A porch is a term used in architecture to describe a room or gallery located in front of the entrance of a building forming a low front, placed in front of the facade of the building it commands. It can be defined more as a "projecting building that houses the entrance door of a building or as a vestibule, or hall; the porch exists in religious architecture as well as in secular architecture and is found in different forms and structures, built from various materials around the world. There are various styles of porches, many of which depend on the architectural tradition of its location, as well as various names used. Porches will allow for sufficient space for a person to comfortably pause before entering or after exiting a building, or to relax on. Many porches are opened on the outward side with balustrade supported by balusters that encircles the entire porch except where stairs are found; the word "porch" is exclusively used for a structure, outside the main walls of a building or house, with many different designs and roofs either under the same roof line or as towers and turrets, supported by simple porch posts or ornate colonnades and arches, such as found in Queen Anne style architecture, Victorian style houses Spanish Colonial Revival Style, or any of the American Colonial style buildings and homes.
Some porches are small covering just the entrance, or larger wrapping around the sides or running around the entire building. A porch can be part of the ground floor, or an upper floor, such as exampled by the Mrs. Lydia Johnson House built in 1895. Apadana: A veranda-shaped structure, open to the outside elements on one of its four sides. Peristyle: In Ancient Greek architecture. An Arizona room is a type of screened porch found in Arizona. A screened porch called a screened-in-porch, is a porch, built or altered to be enclosed with screens that creates an outdoor type room A sleeping porch is a porch, built or modified to be a type of semi-outdoor sleeping area. A sleeping porch can be an ordinary open porch, screened or with screened windows that can be opened. A rain porch is a type of porch with the roof and columns extended past the deck and reaching the ground; the roof may extend several feet past the porch creating a covered patio. A rain porch referred to as a Carolina porch, is found in the Southeastern United States.
A Portico is a porch style that utilizes columns or colonnades, arches, such as used in Italian modern and contemporary architecture. A Loggia is a covered exterior corridor or porch, part of the ground floor or can be elevated on another level; the roof is supported by columns or arches and the outer side is open to the elements. A Veranda style porch is large and may encompass the entire facade as well as the sides of a structure. An extreme example is the Grand Hotel on Mackinac Island, which has the longest porch in the world at 660 feet in length. A Lanai is a open-sided veranda, patio or porch originating in Hawaii. A sun porch, or sun room referred to as a Florida room, can be any room or separate structure enclosed with glass, but can be an enclosed porch.. A stoop is a landing small, at the top of stairs and when covered by a roof is a small porch. In northeastern North America, a porch is a small area unenclosed, at the main-floor height and used as a sitting area or for the removal of working clothes so as not to get the home's interior dirty, when the entrance door is accessed via the porch.
In the Southwestern United States, ranch-style homes use a porch to provide shade for the entrance and southern wall of the residence. In the Southern United States and Southern Ontario, Canada, a porch is at least as broad as it is deep, it may provide sufficient space for residents to entertain guests or gather on special occasions. Adobe-style homes in Santa Fe, New Mexico include large porches for entertainment called'portals,' which are not seen in the more traditional adobe homes. Older American homes those built during the era of Victorian architecture, or built in the Queen Anne style included a porch in both the front and the back of the home; the back porch is used as another sitting space. However, many American homes built with a porch since the 1940s have only a token one too small for comfortable social use and adding only to the visual impression of the building; the New Urbanism movement in architecture urges a reversal in this trend, recommending a large front porch, to help build community ties.
When spacious enough, a covered porch not only provides protection from sun or rain but comprises, in effect, extra living space for the home during pleasant weather — accommodating chairs or benches, tables and traditional porch furnishings such as a porch swing, rocking chairs, or ceiling fans. Some porches are screened in to exclude flying insects; the porch is architecturally unified with the rest of the house, using similar design elements. It may be integrated into upper storey. Many porch railings are designed with importance to the design of the building as well as curb appeal but local, state, or federal zoning laws mandate the height of the railing and spacing of balusters. There are exemptions for houses in historic districts or that are on the National Register of Historic Places; the National Park Service produced a brief concerning Preserving Historic Wood Porches. In Great Britain the projecting porch had come into common use
The Roman Rite is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church, as well as the most popular and widespread Rite in all of Christendom, is one of the Western/Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church. The Roman Rite became the predominant rite used by the Western Church. Many local variants, not amounting to distinctive Rites, existed in the medieval manuscripts, but have been progressively reduced since the invention of printing, most notably since the reform of liturgical law in the 16th century at the behest of the Council of Trent and more following the Second Vatican Council; the Roman Rite has been adapted over the centuries and the history of its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into three stages: the Pre-Tridentine Mass, Tridentine Mass and Mass of Paul VI. The Mass of Paul VI is the current form of the Mass in the Catholic Church, first promulgated in the 1969 edition of the Roman Missal, it is considered the ordinary form of the mass, intended for most contexts.
The Tridentine Mass, as promulgated in the 1962 Roman Missal, may be used as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, according to norms set in the 2007 papal document Summorum Pontificum. The Roman Rite is noted for its sobriety of expression. In its Tridentine form, it was noted for its formality: the Tridentine Missal minutely prescribed every movement, to the extent of laying down that the priest should put his right arm into the right sleeve of the alb before putting his left arm into the left sleeve. Concentration on the exact moment of change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ has led, in the Roman Rite, to the consecrated Host and the chalice being shown to the people after the Words of Institution. If, as was once most common, the priest offers Mass while facing ad apsidem, ad orientem if the apse is at the east end of the church, he shows them to the people, who are behind him, by elevating them above his head; as each is shown, a bell is rung and, if incense is used, the host and chalice are incensed.
Sometimes the external bells of the church are rung as well. Other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are frequent genuflections, kneeling for long periods, keeping both hands joined together. In his 1912 book on the Roman Mass, Adrian Fortescue wrote: "Essentially the Missal of Pius V is the Gregorian Sacramentary. We find the prayers of our Canon in the treatise de Sacramentis and allusions to it in the 4th century. So our Mass goes back, without essential change, to the age when it first developed out of the oldest liturgy of all, it is still redolent of that liturgy, of the days when Caesar ruled the world and thought he could stamp out the faith of Christ, when our fathers met together before dawn and sang a hymn to Christ as to a God. The final result of our inquiry is that, in spite of unsolved problems, in spite of changes, there is not in Christendom another rite so venerable as ours." In a footnote he added: "The prejudice that imagines that everything Eastern must be old is a mistake.
Eastern rites have been modified too. No Eastern Rite now used is as archaic as the Roman Mass."In the same book, Fortescue acknowledged that the Roman Rite underwent profound changes in the course of its development. His ideas are summarized in the article on the "Liturgy of the Mass" that he wrote for the Catholic Encyclopedia in which he pointed out that the earliest form of the Roman Mass, as witnessed in Justin Martyr's 2nd-century account, is of Eastern type, while the Leonine and Gelasian Sacramentaries, of about the 6th century, "show us what is our present Roman Mass". In the interval, there was what Fortescue called "a radical change", he quoted the theory of A. Baumstark that the Hanc Igitur, Quam oblationem, Supra quæ and Supplices, the list of saints in the Nobis quoque were added to the Roman Canon of the Mass under "a mixed influence of Antioch and Alexandria", that "St. Leo I began to make these changes. During the same time the prayers of the faithful before the Offertory disappeared, the kiss of peace was transferred to after the Consecration, the Epiklesis was omitted or mutilated into our "Supplices" prayer.
Of the various theories suggested to account for this it seems reasonable to say with Rauschen: "Although the question is by no means decided there is so much in favour of Drews's theory that for the present it must be considered the right one. We must admit that between the years 400 and 500 a great transformation was made in the Roman Canon". In the same article Fortescue went on to speak of the many alterations that the Roman Rite of Mass underwent from the 7th century on, in particular through the infusion of Gallican elements, noticeable chiefly in the variations for the course of the year; this infusion Fortescue called the "last change since Gregory the Great". The Eucharistic Prayer used in the Byzantine Rite is attributed to Saint John Chrysostom, who died in 404 two centuries before Pope Gregory the Great; the East Syrian Eucharistic Prayer of Ad
A cathedral is a Catholic church that contains the cathedra of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. The equivalent word in German for such a church is Dom. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are specific to those Christian denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Catholic, Anglican and some Lutheran and Methodist churches. Church buildings embodying the functions of a cathedral first appeared in Italy, Gaul and North Africa in the 4th century, but cathedrals did not become universal within the Western Catholic Church until the 12th century, by which time they had developed architectural forms, institutional structures and legal identities distinct from parish churches, monastic churches and episcopal residences. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the English word "cathedral" translates as katholikon, meaning "assembly", but this title is applied to monastic and other major churches without episcopal responsibilities; when the church at which an archbishop or "metropolitan" presides is intended, the term kathedrikós naós is used.
Following the Protestant Reformation, the Christian church in several parts of Western Europe, such as Scotland, the Netherlands, certain Swiss Cantons and parts of Germany, adopted a Presbyterian polity that did away with bishops altogether. Where ancient cathedral buildings in these lands are still in use for congregational worship, they retain the title and dignity of "cathedral", maintaining and developing distinct cathedral functions, but void of hierarchical supremacy. From the 16th century onwards, but since the 19th century, churches originating in Western Europe have undertaken vigorous programmes of missionary activity, leading to the founding of large numbers of new dioceses with associated cathedral establishments of varying forms in Asia, Australasia and the Americas. In addition, both the Catholic Church and Orthodox churches have formed new dioceses within Protestant lands for converts and migrant co-religionists, it is not uncommon to find Christians in a single city being served by three or more cathedrals of differing denominations.
In the Catholic or Roman Catholic tradition, the term "cathedral" applies only to a church that houses the seat of the bishop of a diocese. The abbey church of a territorial abbacy does not acquire the title. In any other jurisdiction canonically equivalent to a diocese but not canonically erected as such, the church that serves this function is called the "principal church" of the respective entity—though some have coopted the term "cathedral" anyway; the Catholic Church uses the following terms. A pro-cathedral is a parish or other church used temporarily as a cathedral while the cathedral of a diocese is under construction, renovation, or repair; this designation applies. A co-cathedral is a second cathedral in a diocese; this situation can arise in various ways such as a merger of two former dioceses, preparation to split a diocese, or perceived need to perform cathedral functions in a second location due to the expanse of the diocesan territory. A proto-cathedral is the former cathedral of a transferred.
The cathedral church of a metropolitan bishop is called a metropolitan cathedral. The term "cathedral" carries no implication as to the size or ornateness of the building. Most cathedrals are impressive edifices. Thus, the term "cathedral" is applied colloquially to any large and impressive church, regardless of whether it functions as a cathedral, such as the Crystal Cathedral in California or the Arctic Cathedral in Tromsø, Norway. Although the builders of Crystal Cathedral never intended the building to be a true cathedral, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange purchased the building and the surrounding campus in February 2012 for use as a new cathedral church; the building is now under renovation and restoration for solemn dedication under the title "Christ Cathedral" in 2019. The word "cathedral" is derived from the French cathédrale, from the Latin cathedra, from the Greek καθέδρα kathédra, "seat, bench", from κατά kata "down" and ἕδρα hedra "seat, chair." The word refers to the presence and prominence of the bishop's or archbishop's chair or throne, raised above both clergy and laity, located facing the congregation from behind the High Altar.
In the ancient world, the chair, on a raised dais, was the distinctive mark of a teacher or rhetor and thus symbolises the bishop's role as teacher. A raised throne within a basilican hall was definitive for a Late Antique presiding magistrate; the episcopal throne embodies the principle that only a bishop makes a cathedral, this still applies in those churches that no longer have bishops, but retain cathedral dignity and functions in ancient churches over which bishops presided. But the throne can embody the principle that a cathedral makes a bishop.
Ancient history as a term refers to the aggregate of past events from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as the post-classical history. The phrase may be used either to refer to the period of the academic discipline; the span of recorded history is 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script. Ancient History covers all continents inhabited by humans in the 3,000 BC – 500 AD period; the broad term Ancient History is not to be confused with Classical Antiquity. The term classical antiquity is used to refer to Western History in the Ancient Mediterranean from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC; this coincides with the traditional date of the Founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece. The academic term "history" is not to be confused with colloquial references to times past. History is fundamentally the study of the past through documents, can be either scientific or humanistic.
Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history. Outside of Europe the 450-500 time frame for the end of ancient times has had difficulty as a transition date from Ancient to Post-Classical times. During the time period of'Ancient History', starting from 3000 BC world population was exponentially increasing due to the Neolithic Revolution, in full progress. According to HYDE estimates from the Netherlands world population increased exponentially in this period. In 10,000 BC in Prehistory world population had stood at 2 million, rising to 45 million by 3,000 BC. By the rise of the Iron Age in 1,000 BC that population had risen to 72 million. By the end of the period in 500 AD world population stood at 209 million. In 3,500 years, world population increased by 100 times.
Historians have two major avenues which they take to better understand the ancient world: archaeology and the study of source texts. Primary sources are those sources closest to the origin of the idea under study. Primary sources have been distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources. Archaeology is the excavation and study of artifacts in an effort to interpret and reconstruct past human behavior. Archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived; some important discoveries by archaeologists studying ancient history include: The Egyptian pyramids: giant tombs built by the ancient Egyptians beginning about 2600 BC as the final resting places of their royalty. The study of the ancient cities of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Lothal in India; the city of Pompeii: an ancient Roman city preserved by the eruption of a volcano in AD 79. Its state of preservation is so great that it is a valuable window into Roman culture and provided insight into the cultures of the Etruscans and the Samnites.
The Terracotta Army: the mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor in ancient China. The discovery of Knossos by Minos Kalokairinos and Sir Arthur Evans; the discovery of Troy by Heinrich Schliemann. Most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquity's own historians. Although it is important to take into account the bias of each ancient author, their accounts are the basis for our understanding of the ancient past; some of the more notable ancient writers include Herodotus, Arrian, Polybius, Sima Qian, Livy, Josephus and Tacitus. A fundamental difficulty of studying ancient history is that recorded histories cannot document the entirety of human events, only a fraction of those documents have survived into the present day. Furthermore, the reliability of the information obtained from these surviving records must be considered. Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in any culture until long after the end of ancient history; the earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, beginning with Herodotus of Halicarnassus.
Thucydides eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element which set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings. He was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event; the Roman Empire was an ancient culture with a high literacy rate, but many works by its most read historians are lost. For example, Livy, a Roman historian who lived in the 1st century BC, wrote a history of Rome called Ab Urbe Condita in 144 volumes. Indeed, only a minority of the work of any major Roman historian has survived. Click the above link to find a listed timeline that provides an overview for Ancient History, its context ranges from 3200 BC to 400 AD. Prehistory is the period before written history; the early human migrations in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spread across Eurasia 1.8 million years ago. The controlled use of fire occurred 800,000 years ago in the Middle Paleolithic. 250,000 years ago, Homo sapiens emerged in Africa.
60–70,000 years ago, Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa along a coastal route to South and So
The narthex is an architectural element typical of early Christian and Byzantine basilicas and churches consisting of the entrance or lobby area, located at the west end of the nave, opposite the church's main altar. Traditionally the narthex was a part of the church building, but was not considered part of the church proper. In early Christian churches the narthex was divided into two distinct parts: an esonarthex, between the west wall and the body of the church proper, separated from the nave and aisles by a wall, colonnade, screen, or rail, an external closed space, the exonarthex, a court in front of the church facade delimited on all sides by a colonnade as in the first St. Peter's Basilica in Rome or in the Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio in Milan; the exonarthex may have been either open or enclosed, with a door leading to the outside as in the Byzantine Chora Church. By extension, the narthex can denote a covered porch or entrance to a building; the word was the place for penitents. In Modern Greek narthekas no longer has this meaning and is either the porch of a church, as English, or the brace of a sprained wrist or sling of a broken arm.
In English the narthex is now the porch outside the church at the west end it was a part of the church itself. The purpose of the narthex was to allow those not eligible for admittance into the general congregation to hear and partake in the service; the narthex would include a baptismal font so that infants or adults could be baptized there before entering the nave, to remind other believers of their baptisms as they gathered to worship. The narthex is thus traditionally a place of penitence, in Eastern Christianity some penitential services, such as the Little Hours during Holy Week are celebrated there, rather than in the main body of the church. In the Russian Orthodox Church funerals are traditionally held in the narthex. Reforms removed the requirement to exclude people from services who were not full members of the congregation, which in some traditions obviated the narthex. Church architects continued, however; this room could be called a porch. Some traditions still call this area the narthex as it represents the point of entry into the church if everyone is admitted to the nave itself.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the esonarthex and exonarthex had, still have, distinct liturgical functions. For instance, the procession at the Paschal Vigil will end up at the exonarthex for the reading of the Resurrection Gospel, while certain penitential services are traditionally chanted in the esonarthex. In some Eastern Orthodox temples, the narthex will be referred to as the trapeza, because in ancient times, tables would be set up there after the Divine Liturgy for the faithful to eat a common meal, similar to the agape feast of the early church. To this day, this is where the faithful will bring their baskets at Pascha for the priest to bless the Paschal foods which they will take back to their homes for the festive break-fast. Traditionally, the narthex is where candles and prosphora will be sold for offering during Divine Services; the doorway leading from the narthex to the nave is sometimes referred to as the "Royal Doors", because in major cathedrals there were several sets of doors leading into the nave, the central one being reserved only for the use of the Byzantine emperor.
On feast days there will be a procession to the narthex, followed by intercessory prayers, called the Litiy. In Armenia the local style of narthex is known as a gavit. Antechamber Cathedral diagram Liturgical east and west Lobby Vestibule Westwork Krautheimer, Richard. Architettura paleocristiana e bizantina. Turin: Einaudi. ISBN 88-06-59261-0. Media related to Narthexes at Wikimedia Commons
French Gothic architecture
French Gothic architecture is a style which emerged in France in 1140, was dominant until the mid-16th century. The most notable examples are the great Gothic cathedrals of France, including Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres Cathedral, Amiens Cathedral, its main characteristics were the search for verticality, or height, the innovative use of flying buttresses and other architectural innovations to distribute the weight of the stone structures to supports on the outside, allowing unprecedented height and volume, The new techniques permitted the addition of larger windows, including enormous stained glass windows, which filled the cathedrals with light. The French style was copied in other parts of northern Europe Germany and England, it was supplanted as the dominant French style in the mid-16th century by French Renaissance architecture. French Gothic architecture was the result of the emergence in the 12th century of powerful French state centered in the Ile-de-France. During the reign of Louis VI of France, Paris was the principal residence of the Kings of France, Reims the place of coronation, the Abbey of Saint-Denis became their ceremonial burial place.
The Abbot of Saint-Denis, was a counselor of Louis VI and Louis VII, as well as an historian. He oversaw the reconstruction of the ambulatory of Saint-Denis, making it the first and most influential example of Gothic architecture in France. Over the course of the Capetian dynasty, three Kings; the period saw the founding of the University of Paris or Sorbonne. It produced the high Gothic and the Flamboyant Gothic styles, the construction of some of the most famous cathedrals, including Chartres Cathedral, Reims Cathedral, Amiens Cathedral; the Gothic style emerged from innovative use of existing technologies, such as the pointed arch and the rib vault. The rib vault was known in the earlier Romanesque period, but it was not or used until the Gothic period; the crossed ribs of the vault carried the weight outwards and downwards, to clusters of supporting pillars and columns. The earlier rib vaults, used at Sens Cathedral and Notre-Dame Cathedral, had six compartments bordered by ribs and the crossing arch, which transferred the weight to alternating columns and pillars.
A new innovation appeared during the High Gothic: the four-part rib vault, used in Chartres Cathedral, Amiens Cathedral and Reims Cathedral. The ribs of this vault distributed the weight more to the four supporting pillars below, established a closer connection between the nave and the lower portions of the church walls, between the arcades below and the windows above; this allowed for greater height and thinner walls, contributed to the strong impression of verticality given by the newer Cathedrals. The second major innovation of the Gothic style was the flying buttress, first used at Notre Dame Cathedral; this transferred the thrust of the weight of the roof outside the walls, where it was countered by the weight of the buttress. Heavy stone pinnacles were added to the top of the buttresses, to counterbalance the thrust from inside the walls; the buttress allowed a significant reduction in the thickness of the cathedral walls, permitted the use of larger windows in the interior of the church.
In churches such as Sainte Chapelle, thanks to buttresses, the walls were made entirely of stained glass. The development of rib-vaults and buttresses brought gradual changes to the interior structure of cathedrals. Early Gothic cathedrals had the walls of the nave built in four levels, a gallery with columns on the ground level. Just below the vaults. During the high Gothic period, with the development of the four part rib vault and the flying buttress, the tribune was eliminated at Chartres and other new cathedrals, allowing taller windows and arcades. By the 15th century, at Rouen Cathedral, the triforium disappeared, the walls between the traverses were filled with high windows. Another innovative feature of the French Gothic cathedral was the design of the portal or entry, which by long Christian tradition faced west; the Basilica of St Denis had a triple portal, decorated with columns in the form of statues of apostles and saints around the doorways, biblical scenes crowded with statuary over the doorways.
This triple portal was adopted by all the major cathedrals. A tympanum over the portal, crowded with sculptural figures illustrating a biblical story became a feature of Gothic cathedrals. Following the example of Amiens, the tympanum over the central portal traditionally depicted the Last Judgement, the right portal showed the coronation of the Virgin Mary, the left portal showed the lives of saints who were important in the diocese. Large rose windows were another defining feature of the Gothic style; some Gothic windows, like those at Chartres, were cut into the stone walls. Other windows, such as those in the chapels of Notre-Dame and Reims, were in stone frames installed into the walls; the most common form was an oculus, a small round window with two lancets, or windows with pointed arches, just below it. The Rose window was the most famous type of the Gohtic style, they were plead in the portals to provide light to the nave. The largest rose, they had a framework of stone armatures in an ornate floral pattern, to help them resist the wind.
Gothic windows were in a ston
Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical, it was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, the social sciences, the natural sciences, it had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism and nationalism. The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension and terror, awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature.
It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but spontaneity as a desirable characteristic. In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, industrialism. Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society, it promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism.
The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. The nature of Romanticism may be approached from the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist; the importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich, "the artist's feeling is his law". To William Wordsworth, poetry should begin as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings", which the poet "recollect in tranquility", evoking a new but corresponding emotion the poet can mold into art. To express these feelings, it was considered the content of art had to come from the imagination of the artist, with as little interference as possible from "artificial" rules dictating what a work should consist of. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were natural laws the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone.
As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creator's own imagination, so that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist, able to produce his own original work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism, to be derivative was the worst sin; this idea is called "romantic originality". Translator and prominent Romantic August Wilhelm Schlegel argued in his Lectures on Dramatic Arts and Letters that the most phenomenal power of human nature is its capacity to divide and diverge into opposite directions. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief and interest in the importance of nature; this in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. In contrast to the very social art of the Enlightenment, Romantics were distrustful of the human world, tended to believe a close connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy.
Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the personal voice of the artist. So, in literature, "much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves". According to Isaiah Berlin, Romanticism embodied "a new and restless spirit, seeking violently to burst through old and cramping forms, a nervous preoccupation with perpetually changing inner states of consciousness, a longing for the unbounded and the indefinable, for perpetual movement and change, an effort to return to the forgotten sources of life, a passionate effort at self-assertion both individual and collective, a search after means of expressing an unappeasable yearning for unattainable goals"; the group of words with the root "Roman" in the various European languages, such as "romance" and "Romanesque", has a complicated history, but by the middle of the 18th century "romantic" in English and romantique in French were both in common use as adjectives of praise for natural phenomena such as views and sunsets, in a sense close to modern English usage but without the amorous connotation.
The application of the term to literature first became common in Germany, where the circle around the Schlegel brothers, critics August and Friedrich, began to speak of romantische Poesie in the 1790s, contrasting it with "classic" but in terms of spirit rather than dating. Friedrich Schlegel wrote in his Dialogue on Poetry, "I seek and find the romantic among th