Feltham is a large town in the London Borough of Hounslow, west London, west of Twickenham, south-west of Hounslow and north of Walton-on-Thames. Feltham formed an ancient parish in the Spelthorne hundred of Middlesex; the Domesday Book records an annual value of six pounds sterling. A large area of ten cultivated ploughlands is recorded. Following Mortain's son's forfeit of lands, the land was granted to the Redvers/de Ripariis/Rivers family; the heir in that family, Hubert de Burgh swapped Feltham and Kempton with Henry III for his manors of Aylsham in Norfolk and Westhall in Suffolk. In 1440 Henry VI granted numerous privileges to his joint royal custodian of the two manors, including a daily income of up to 12 shillings and that "corn, hay and carriages and other goods and chattels should not be seized for the king's use". While under total royal control following Henry VIII's full annexation of the manor into the Honour of Hampton Court, a lease of all of its manor court rights and "franchises, privileges and hereditaments" was granted under his daughter Elizabeth I to the Killigrew family of Kempton Park, for 80 years.
However the large manor itself passed 40 years in 1631 by grant to Francis Cottington, established at his new Hanworth Park, who had become Lord Treasurer and leader of the pro-Spanish, pro-Roman Catholic faction in the court of Charles I. His nephew sold it, after a major fire and a temporary loss caused by John Bradshaw, who arranged the King's execution, under the Commonwealth of England, to Sir Thomas Chamber, his son inherited Feltham manor, whose daughter by an empowering marriage to Admiral Vere of Hanworth in the same historic county of Middlesex led to its next owner having a high title and degree of wealth: her son, Aubrey Beauclerk, 5th Duke of St Albans inherited the manor and a dukedom with considerable land from a cousin. The Duke was a British landowner and a collector of antiquities and works of art, seated at Hanworth, who funded an excavation in Italy which produced many sculpture artifacts. Parting with much of the Duke's surfeit of large country houses, minor plot sales dividing the two ancient manors took place in the 19th century.
In the early 20th century, until death, the land now considered Feltham was either subdivided by developers and farmers or owned by senior judge Ernest Pollock turned politician, Viscount Hanworth who saw the large Hanworth manor, which covered most of Hanworth parish divided up due to taxation and its being well-placed to cater to the demand for new homes due to transport links. In this period in 1784 General William Roy set out the baseline of what would become the Ordnance Survey across Hounslow Heath, passing through Feltham. General Roy is commemorated by a local pub; the MOD Defence Geographic Centre maintains a base in Feltham, announced for disposal in the 2015–2020 Parliament. In 1831, Feltham occupied an area of 2,620 acres, stretching into Hounslow Heath and had a population of 924; the Waterloo to Reading Line established a station here from its construction in 1848. From 1894 to 1904 the Felham parish was included in the Staines Rural District. In 1901 the parish had a population of 4,534 and accordingly in 1904 it was split from the rural district to form the Feltham Urban District.
In 1932 the parishes of Hanworth and East Bedfont were transferred from the Staines district to Feltham Urban District. From the 1860's until late 1920's Feltham was home to the "Cabbage King," A. W. Smith. Smith was considered one of the most successful market gardeners of the time, his "Glass City" of greenhouses along Feltham's High street was unmatched. Smith lived in the Feltham House for a time, his greenhouses have since disappeared. Feltham Urban District was disbanded in 1965, along with the Middlesex County Council. For administrative purposes Feltham is now part of Greater London the geographic and historic county of Middlesex was never abolished by statute. A poll on the Feltham and Bedfont Appreciation Society group on Facebook found that Feltham residents overwhelmingly continue to identify their home county as Middlesex. Although opened in 1910, major expansion took place in a similar period, at the extreme south-west of the post town, at Feltham Young Offenders' Institution or HM Prison Feltham, a major such institution providing a range of employments and rehabilitation schemes for young people.
Near the town's border with Ashford and the neighbouring village of East Bedfont. Famous former resident Freddie Mercury of rock band Queen was commemorated by a permanent, Hollywood-style granite star in Feltham's town-centre piazza, unveiled on 24 November 2009 by Queen guitarist Brian May, alongside Freddie's mother, Jer Bulsara, his sister. In 2011, owing to neglect and weather damage, Hounslow Council removed the memorial, resolving to substitute a smaller one elsewhere; the land is flat but well-drained, Feltham is centred 13.5 miles west south west of central London at Charing Cross and 2 miles from Heathrow Airport. The neighbouring settlements are Hounslow, East Bedfont, Sunbury-on-Thames and Hanworth. There is no specific town council for Feltham, instead a Bedfont, Hanworth Area Forum of councillors considers issues specific to the area on t
Finchley is an area of northwest London, England, in the London Borough of Barnet. Finchley is on 11 km north of Charing Cross, it formed an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex, becoming a municipal borough in 1933, has been part of Greater London since 1965. It is predominantly a residential suburb, with three town centres: North Finchley, East Finchley and Finchley Church End. Finchley means "Finch's clearing" or "finches' clearing" in late Anglo-Saxon. Finchley is not recorded in Domesday Book, but by the 11th century its lands were held by the Bishop of London. In the early medieval period the area was sparsely populated woodland, whose inhabitants supplied pigs and fuel to London. Extensive cultivation began about the time of the Norman conquest. By the 15th and 16th centuries the woods on the eastern side of the parish had been cleared to form Finchley Common; the medieval Great North Road, which ran through the common, was notorious for highwaymen until the early 19th century. St Mary-at-Finchley Church is first recorded in the 1270s.
Near the northern gate to the Bishop of London's park, the hamlet of East End East Finchley, had begun to develop by 1365. The Edgware and London Railway reached Finchley in 1867, it ran from Finsbury Park via Finchley to Edgware. The branch from Finchley to High Barnet opened in 1872. In 1905 tram services were established in Finchley, extended shortly afterwards to Barnet, they were replaced by trolleybuses. In 1933, the Underground New Works Programme, to electrify the lines through Finchley, connect the Northern line from Archway to East Finchley, via a new tunnel was announced. Much of the work was carried out and East Finchley station was rebuilt, but the project was halted by the second world war. All passenger services from Finchley to Edgware ended in September 1939. Underground trains began running from central London to High Barnet in 1940, to Mill Hill East, to reach the army barracks, in 1941. After the war, the introduction of London's Metropolitan Green Belt undermined pre-war plans and the upgrading between Mill Hill East and Edgware was abandoned, although the line continued to be used by steam trains for goods traffic through Finchley, until 1964.
From around 1547 Finchley had a parish vestry, which became a local board in 1878, an urban district council in 1895, a municipal borough council between 1933–1965. The area is now part of the London Borough of Barnet. From 1959–1992 the Finchley constituency was represented in Parliament by Margaret Thatcher, UK Prime Minister from 1979–1990. Finchley is now included in the new constituency of Golders Green. In February 2010, the Green Party held its spring party conference at the artsdepot in North Finchley. Finchley is on a plateau, 90 metres above sea level 11 km north of Charing Cross and 6 km south of Barnet. To the west is the Dollis valley formed by Dollis Brook the natural western boundary of Finchley. Mutton Brook forms the southern boundary. Most of Finchley is on boulder clay or glacial moraine, skirted by a layer of gravel the underlying layer of London clay; this triangular gravel line was the most fertile area. The residential areas of West Finchley, in postcode district N3, Woodside Park, in postcode district N12, centre on their respective tube stations to the west of the area.
Between East Finchley and Finchley Central is Long Lane, which runs parallel to the tube line and is dotted with small shopping parades. The area of London known as'Finchley Road', around Finchley Road Underground station, is not part of Finchley, but instead refers to a district further south at Swiss Cottage, Camden; the area is named after a section of the A41 road, which runs north to Golders Green and continues to Henlys Corner on the North Circular Road and on to Finchley. According to the 2011 UK Census in Finchley Church End ward, 67% of the population was White, 8% Indian and 6% Other Asian; the largest religion was Judaism, claimed by 31% of the population, whereas Christians made up 28%. West Finchley ward was 61% White, 13% Indian and 8% Other Asian. St Mary's at Finchley is the parish church, with parts dating from the 13th century. College Farm is the last farm in Finchley; the Phoenix Cinema in East Finchley with its 1930s art deco façade is one of the oldest purpose-built cinemas in the United Kingdom.
The Sternberg Centre for Judaism in the old Manor House at 80 East End Road in Finchley is a Jewish cultural centre. It was founded to facilitate Reform and Liberal Jewish institutions, attached to the Movement for Reform Judaism; the Archer, on East Finchley tube station, is a 10-foot-tall statue by Eric Aumonier of a kneeling archer having just released an arrow. The statue La Délivrance depicts a naked woman holding a sword (and is informally known as the Nake
Bermondsey is a neighbourhood in the London Borough of Southwark, England, 2.5 miles southeast of Charing Cross. To the west of Bermondsey lies Southwark, to the east Rotherhithe and Deptford, to the south Walworth and Peckham, to the north the City of London and Whitechapel. Bermondsey may be understood to mean Beornmund's island, thus Bermondsey need not have been an island as such in the Anglo-Saxon period, is as to have been a higher, drier spot in an otherwise marshy area. Though Bermondsey's earliest written appearance is in the Domesday Book of 1086, it appears in a source which, though surviving only in a copy written at Peterborough Abbey in the 12th century, claiming "ancient rights" unproven purporting to be a transcription of a letter of Pope Constantine, in which he grants privileges to a monastery at Vermundesei in the hands of the abbot of Medeshamstede, as Peterborough was known at the time. Bermondsey appears in the Domesday Book as Bermundesye, it was held by King William, though a small part was in the hands of Robert, Count of Mortain, the king's half brother, younger brother of Odo of Bayeux earl of Kent.
Its Domesday assets were recorded as including 13 hides,'a new and handsome church', 5 ploughs, 20 acres of meadow, woodland for 5 pigs. It rendered £15 in total, it included interests in London, in respect of which 13 burgesses paid 44d. The church mentioned in Domesday Book was the nascent Bermondsey Abbey, founded as a Cluniac priory in 1082, was dedicated to St Saviour. Monks from the abbey began the development of the area, cultivating the land and embanking the riverside, they turned an adjacent tidal inlet at the mouth of the River Neckinger into a dock, named St Saviour's Dock after their abbey. But Bermondsey was little more than a high street ribbon, leading from the southern bank of the Thames, at Tooley Street, up to the abbey close; the Knights Templar owned land here and gave their names to one of the most distinctive streets in London, Shad Thames. Other ecclesiastical properties stood nearby at Tooley Street, located in the Archbishop of Canterbury's manor of Southwark, where wealthy citizens and clerics had their houses, including the priors of Lewes and St Augustine's, the abbot of Battle.
King Edward III built a manor house close to the Thames in Bermondsey in 1353. The excavated foundations are visible next to Bermondsey Wall East close to the famous Angel public house; as it developed over the centuries, Bermondsey underwent some striking changes. After the Great Fire of London, it was settled by the well-to-do and took on the character of a garden suburb along the lines of Grange Road, as Bermondsey Street became more urbanised, of Jamaica/ Lower Road. A pleasure garden was founded there in the 17th century, commemorated by the Cherry Garden Pier. Samuel Pepys visited "Jamaica House" at Cherry Gardens in 1664 and recorded in his diary that he had left it "singing finely". Jamaica Road still remains. Though not many buildings survive from this era, one notable exception is the church of St Mary Magdalen in Bermondsey Street, completed in 1690; this church came through The Blitz unscathed. It is not just an unusual survivor for Bermondsey. In the 18th century, the discovery of a spring from the river Neckinger in the area led to the development of Bermondsey Spa, as the area between Grange and Jamaica Roads called Spa Road commemorates.
A new church was built for the growing population of the area, named St John Horsleydown. It was from the Bermondsey riverside that the painter J. M. W. Turner executed his famous painting of The Fighting "Temeraire" Tugged to her Last Berth to be Broken Up, depicting the veteran warship being towed to Rotherhithe to be scrapped. By the mid-19th century, parts of Bermondsey along the riverside, had become notorious slums with the arrival of industrial plants and immigrant housing; the area around St. Saviour's Dock, known as Jacob's Island, was one of the worst in London, it was immortalised in Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist, in which the villain, Bill Sikes, meets his end in the mud of'Folly Ditch', in reference to Hickman's Folly, which surrounded Jacob's Island. Dickens provides a vivid description of what it was like:... crazy wooden galleries common to the backs of half a dozen houses, with holes from which to look upon the slime beneath. Bermondsey Town Hall was built on Spa Road in 1881 but Blitzed in 1941.
The area was extensively redeveloped during the 19th century and early 20th century with the expansion of the river trade and the arrival of the railways. London's first passenger railway terminus was built by the London to Greenwich Railway in 1836 at London B
Coal-tax posts are boundary marker posts found in southern England. They were erected in the 1860s and form an irregular loop between 12 and 18 miles from London to mark the points where taxes on coal were due to the Corporation of London. There were around 280 posts of which around 210 remain. Coal imported into the City of London had been taxed since medieval times and, as it was all brought by sea to riverside wharfs, the collection of the duties was easy; the city is a small but rich part of London. The Port of London, within which the duties were payable, stretched far beyond the boundaries of the City, all the way along the Thames from Yantlet Creek to Staines. By the 19th century, there was increasing trade by canal and rail, various Acts of Parliament extended the catchment area to include these new modes of transport. In 1845 the boundary was set at a radius of 20 miles from the General Post Office, from Langley in the west to Gravesend in the east and from Ware in the north to Redhill in the south.
In 1851 an Act permitted the erection of boundary markers to indicate. In 1861 a further Act – the London Coal and Wine Duties Continuance Act 1861 – was passed, reducing the area to that of the Metropolitan Police District plus the City of London; this stretched from Colnbrook in the west to Crayford Ness, at the mouth of the River Darent, in the east, from Wormley, Hertfordshire in the north to Banstead Heath, Surrey in the south. New marker posts were erected to show the boundary within; these again cite the Act by regnal year and chapter number, i.e. 24 & 25 VICT CAP 42. In some cases, notably on railways and canals, markers made for earlier acts were reused on the new boundary. Most of these posts survive. Although the title of the Act refers to wine duties, these were collected only in the Port of London: the boundary marks have no connection with the wine duties and it is incorrect to call them "coal and wine duty posts"; the purpose of the posts was to give notice of where the boundary ran so that no-one could claim ignorance of liability to pay the duties.
However, in general, duties were not collected on the boundary. The one known exception was the Grand Junction Canal: customs officers collected the duties at Grove Park, Hertfordshire. After the boundary was changed in 1861 a permanent house for the collector was built at Stockers Lock near Rickmansworth. In other cases the railway and canal companies or local coal merchants calculated the sums due and paid the money to the Corporation; the railway companies were allowed some coal free of duty for their engines. There are five different forms of coal duty boundary markers in all. Granite obelisks, about 4 feet high, erected beside canals and navigable rivers. Cast-iron posts about 4 feet; these form the majority of posts and are found beside roads – and beside tracks and footpaths, sometimes in open countryside. Cast-iron boxes or plates, about 9 inches square, built into parapets of road bridges. Stone or cast-iron obelisks, about 15 feet high, found beside railways. Erected on previous boundaries and reused on the 1861 boundary.
Cast-iron obelisks, about 6 feet, erected on railways after 1865. All bear the City's shield or in some cases the full coat of arms. Most of the cast-iron posts are painted white, with the cross and sword of the shield picked out in red, but the stone ones are of a sombre black, still bearing the stains accumulated on the smoky trackside. Most of the posts are Grade II listed buildings; the City of London had the right to collect dues for weighing and measuring coal entering the Port of London since medieval times. After the Great Fire of London in 1666, Acts of Parliament imposed further duties to help pay for the rebuilding. Although some of the proceeds were for general rebuilding purposes, most was to cover the costs of rebuilding St Paul's Cathedral and the City churches. After the completion of St Paul's, the duties were paid to the Commission for Building Fifty New Churches. In 1718 the duty was converted into a Government duty, though some was still used for ecclesiastical purposes, such as the rebuilding of Gravesend Church in 1730.
During the Napoleonic wars, the duty was increased several times to help pay for the wars. Government duties on coal were abolished in 1831. At the end of the 17th century, the City of London owed large sums, notably to the funds which they held on trust for the orphans of City Freemen. In 1694 the City persuaded Parliament to pass an Act for the Relief of the Orphans and other Creditors of the City of London which allowed it to raise money in various ways, including the imposition of duties on coal; this Act was the ancestor of the ones. In the middle of the 18th century the income from the duties started to be used to finance public works in London, not only in the City itself but in surrounding areas such as the West End and Whitechapel; these included bridges such as Blackfriars Bridge, roads improvements such as at Temple Bar and the Ratcliffe Highway, court buildings such as the Old Bailey and the Middlesex Sessions House in Clerkenwell. In 1803 a further duty was introduced to pay for the expenses of the coal market in London.
The use of the coal duties to pay for public works continued in the nineteenth century: for example they paid for the rebuilding of the Royal Exchange and the construction of New Oxford Street. After creation of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855 the major part of duties
Greenford is a large suburb in the London Borough of Ealing in west London, UK. It was an ancient parish in the historic county of Middlesex, it is 11 miles from Charing Cross in Central London. Greenford is served by London Underground's Central Line and terminus for the Greenford branch of the GWR; the town is served by another station South Greenford, on the Greenford branch of the GWR. Nearby places include Yeading, Perivale, Northolt, Sudbury and Wembley; the most prominent landmarks in the suburb are 279 feet above sea level. The name is first recorded in 848 as Grenan forda, it is formed from the Old English'grēne' and'ford' and means'place at the green ford'. Greenford was known as Great Greenford in order to distinguish it from Little Greenford, now known as Perivale; the affixes'Magna' and'Parva' have been used to denote the difference. Greenford is considered to be birthplace of the modern organic chemical industry, as it was at William Perkin's chemical factory in North Greenford, by the Grand Union Canal, that the world's first aniline dye was discovered in March 1856.
Perkin called his amazing discovery'mauveine'. Today there is a blue plaque marking the spot in Oldfield Lane North, just south of the Black Horse public house. Local anecdote says that Queen Elizabeth I would only eat bread made from wheat grown in Greenford, until 2013/14 Greenford was the home to the Hovis factory; the former Rockware glassworks on the canal is commemorated by Rockware Avenue. Greenford formed part of Greenford Urban District from 1894 to 1926 and was absorbed by the Municipal Borough of Ealing. Post First World War, tea blender and food manufacturer J. Lyons and Co. were looking for a secondary site on which to expand production beyond Cadby Hall, Hammersmith. In 1921 they bought the first piece of an eventual 63 acres site, due to its location close to good transport links from both the Grand Union Canal and the Great Western Railway's Great Western Main Line, the West Coast Main Line and onwards to the Midlands at Willesden Junction; the factory opened in July 1921, with the first single-storey buildings known as "Zig-Zag" due to their northern light-aligned windows allowing maximum light into the production area.
There were steam and electrical power plants on site, which powered both the plant as well as the staff canteen and medical facilities, accessible to all plant employees and their dependants. Transport docks and a canal basin had been developed, allowing shipment of tea and coffee directly from London Docks into HM Customs excise controlled bonded warehouses; the extensive onsite railway infrastructure allowed precise positioning of heavy raw goods into the factory, as well as the extraction of finished product. Lyons bought their own steam shunters to move wagons between the GWR exchange sidings and the factory system. Lyons became Greenford's biggest employer. A pioneer in electronic machines and computing, Lyons deployed the latest factory automation technology, making Greenford a showplace, visited by the media, academics and royalty, with more than one visit by King George V and Queen Mary. In the 1950s, the site developed the breakfast cereal Ready Brek. Areas of the site not developed for factory use were landscaped, with many trees planted.
As the factory developed these diminished after the development of the Lyons Maid Bridge Park factory in the 1950s, the new administration block in 1971. After the merger of Lyons with Allied Bakeries in the 1980s, the focus of the new Allied Domecq business to focus on spirits, with the sell-off of the businesses associated with the factory, the need for the facility dwindled. Redeveloped from 1998, today it is known as Lyon Way Industrial Estate. Five hundred yards north east from William Perkin's dye factory was a triangular field in which he kept horses. On this ground was built the Oldfield Tavern public house, which became a popular venue for a rock group called the Detours, who met a drummer there called Keith Moon. On Thursday 20 February 1964 they were introduced to the audience of the Oldfield Tavern as the Who.. Andy Locke, Dave Kerr-Clemenson and Wal Scott were all in Edison Lighthouse, with chart-topping Love Grows all came from Greenford; the Cardinal Wiseman School Our Lady of the Visitation Catholic Primary School William Perkin Church of England High School Coston Primary School Edward Betham Primary School Ravenor Primary School Horsenden Primary School ) Stanhope Primary School Greenford High School The A40, a major dual-carriageway, serves the area.
Sudbury Hill station, on the Piccadilly line. Greenford station, on the Central line. Greenford station, on the First Great Western. South Greenford railway station, on the First Great Western. Greenford has the following bus routes travelling through it: 92, 95, 105, 282, 395, 487, E1, E2, E3, E5, E6, E7, E9, E10, E11, H17 and N7; the grounds of the former Ravenor Farm has become Greenford's largest park. It is the venue for the annual Greenford Carnival, held every July; until 1910, the land that formed Ravenor Farm/Ravenor Park was a detached part of Northolt parish, with the tithes to the land going to St. Mary's Church and not the Greenford parish of Holy Cross. T
Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is one of the home counties; the county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. Inhabited by about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, both the third most populous home county and the third most populous county in the South East. Guildford is considered to be the county town; however despite the town's designation, Surrey County Council has never been based there, being instead seated throughout its history in London. Since the borders of Surrey were altered in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 which created Greater London, none of these places are now in Surrey, marking an example of a de facto capital, located outside of its administrative area. Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge and Ewell, Mole Valley and Banstead, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge and Woking.
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth and death registration, social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and small parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 plus Bromley and Hounslow; the form of Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county due to economic, aesthetic and logistical factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland in England, having been rural since it was shorn in 1965 of the urbanised swathes of South London which had hitherto been part of the county, it has large protected green spaces. It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs; the ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking.
It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057, they are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county counc
Lambeth is a district in Central London, England, in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is situated 1 mile south of Charing Cross; the population of the London Borough of Lambeth was 303,086 in 2011. The area experienced some slight growth in the medieval period as part of the manor of Lambeth Palace. By the Victorian era the area had seen significant development as London expanded, with dense industrial and residential buildings located adjacent to one another; the changes brought by World War II altered much of the fabric of Lambeth. Subsequent development in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has seen an increase in the number of high-rise buildings; the area is home to the International Maritime Organization. The origins of the name of Lambeth come from its first record in 1062 as Lambehitha, meaning'landing place for lambs', in 1255 as Lambeth. In the Domesday Book, Lambeth is called "Lanchei" in error; the name refers to a harbour where lambs were either shipped to. It is formed from the Old English'lamb' and'hythe'.
South Lambeth is recorded as Sutlamehethe in 1241 and North Lambeth is recorded in 1319 as North Lamhuth. The manor of Lambeth is recorded as being under ownership of the Archbishop of Canterbury from at least 1190; the Archbishops led the development of much of the manor, with Archbishop Hubert Walter creating the residence of Lambeth Palace in 1197. Lambeth and the palace were the site of two important 13th-century international treaties. Edward, the Black Prince lived in Lambeth in the 14th century in an estate that incorporated the land not belonging to the Archbishops, which included Kennington; as such, much of the freehold land of Lambeth to this day remains under Royal ownership as part of the estate of the Duchy of Cornwall. Lambeth was the site of the principal medieval London residence of the Dukes of Norfolk, but by 1680 the large house had been sold and ended up as a pottery manufacturer, creating some of the first examples of English delftware in the country; the road names, Norfolk Place and Norfolk Row reflect the legacy of the house today.
Lambeth Palace lies opposite the southern section of the Palace of Westminster on the Thames. The two were linked by a horse ferry across the river; until the mid-18th century the north of Lambeth was marshland, crossed by a number of roads raised against floods. The marshland in the area, known as Lambeth Marshe, was drained in the 18th century but is remembered in the Lower Marsh street name. With the opening of Westminster Bridge in 1750, followed by the Blackfriars Bridge, Vauxhall Bridge and Lambeth Bridge itself, a number of major thoroughfares were developed through Lambeth, such as Westminster Bridge Road, Kennington Road and Camberwell New Road; until the 18th century Lambeth was still rural in nature, being outside the boundaries of central London, although it had experienced growth in the form of taverns and entertainment venues, such as theatres and Bear pits. The subsequent growth in road and marine transport, along with the development of industry in the wake of the industrial revolution brought great change to the area.
The area grew with an ever-increasing population at this time, many of whom were poor. As a result, Lambeth opened a parish workhouse in 1726. In 1777 a parliamentary report recorded a parish workhouse in operation accommodating up to 270 inmates. On 18 December 1835 the Lambeth Poor Law Parish was formed, comprising the parish of St Mary, Lambeth, "including the district attached to the new churches of St John, Kennington, Norwood", its operation was overseen by an elected Board of twenty Guardians. Following in the tradition of earlier delftware manufacturers, the Royal Doulton Pottery company had their principle manufacturing site in Lambeth for several centuries; the Lambeth factory closed in 1956 and production was transferred to Staffordshire. However the Doulton offices, located on Black Prince Road still remain as they are a listed building, which includes the original decorative tiling. Between 1801 and 1831 the population of Lambeth trebled and in ten years alone between 1831 and 1841 it increased from 87,856 in to 105,883.
The railway first came to Lambeth in the 1840s, as construction began which extended the London and South Western Railway from its original station at Nine Elms to the new terminus at London Waterloo via the newly constructed Nine Elms to Waterloo Viaduct. With the massive urban development of London in the 19th century and with the opening of the large Waterloo railway station in 1848 the locality around the station and Lower Marsh became known as Waterloo, becoming an area distinct from Lambeth itself; the Lambeth Ragged school was built in 1851 to help educate the children of destitute facilities, although the widening of the London and South Western Railway in 1904 saw the building reduced in size. Part of the school building still is occupied by the Beaconsfield Gallery; the Beaufoy Institute was built in 1907 to provide technical education for the poor of the area, although this stopped being an educational institution at the end of the 20th century. Lambeth Walk and Lambeth High Street were the two principle commercial streets of Lambeth, but today are predominantly residential in nature.
Lambeth Walk was site of a market for many years, which by 1938 had 159 shops, including 11 butchers. The street and surrounding roads, like most of Lambeth were extensively damaged in the Second World War; this included the complete destruction of the Victorian Swimming Baths in 1945, when a V2 Rocket hit the street resulting in the deaths of 37 peopl