung Di Atas Awan was Indonesia's submission to the 80th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, but not nominated. De Rantau was born in Padang, West Sumatra, on 2 January 1970, he finished his studies at the Jakarta Art Institute began directing television serials. De Rantau made his featured film debut in 2005 with Mencari Madonna, a film about a Papuan teenager who becomes infected with AIDS and seeks a cure; the story was written by Garin Nugroho, who produced the film. The film was intended to be submitted to several film festivals, including the Singapore International Film Festival and Shanghai International Film Festival, but disallowed as it was still in digital format, not 35mm as required, his second film, Denias Senandung Di Atas Awan, was released in 2006 and depicted a young Papuan child who must overcome racism to receive an education. The film won several awards, including Best Children's Feature Film at the Asia Pacific Screen Awards.

It was submitted to the 80th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film. In 2009 de Rantau collaborated with Nugroho on Generasi Biru, a fictionalised biopic of the band Slank. In 2010, de Rantau and Damien Dematra released a fictionalised version of US president Barack Obama's childhood in Menteng, Central Jakarta. Entitled Obama Anak Menteng, the film was an adaptation of Dematra's novel of the same name, it was criticised including depicting the family as employing a transvestite maid. De Rantau released his fourth film, entitled Semesta Mendukung, in October 2011. Inspired by Yohanes Surya, trainer of Indonesia's International Physics Olympiad team, the film followed a young Madurese child named Arief who searches for his mother through the Olympiad. After Mestakung, he directed the serial Keluarga Minus. Footnotes Bibliography John de Rantau on IMDb

2014–15 Pro12

The 2014–15 Pro12 was the 14th season of the professional rugby union competition known as the Celtic League, the fifth with its current four-country format. It was the first season to be referred to as the Pro12 to not have RaboDirect as the title sponsor, having been replaced by Guinness. Leinster were the defending champions having beaten Glasgow Warriors in the previous season's playoff final, to become the first team in the league to retain the trophy. Leinster were unable to defend their title as they failed to qualify for the end-of-season playoffs for the top four teams after the regular season. Glasgow Warriors finished the regular season on top of the table, were crowned champions for the first time, beating second seeded team Munster 31–13 in the final. Thus, the Warriors became the first Scottish team to win a professional trophy, beating Edinburgh's appearance in the final of the 2014–15 European Rugby Challenge Cup; the twelve competing teams were the four Irish teams, Leinster and Ulster.

The Guinness PRO12 Trophy is a 60 cm tall piece handmade made by silversmith Thomas Lyte from 8.3 kg of sterling silver, with league branding highlighted in gold plate. With the Heineken Cup being replaced by the 20-team European Rugby Champions Cup in the 2014–15 season, the Pro12 table had a greater impact on qualification. Though the qualification was decided by the league table in the 2013–14 season, teams were not aware this would be the case until April 2014. Under the previous format, the Pro12 provided a minimum of ten teams, with Scotland and Italy providing two teams each, Ireland and Wales both providing three; the new system saw one place now being reserved for the highest finishing Pro12 team from each of four participating countries and three other qualifiers based on league position, for a total of seven teams. The other teams were entered in the European Rugby Challenge Cup. Starting in the 2015–16 competition, the 20th tournament spot will be decided by a playoff involving the Pro12's highest-finishing team that has not qualified, the seventh highest finishing club from France's Top 14 and the seventh highest finishing club from the English Premiership.

The play-off was planned to involve two Pro12 teams, but that plan was scrapped due to fixture clashes with the Top 14. Connacht entered the season with a new captain following the forced retirement of Craig Clarke due to persistent concussions. John Muldoon was confirmed as the new captain in August 2014, they were without the playing services of former captain and centurion Gavin Duffy, whose contract was not renewed the previous season. It was announced that he had taken up a role with the province's commercial team. Leinster came into the competition without the services of long serving player Brian O'Driscoll, who retired at the end of the 2013–14 season, for the first time. O'Driscoll had played in every previous season of the league, they were without last year's captain Leo Cullen on the playing field, as he retired, taking up the role of forwards coach. Irish international Jamie Heaslip was announced as the side's new captain in August 2014, with Rob Kearney and Seán O'Brien serving as his vice-captains.

Following the departure of last year's head coach Rob Penney, who took up a role with the Japanese side NTT Communications Shining Arcs, Munster were coached by former player and previous season's forwards coach Anthony Foley. Foley was joined in the coaching staff by his fellow former Munster players Mick O'Driscoll and Jerry Flannery, as well as Cork Constitution head coach Brian Walsh. Ulster entered the season with their home stadium, the Kingspan Stadium redeveloped, with the stadium's capacity having been increased to 18,196. In June 2014, David Humphreys left his post as the province's Director of Rugby, joining English Premiership side Gloucester; that month, it was announced that head coach Mark Anscombe would leave the province "with immediate effect". Ireland assistant coach Les Kiss filled the role of Director of Rugby on an interim basis. In October 2014, Kiss returned to his position with the Ireland team, with Neil Doak taking the role of head coach, it was announced that Kiss would return to his role with Ulster on a full-time basis following the 2015 World Cup.

In addition to the changes in the coaching staff, Ulster entered the season with Rory Best reinstated as captain, following the retirement of Johann Muller at the end of the previous season. Despite threats during the previous season that the team would be pulled out of the competition, Benetton Treviso returned for their fifth season in the league. Following the resignation of Franco Smith during the course of the previous season, Umberto Casellato took over as the side's head coach. Casellato joined the side from Zebre. Ahead of the 2014–15 season, Edinburgh lost a number of experienced players, including Geoff Cross, Nick De Luca, Greig Laidlaw and Ross Rennie; the departure of Laidlaw meant Edinburgh came into the competition with a new captain, in September 2014, Mike Coman was named as skipper. Edinburgh's home ground of Murrayfield was resurfaced by the time the new season began, following an infestation of nematodes, a type of parasitic worm. In addition to being resurfaced, Murrayfield was renamed under a naming rights agreement with the BT Group.

The deal saw the ground referred to as'BT Murrayfield Stadium'. Beginning in 2014–15, the BT Group became the main sponsor on the shirts of three of the four Welsh teams