The Metropolitan line, colloquially known as the Met, is a suburban railway line in England. It is a London Underground line between Aldgate in the City of London and Amersham and Chesham in Buckinghamshire, with branches to Watford in Hertfordshire and Uxbridge in Hillingdon. Coloured magenta on the tube map, the line serves 34 stations. Unlike the deep-tube railways, its tunnels are just below the surface and the loading gauge is of a similar size to those on main lines. Just under 67 million passenger journeys were made on the line in 2011/12; the line is one of just two Underground lines to cross the Greater London boundary. It is the only Underground line with an express service at peak times. In 1863 the Metropolitan Railway began the world's first underground railway between Paddington and Farringdon with wooden carriages and steam locomotives, but its most important route became the line north into the Middlesex countryside, where it stimulated the development of new suburbs. Harrow was reached in 1880, the line continued as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street.
From the end of the 19th century, the railway shared tracks with the Great Central Railway out of Marylebone. The central London lines were electrified by 1907 but electric locomotives were exchanged for steam locomotives on trains heading north of Harrow. After the railway was absorbed by the London Passenger Transport Board in 1933 the line was cut back to Aylesbury. Steam trains ran until 1961, when the line was electrified to and services were curtailed at Amersham; the Hammersmith & City line was shown on the tube map as a part of the Metropolitan line until 1990, when it appeared as a separate line. The current S8 Stock trains entered service between 2010 and 2012; the section between Aldgate and Baker Street is shared with the Circle and Hammersmith & City sub-surface lines. The track is below ground between Aldgate and Finchley Road, except at Barbican and Farringdon stations, as well as the Baker Street platforms. Baker Street is the southbound terminus for some trains not continuing to Aldgate.
Most of the route has two tracks, except for the single-track Chesham branch and a four-track section between Wembley Park and Moor Park that allows fast and semi-fast services to overtake "all stations" trains. There are four tracks between Wembley Park and Finchley Road, but only the outer ones are used by the Metropolitan line's non-stop trains: the inner pair was transferred to the Bakerloo line in 1939 with services calling at all stations; the disused Metropolitan line platforms at Willesden Green and Neasden are still in place despite Metropolitan line services having been withdrawn in 1940. There is a long-term aim to divert the two-station Watford branch to Watford Junction, resulting in the closure of Watford station and the opening of two new stations; this project would provide a link with the London Overground Watford DC Line and provide an interchange with the West Coast Main Line. Announced for completion by 2020, the future of the project is now uncertain, due to a funding shortfall.
The Metropolitan Railway known as the Met, was a passenger and goods railway that served London from 1863 to 1933, its main line heading north-west from the City to what were to become the Middlesex suburbs. Its first line connected the mainline railway termini at Paddington and King's Cross to the City, built beneath the New Road using the cut-and-cover method between Paddington and King's Cross, in tunnel and cuttings beside Farringdon Road from King's Cross to near Smithfield; the world's first underground railway, it opened on 10 January 1863 with gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. The line operated at a frequency of three trains per hour, rising to four trains per hour during the peak periods. In the 1871 plans for an underground railway in Paris, it was called the Métropolitain; the railway was soon extended from both northwards via a branch from Baker Street. It reached Hammersmith in 1864 and Richmond in 1877. Harrow was reached in 1880, as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street.
From the end of the 19th century, the railway shared tracks with the Great Central Railway route out of Marylebone. Electric traction was introduced in 1905 with electric multiple units operating between Uxbridge, Harrow-on-the-Hill and Baker Street. To remove steam and smoke from the tunnels in central London, the railway purchased electric locomotives, exchanged for steam locomotives at Harrow from 1908. In 1910, a seventeen-minute silent film recording was made showing large portions of the journey from Baker Street to Aylesbury and Uxbridge, seen from the cab of a train; the film is publicly available. Unlike other railways in the London area, the Met developed land for housing, thus benefitting from the increase in the value of its land caused by the building of the railway. After World War I it promoted its housing estates near the railway with the "Metro-land" brand. To improve services, more powerful electric and steam locomotives were purchased in the 1920s. A short branch opened from Rickmansworth to Watford i
Citycell was the oldest mobile operator of Bangladesh. It was the only mobile operator in the country using EVDO technology; as of August 2016, Citycell's total mobile subscriber base was 0.142 million. Citycell is owned by SingTel, Pacific Motors and Far East Telecom, it is the smallest mobile operator of Bangladesh in terms of subscribers. It was shut down due to failure of paying dues as ordered by the High Court by the Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission in 2016. In 1989 Bangladesh Telecom Limited was awarded a license to operate cellular and other wireless communication networks. In 1990 Hutchison Bangladesh Telecom Limited was incorporated in Bangladesh as a joint venture between BTL and Hutchison Telecommunications Limited. HBTL began commercial operation in Dhaka using the AMPS mobile technology in 1993 and became the 2nd cellular operator in South Asia; that year Pacific Motors bought 50% of BTL. By 1996 HBTL was renamed as Pacific Bangladesh Telecom Limited and launched the brand name'Citycell Digital' to market its cellular products.
By the end of 2007 Citycell had refurbished its old brand identity and introduced a new logo and corporate identity. However the slogan "because we care" has remained unchanged. In early 2010 Citycell's senior management was reshuffled. A new CEO, Mehboob Chowdhury was brought in as well as a COO, David Lee. In February Chowdhury took office, he is an experienced executive, as he has had involvement with Aktel, Warid and Grameenphone On 20 October 2016, the Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission suspended the spectrum allocation of Citycell due to huge amount of dues. But on 3 November 2016, the Supreme Court of Bangladesh directed the BTRC to reinstate its spectrum and on 6 November 2016, BTRC returned the suspended spectrum to Citycell. Citycell offers both postpaid plans. Since Citycell operates in CDMA technology, it offers R-UIMs instead of SIMs, it only sells ZTE S183 handset at BDT 2000. Citycell used to offer nine different prepaid plans. Citycell started offering prepaid plans from 2003.
It was the first to offer a prepaid plan with BTTB connectivity in the same year. In 2005, it launched the Aalap Call Me plan- the first phone plan with negative tariff in the country. In the plan, customers got credit added to their balance when they received calls from other Citycell subscribers. In the same year, Citycell launched. Subscribers of this plan could make free calls to other Citycell subscribers during late night hours; this espoused numerous copycat products from its competitors. That year the regulator BTRC ordered all phone companies to cease offering free call facility. In 2006, Citycell launched Hello 0123 plan; the name 0123 signified tariff of Tk 0 for calls to one Citycell number of the subscriber's choice, Tk 1 for calls to two other Citycell numbers, Tk 2 for calls to all other Citycell numbers and Tk. 3 for calls to all other networks. This plan was followed up with a string of other spinoff plans that continued into 2007; the postpaid plan was branded as Citycell One. The Postpaid subscribers enjoy 4 FnF numbers to other operators, 30 sec pulse applicable for all outgoing, Zoom Data service etc. in additional.
Besides, two newly launched postpaid. In Dhaka International Trade fair 2009, Citycell Introduced a postpaid service called VOICE-DATA plan with cheaper tariff voice call and sms on any operator and BTTB and 0.25 Tk/minute voice call and sms on any Citycell Number. Zoom Ultra is a data plan where the customer receives an internet dongle to surf the web wherever Citycell has coverage. Zoom Ultra comes with a choice of postpaid. Zoom came with either one of two MODEMs, Huawei EC321 or ZTE MG880+. Zoom Ultra uses better technology. ZTE AC782 or Tianjian E618 is the dongle given with Zoom Ultra. Huawei EC5321 router is offered for Zoom Ultra service. Zoom Ultra provides download speeds up to 512kbit/s. Citycell has been fined BDT 1.5 billion by the Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission for its involvement in illegal VoIP or international call termination. Citycell's involvement in illegal VoIP, was discovered in May 2007 during a raid in the company's Mohakhali office by the BTRC. Mohammad Abdul Kaium from Jagannath University had investigated what was the reason behind failure of citycell and found out its weak networking and using illegal VoIP, not valid for Mobile operators of Bangladesh.
Pasir Ris Group Representation Constituency is a former four member Group Representation Constituency that locates in the eastern part of Singapore at Pasir Ris. It had only existed once in 1997 general election. In 2001 General Election, this GRC had absorbed 3 wards in Punggol areas, while 3 of the existing 4 member wards in Pasir Ris was consolidated into 2 wards. With such enlargement, this GRC was renamed into Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC and expands to a 5 members GRC. Since it has again further expanded to 6 members GRC on 2006 General Election which the arrangement exists to date. Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC 1997 General Election's result