A klobuk is an item of clerical clothing worn by Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic monastics and bishops, especially in the Russian tradition. It is composed of a kamilavka with an epanokamelavkion which completely covers the kamilavka and hangs down over the shoulders, in the Athonite tradition, the epanokamelavkion is simply laid over the kamilavka and allowed to hang freely, but in other traditions it is permanently attached. The klobuk is the headgear most often worn in church by professed monastics, during the services, there are specified times when monks are to remove the klobuk and lay it on their left shoulder to denote reverence for the sacred. Nuns do not normally remove the klobuk at any time during services, the klobuk is often worn by bishops also. Diocesan bishops wear the simple monastic klobuk, slavic Archbishops and Metropolitans usually wear a small jewelled cross on the front of their klobuk as a mark of their rank. Metropolitans wear a klobuk that is rather than black.
The Patriarch of Romania wears a white klobuk as well as a white Ryassa, the Patriarchs of some Orthodox Churches wear a white headress similar to the klobuk that is rounded on top, decorated with embroidered images of seraphim, and surmounted with a cross. Patriarchs and bishops of the Coptic Catholic and Armenian Catholic churches wear klobuks as well, red klobuks have been worn by a Coptic Catholic patriarch, an Armenian Catholic catholicos, and a Ukrainian Catholic major archbishop after being elevated to the cardinalate. A purple klobuk has been used by a Ukrainian Catholic bishop, sammlung Philippi - Kopfbedeckungen in Glaube, Religion und Spiritualität
Macarius II can refer to Pope Macarius II of Alexandria and to Macarius II of Antioch. Macarius II was the Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna from 1912 to 1917, in 1861, Macarius took monastic vows and was ordained a hieromonk. From 1861 to 1864, he was restoring the Chulyshmansky Monastery to a normal state. In 1868-1869, Macarius lived in Kazan and worked on the grammar of the Altai language, in 1883, he was appointed head of the Altai Holy Mission and raised to the dignity of archmandrite, and consecrated as Bishop of Biysk and vicar of the Tomsk eparchy. In 1891, Macarius was named Bishop of Tomsk and Semipalatinsk, in 1905, he became the Bishop of Tomsk and Barnaul. In 1908, Macarius was appointed Archbishop of Tomsk and Altay, in 1912, he was summoned to Moscow by the Holy Synod and elected Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna, becoming thereby a member of the Holy Governing Synod. In 1913, Macarius became a member of the St Petersburg Theological Academy. On March 20 of 1917, he retired from his post and was sent to Nikolo-Ugreshsky Monastery, three years later, Metropolitan Tikhon bestowed upon Macarius the honorable lifelong title of Metropolitan of the Altai.
In 1956, Macarius remains were transferred to Sergiyev Posad and placed under the Dormition Cathedral of the Trinity-St, Macarius II of Moscow at OrthodoxWiki
First Council of Nicaea
The First Council of Nicaea was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD325. Constantine I organized the Council along the lines of the Roman Senate and presided over it and this ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the Church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. Hosius of Cordoba, who was one of the Papal legates. The First Council of Nicaea was the first ecumenical council of the Church, St. Alexander of Alexandria and Athanasius took the first position, the popular presbyter Arius, from whom the term Arianism comes, took the second. The council decided against the Arians overwhelmingly, through it a precedent was set for subsequent general councils to adopt creeds and canons. This council is considered the beginning of the period of the First seven Ecumenical Councils in the History of Christianity. The First Council of Nicaea was convened by Emperor Constantine the Great upon the recommendations of a synod led by Hosius of Córdoba in the Eastertide of 325 and this synod had been charged with investigation of the trouble brought about by the Arian controversy in the Greek-speaking east.
To most bishops, the teachings of Arius were heretical and dangerous to the salvation of souls and this was the first general council in the history of the Church summoned by emperor Constantine I. In the Council of Nicaea, The Church had taken her first great step to define revealed doctrine more precisely in response to a challenge from a heretical theology. Constantine had invited all 1,800 bishops of the Christian church within the Roman Empire, Eusebius of Caesarea counted more than 250, Athanasius of Alexandria counted 318, and Eustathius of Antioch estimated about 270. Later, Socrates Scholasticus recorded more than 300, and Evagrius, Hilary of Poitiers, Dionysius Exiguus and this number 318 is preserved in the liturgies of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Delegates came from every region of the Roman Empire, including Britain, the participating bishops were given free travel to and from their episcopal sees to the council, as well as lodging.
These bishops did not travel alone, each one had permission to bring him two priests and three deacons, so the total number of attendees could have been above 1,800. Eusebius speaks of an almost innumerable host of accompanying priests, the Eastern bishops formed the great majority. Of these, the first rank was held by the three patriarchs, Alexander of Alexandria, Eustathius of Antioch, and Macarius of Jerusalem and this position is supported by patristic scholar Timothy Barnes in his book Constantine and Eusebius. Historically, the influence of these marred confessors has been seen as substantial, Athanasius of Alexandria, a young deacon and companion of Bishop Alexander of Alexandria, was among the assistants. Athanasius eventually spent most of his life battling against Arianism, Alexander of Constantinople, a presbyter, was present as representative of his aged bishop. The supporters of Arius included Secundus of Ptolemais, Theonus of Marmarica, other supporters included Eusebius of Nicomedia, Paulinus of Tyrus, Actius of Lydda, Menophantus of Ephesus, and Theognus of Nicaea
An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance in which the chief local authorities are called bishops. Churches with an episcopal polity are governed by bishops, practicing their authorities in the dioceses and conferences or synods, bishops are considered to derive their authority from an unbroken, personal apostolic succession from the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Bishops with such authority are said to represent the historical episcopate or historic episcopate, Churches with this type of government usually believe that the Church requires episcopal government as described in the New Testament. In some systems, bishops may be subject to higher-ranking bishops and they meet in councils or synods. These gatherings, subject to presidency by higher ranking bishops, usually make important decisions, for much of the written history of institutional Christianity, episcopal government was the only known form of church organization. The definition of the word episcopal has variation among Christian traditions, there are subtle differences in governmental principles among episcopal churches at the present time.
To some extent the separation of episcopal churches can be traced to these differences in ecclesiology, for some, episcopal churches are churches that use a hierarchy of bishops that regard themselves as being in an unbroken, personal apostolic succession. Episcopal is used to distinguish between the various organizational structures of denominations. For instance, the word presbyterian is used to describe a church governed by a hierarchy of assemblies of elected elders, episcopal is used to describe a church governed by bishops. Self-governed local congregations, governed neither by elders nor bishops, are referred to as Congregational. More specifically, the title Episcopal is applied to several churches historically based within Anglicanism including those still in communion with the Church of England, many Methodist churches retain the form and function of episcopal polity, although in a modified form, called connexionalism. All orthodox Christians were in churches with a government, that is, one Church under local bishops.
Writing between ca.85 and 110, St. Ignatius of Antioch, Patriarch of Antioch, was the earliest of the Church fathers to define the importance of episcopal government. Assuming Ignatius view was the Apostolic teaching and practice, the line of succession was unbroken and passed through the four ancient Patriarchal sees, Jerusalem, some organizations, though aloof from the political wranglings of imperial Christianity, nevertheless practiced episcopal polity. The single Roman Empire was divided between two autonomous administrative centers and Constantinopolitan, West and East, Latin speaking and Greek speaking. This remained the status quo through the fourth century, a deep chasm developed between the East and West, becoming critical around 350, known as the Aryan, or Nicene controversy. The Eastern Christian Churches were thought by Constantine to believe against the Trinity, Bishop of Poitiers, believed that the Eastern Church should be given the opportunity to, at least, be educated on the subject.
Constantine, in his wisdom, and upset by disagreement, banished Hilary to the East and this truth became known in the West, though some differences lingered
In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was a governor with extended authority over a province at some distance from the capital Constantinople. The prevailing situation frequently involved him in military operations, in the civil administration of the Byzantine Roman Empire the exarch was, as stated above, the viceroy of a large and important province. After the dissolution of the Western Empire in the fifth century. Justinian I reconquered North Africa, Italy and finally parts of Spain for the Eastern Roman Empire, this put an incredible strain on the Empires limited resources. Subsequent emperors would not surrender the land to remedy the situation. Thus the stage was set for Emperor Maurice to establish the Exarchates to deal with the evolving situation of the provinces. In Italy the Lombards were the opposition to Byzantine power. In North Africa the Amazigh or Berber princes were ascendant due to Roman weakness outside the coastal cities, the problems associated with many enemies on various fronts forced the imperial government to decentralize and devolve power to the former provinces.
The term Exarch most commonly refers to the Exarch of Italy, the exarchates seat was at Ravenna, whence it is known as the Exarchate of Ravenna. Ravenna remained the seat of the Exarch until the revolt of 727 over Iconoclasm, the growing menace of the Lombards and the split between eastern and western Christendom that Iconoclasm caused made the position of the Exarch more and more untenable. The last Exarch was killed by the Lombards in 751, a second exarchate was created by Maurice to administer northern Africa, formerly a separate praetorian prefecture, the islands of the western Mediterranean and the Byzantine possessions in Spain. The capital of the Exarchate of Africa was Carthage, the exarchate proved both financially and militarily strong, and survived until the Arab Muslim conquest of Carthage in 698. The term exarch entered ecclesiastical language at first for a metropolitan with jurisdiction not only for the area that was his as a metropolitan, the advance of Constantinople put an end to these exarchates, which fell back to the state of ordinary metropolitan sees.
But the title of exarch was still used for any Metropolitan. Thus, since the Church of Cyprus was declared autocephalous, its Primate received the title of Exarch of Cyprus, the short-lived medieval Churches of Peć, Ohrid and Tirnova, were governed previously by exarchs, though these prelates assumed the title of patriarch. On the same principle the Archbishop of Mount Sinai and Raithu is an exarch, though in case, as in that of Cyprus. When the Bulgarians reconstituted their national Church in 1870, they obtained from the Ottoman authorities for its head the title of Exarch, not the highest, that of Patriarch. The Bulgarian Exarch, who resided at Constantinople, was the most famous bearer of the title, adherents throughout Macedonia were called exarchists, as opposed to the Greek patriarchists
Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'
The Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus, known as the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, is the official title of the primate of the Russian Orthodox Church. It is often preceded by the honorific His Holiness, the patriarchate was established in Moscow in 1589, the first patriarch was St. Job. Abolished in 1721 by Peter the Great, the patriarchate was restored on October 28,1917, Patriarch Kirill acceded to this position on 1 February 2009. Different variations of the title Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Patriarch of Moscow and all the great and small, the modern form, Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus, was initially used in 1589 through 1721. In the subsequent period, the Synod of Church authorities and public administration in Russia, the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church was restored by decision of the All-Russian Local Council on October 28,1917. The first patriarch elected after restoration was Saint Tikhon, Metropolitan of Moscow, between terms, Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church elects the chair from among its permanent members of the locum tenens of the Patriarchal throne.
Not than six months after the release of locum tenens of the throne. Shall convene to elect a new Patriarch of Moscow and All the Rus, the candidate for the patriarchs must be a bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church, not younger than 40 years old, have a higher theological education, the expertise of the diocesan administration. The procedure for the election of the patriarch of the charter was not detailed, Kirill I was elected on 27 January 2009 by the ROC Local Council as Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus and Primate of the Russian Orthodox Church, with 508 votes out of 700. He was enthroned on 1 February 2009, the Patriarch enters the dignity during a special ceremony of enthronement, which is held a few days after the election. List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow
Russian Orthodox Church
The Russian Orthodox Church, alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate, is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates. The Primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus and it exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the autonomous Church of Japan and the Orthodox Christians resident in the Peoples Republic of China. The ROC branches in Belarus, Latvia and Ukraine since the 1990s enjoy various degrees of self-government, in Ukraine, ROC has tensions with schismatic groups supported by the current government, while it enjoys the position of numerically dominant religious organisation. The ROC should not be confused with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, headquartered in New York, New York, the two Churches reconciled on May 17,2007, the ROCOR is now a self-governing part of the Russian Orthodox Church. According to one of the legends, Andrew reached the location of Kiev. The spot where he erected a cross is now marked by St.
Andrews Cathedral. By the end of the first millennium AD, eastern Slavic lands started to come under the influence of the Eastern Roman Empire. There is evidence that the first Christian bishop was sent to Novgorod from Constantinople either by Patriarch Photius or Patriarch Ignatios, by the mid-10th century, there was already a Christian community among Kievan nobility, under the leadership of Byzantine Greek priests, although paganism remained the dominant religion. Princess Olga of Kiev was the first ruler of Kievan Rus′ to convert to Christianity and her grandson, Vladimir of Kiev, made Rus officially a Christian state. The Kievan church was a metropolitanate of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Ecumenical patriarch appointed the metropolitan, who usually was a Greek. The Metropolitans residence was located in Kiev itself, the capital of the medieval Rus state. Following the tribulations of the Mongol invasion, the Russian Church was pivotal in the survival, despite the politically motivated murders of Mikhail of Chernigov and Mikhail of Tver, the Mongols were generally tolerant and even granted tax exemption to the Church.
Such holy figures as Sergius of Radonezh and Metropolitan Alexis helped the country to withstand years of Tatar oppression, the Trinity monastery founded by Sergius of Radonezh became the setting for the flourishing of spiritual art, exemplified by the work of Andrey Rublev, among others. The followers of Sergius founded four hundred monasteries, thus extending the geographical extent of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. However, the Moscow Prince Vasili II rejected the act of the Council of Florence brought to Moscow by Isidore in March 1441, Isidore was in the same year removed from his position as an apostate and expelled from Moscow. The Russian metropolitanate remained effectively vacant for the few years due largely to the dominance of Uniates in Constantinople then. In December 1448, Jonas, a Russian bishop, was installed by the Council of Russian bishops in Moscow as Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia without the consent from Constantinople. Subsequently, there developed a theory in Moscow that saw Moscow as the Third Rome, the successor to Constantinople
In some Christian churches, the reader is responsible for reading aloud excerpts of the scripture at a liturgy. In early Christian times, the reader was of value due to the rarity of literacy. In the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the term lector or reader can mean someone who in a liturgy is assigned to read a Biblical text other than the Gospel. But it has the specific meaning of a person who has been instituted as a lector or reader. This is the meaning in which the term is used in this article, in this sense, the office was formerly classed as one of the four minor orders and in recent centuries was generally conferred only on those preparing for ordination to the priesthood. With effect from 1 January 1973, the apostolic letter Ministeria quaedam of 15 August 1972 decreed instead that, What up to now were called minor orders are henceforth to be called ministries. Ministries may be assigned to lay Christians, hence they are no longer to be considered as reserved to candidates for the sacrament of orders, two ministries, adapted to present-day needs, are to be preserved in the whole Latin Church, those of reader and acolyte.
The functions heretofore assigned to the subdeacon are entrusted to the reader, the reader is appointed for a function proper to him, that of reading the word of God in the liturgical assembly. He may also, insofar as may be necessary, take care of preparing other faithful who are appointed on a basis to read the Scriptures in liturgical celebrations. That he may more fittingly and perfectly fulfill these functions, he is to meditate assiduously on sacred Scripture, instituted lectors, who are all men, are obliged, when proclaiming the readings at Mass, to wear an alb. Like other lay ministers, they may wear an alb or other suitable attire that has been approved by the Conference of Bishops. Neither the England and Wales episcopal conference nor that of the United States has specified a particular alternative attire, the General Instruction thus makes no distinction between men and women for proclaiming the scriptural readings in the absence of an instituted lector. In its sections the same document lists the lectors specific duties at Mass, traditionalist Catholic organizations such as the Priestly Fraternity of St.
The controversial Society of St. Pius X and other traditionalist Catholic bodies in dispute with the Holy See, such as sedevacantists, in the Eastern Orthodox Church and in the Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine tradition, the reader is the second highest of the minor orders of clergy. This order is higher than the Doorkeeper and lower than the subdeacon, due to this fact, it often falls to the reader within a parish to construct the variable parts of the divine services according to the often very complicated rules. This can lead to an intimate knowledge of the structure of. There is a service for the ordination of a reader. Immediately before ordination as a reader, the candidate is tonsured as a sign of his submission and it is a separate act from ordination
Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity. A subdeacon or hypodeacon is the highest of the orders of clergy in the Orthodox Church. This order is higher than the reader and lower than the deacon, like the reader, the clerical street-dress of the subdeacon is the cassock, which is usually black but only need be so if he is a monk. This is symbolic of his suppression of his own tastes and desires, and his obedience to God, his bishop. As a concession in countries where Orthodoxy is little known, many wear the cassock when attending services or when moving about the faithful on church business. This situation often arises if there is a need for a subdeacon, the reason for this lies in the fact that the canons prohibit subdeacons to marry after their ordination. This latter stipulation has led, in places, to the reservation of the formal ordination service as a stepping-stone for candidates for the priesthood. In the Byzantine Rite, the liturgical role is primarily that of servant to the bishop.
Outside of hierarchical services, the subdeacon serves in the altar as any other server but, in addition to the above duties, the subdeacon may read the reading from the Apostle at the Divine Liturgy if there is only one deacon. For this reason, he has a blessing to touch the Holy Table and the Table of Oblation. He is responsible for the training of new servers, the clerical street-wear of a subdeacon is the inner-cassock and outer cassock. Many wear the cassock only when present among the community or attending to church business. For services, the subdeacon is vested in a sticharion with an orar tied around his waist, up over his shoulders, and with the ends crossed over, the ordination to the subdiaconate is performed outside of the altar and in a context other than the Divine Liturgy. The reader who is to be tonsured subdeacon is presented to the bishop by two other subdeacons, who first lead him to the nave, there he faces east and makes a prostration before turning to make three prostrations towards the bishop, moving further west after each one.
He is led to stand immediately before the bishop, the subdeacons present the orar to the bishop, who blesses it. The ordinand kisses the orar and the hand. The bishop blesses the ordinand three times with the sign of the Cross upon his head, lays his hand upon the ordinands head. The bishop dries his hands and the three subdeacons receive the blessing and kiss his hands
The concepts of multifaith, generic and/or humanist chaplaincy are gaining increasing support, particularly within healthcare and educational settings. School chaplains are a fixture in religious and, more recently, in religious schools the role of the chaplain tends to be educational and liturgical. In secular schools the role of the chaplain tends to be that of a mentor, Chaplains provide care for students by supporting them during times of crisis or need. Many chaplains run programs to promote the welfare of students and parents including programs to help deal with grief. Chaplains build relationships with students by participating in extra activities such as breakfast programs, lunchtime groups. School chaplains can liaise with external organisations providing support services for the school, with stagnant incomes and rising prices putting pressure on independent school budgets, cutting the post of school chaplain can seem an easy saving. In Australia chaplains in schools have, been funded by the federal government.
Australian chaplains assist school communities to support the spiritual, Chaplaincy services are provided by non denominational companies. As of August 2013 there are 2339 chaplains working in Australian secular schools, similarly, in Scotland the focus of school chaplaincy is on welfare and building positive relationships joining students on excursions and sharing meals. Chaplains are non-denominational and act as a link between the community and society. Like Australian chaplains it is expected that they will not proselytise, in Ireland chaplaincy takes a very different approach in which chaplains are expected to teach up to four hours of class instruction per week and are usually Catholic. Chaplaincy duties include visiting homes, religious services and celebrations, Chaplains often oversee programs on campus that foster spiritual, ethical and political and cultural exchange, and the promotion of service. Each day communities respond to disasters or emergencies. Most often, these incidents are managed effectively at the local level, there are some incidents that may require a collaborative approach that includes personnel from,1.
A combination of specialties or disciplines,3, Chaplain Fellowship Disaster Response certifies first responder chaplain for crisis and disaster response. At the scene of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, for example, New York City Fire Department Chaplain Fr. Judge was killed by flying debris from the South Tower when he re-entered the lobby of the North Tower of the World Trade Center, environmental chaplaincy is an emerging field within chaplaincy. Environmental chaplains provide spiritual care in a way that honors humanitys deep connection to the earth, environmental chaplains may bear witness to the Earth itself and represent the merging of science and spirituality