The Mexican–American War known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the Intervención Estadounidense en México, was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848. It followed in the wake of the 1845 U. S. annexation of Texas, not formally recognized by the Mexican government, who disputed the Treaties of Velasco signed by Mexican caudillo President/General Antonio López de Santa Anna after the Texas Revolution a decade earlier. In 1845, newly elected U. S. President James K. Polk, who saw the annexation of Texas as the first step towards a further expansion of the United States, sent troops to the disputed area and a diplomatic mission to Mexico. After Mexican forces attacked U. S. forces, the United States Congress declared war. U. S. forces occupied the regional capital of Santa Fe de Nuevo México along the upper Rio Grande and the Pacific coast province of Alta California, moved south. Meanwhile, the Pacific Squadron of the U. S. Navy blockaded the Pacific coast farther south in the lower Baja California Territory.
The U. S. Army, under Major General Winfield Scott captured Mexico City through stiff resistance, having marched west from the port of Veracruz on the Gulf Coast, where the U. S. staged its first major amphibious landing. The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, forced onto the remnant Mexican government, ended the war and enforced the Mexican Cession of the northern territories of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo México to the United States; the U. S. agreed to pay $15 million in compensation for the physical damage of the war and assumed $3.25 million of debt owed earlier by the Mexican government to U. S. citizens. Mexico acknowledged the loss of what became the State of Texas and accepted the Rio Grande as its northern border with the United States; the victory and territorial expansion Polk envisioned inspired great patriotism in the United States, but the war and treaty drew some criticism in the U. S. for their casualties, monetary cost, heavy-handedness early on. The question of how to treat the new acquisitions intensified the debate over slavery.
Mexico's worsened domestic turmoil and losses of life and national prestige left it in what prominent Mexicans called a "state of degradation and ruin". Mexico obtained independence from Spain and the Spanish Empire with the Treaty of Córdoba in 1821, it experimented with monarchy, but became a republic in 1824. This government was characterized by instability, leaving it ill-prepared for international conflict when war broke out only two decades in 1846. In the decades preceding the war, Native American raids in Mexico's sparsely settled north prompted the Mexican government to sponsor migration from the United States to the Mexican province of Texas to create a buffer. However, the newly named "Texans" revolted against the Mexican government of President/dictator Antonio López de Santa Anna, who had usurped the Mexican Constitution of 1824, in the subsequent 1836 Texas Revolution, creating a republic not recognized by Mexico, which still claimed it as part of its national territory. In 1845, the Texan Republic agreed to an offer of annexation by the U.
S. Congress and became the 28th state in the Union on December 29 that year. Mexico's military and diplomatic capabilities declined after it attained independence from Spain in 1821 and left the northern one-half of the country vulnerable to the Comanche and Navajo native Americans; the Comanche, in particular, took advantage of the Mexican state to undertake large-scale raids hundreds of miles into the country to acquire livestock for their own use and to supply an expanding market in Texas and the U. S; the northern area of Mexico was sparsely settled and not well controlled politically by the government based in Mexico City. After independence, Mexico contended with internal struggles that sometimes verged on civil war and the northern frontier was not a high priority. In northern Mexico, the end of Spanish rule was marked by the end of financing for presidios and for gifts to Native Americans to maintain the peace; the Comanche and Apache were successful in raiding for livestock and looting much of northern Mexico outside the scattered cities.
Northern Mexico was a chaotic area due to the Indian raids. The raids after 1821 resulted in the death of thousands of Mexicans, halted most transportation and communications, decimated the ranching industry, a mainstay of the northern economy; as a result, the demoralized civilian population of northern Mexico put up little resistance to the invading U. S. army. Distance and hostile activity from Native Americans made communications and trade between the heartland of Mexico and provinces such as Alta California and New Mexico difficult; as a result, New Mexico was dependent on the overland Santa Fe Trail trade with the United States at the outbreak of the Mexican–American War. The Mexican government's policy of settlement of U. S. citizens in its province of Tejas was aimed at expanding control into Comanche lands, the Comancheria. Instead of settlement occurring in the central and west of the province, people settled in East Texas, where there was rich farmland and, contiguous to the southern U.
S. slave states. As settlers poured in from the U. S. the Mexican government discouraged further settlement, with its 1829 abolition of slavery. In 1836, Mexico was united in refusing to recognize the independence of Texas. Mexico threatened war with the United States. Meanwhile, U. S. President Polk's assertion of Manifest Destiny was focusing United States interest on westward expansion beyond its existing national borders. During the Spanish colonial era, the Californias (
The Tanigawadake Ropeway is Japanese aerial lift line, operated by Tanigawadake Ropeway Company. The Tōbu Group company operates another aerial lift line, Harunasan Ropeway. Opened in 1960, the line climbs Mount Tanigawa Tenjindaira Ski Resort, Gunma; the line is operated all seasons, transporting hikers, or tourists. System: Until August 2005: Gondola lift, 3 cables From September 2005: Funitel Elevation at top: 1319m Distance: 2.3 kilometres Vertical interval: 573 m Passenger capacity per a cabin: 22 Cabins: 14 Stations: 2 Time required for single ride: 10 minutes List of aerial lifts in Japan Tanigawadake Ropeway Company official website
Janee Michelle known as Gee Tucker, is an American actress, model and businessperson, best known for her role in the 1974 horror film The House on Skull Mountain. Her acting and modeling career has included appearances in a variety of media, including films, television programs and advertisements, theatrical productions, print advertisements. Mercadel made her first film appearance in the 1964 short film The Legend of Jimmy Blue Eyes, she adopted the stage name Janee Michelle because her talent agent and the film studio both believed her birth name would be poorly received. Michelle's acting in the television series The Outcasts in 1968 was critically acclaimed, which led to several offers of film roles. Both in a 1969 episode of The Governor & J. J. and in the 1970 film Soul Soldier, she acted alongside her then-husband Robert DoQui. In 1977, she was the queen in the New Orleans Mardi Gras Zulu parade, she was the first Zulu queen to wear two different gowns, both of which were designed by Bob Mackie, who had designed outfits for Cher.
She divorced DoQui in 1978 and married New Orleans politician Robert H. Tucker, Jr. the following year. In 1980, the couple founded Tucker and Associates, a management consulting company that, in 1990, received a US$26 million contract with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, representing the largest contract, received by a minority-owned company in Louisiana. While working on this contract and Tucker started a second company called Integrated Logistical Support; the couple divorced and Michelle retained ownership of Tucker and Associates while Tucker retained ownership of Integrated Logistical Support. When Tucker retired in 2008, the couple's daughter Iam Tucker replaced him as president of Integrated Logistical Support. After Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans, Michelle purchased Sophie's Gelato, an ice cream parlor on Magazine Street where she makes gelato in-house. Janee Michelle was born Geneva Leona Mercadel in Louisiana, her paternal great-grandfather was a shoemaker who immigrated to New York from Champagne, France before moving to New Orleans in pursuit of a warmer climate.
Her extended family had lived in the 7th Ward of New Orleans for many years. Michelle is related to Sidney Barthelemy, former Mayor of New Orleans. Traditionally, the Mercadels had worked in construction, some of Michelle's cousins continued this tradition. Michelle's mother's surname was Mathieu and her family background included people from Africa, France and Italy, as well as Choctaw people, she grew up in a religious home in which her father, Walter F. Mercadel, was a barber and her mother was a beautician, she had three siblings: an older brother named Walbert and two younger sisters named Zernell and Zona. At age 13, Michelle created, produced and directed a dance show at the YWCA in New Orleans, she was named Miss New Orleans in 1960. She attended Rivers Frederick Junior High School where her principal, Leah McKenna, encouraged her to pursue a career in entertainment. While in high school, Michelle won fifteen medals for language proficiency, she started high school in New Orleans and transferred to Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles, when her family moved there as a result of her mother's illness, aggravated by the high humidity of New Orleans.
Her father was unemployed at the time and her brother's wife was pregnant, so she started working as a cook to support the family. She graduated from Manual Arts ranked 25th scholastically in her 500-student class, attended Los Angeles City College and Woodbury College, receiving her best grades in English studies, she took drama courses from the Columbia Film Workshop. Michelle's acting and dancing career has included appearances in a variety of media, including films, television programs and advertisements, theatrical productions, print advertisements, she commuted to a job as a dancer in Las Vegas. She has learned to perform both ballet and Cuban dance styles and has danced at the Hollywood Palladium and Tropicana Las Vegas; as a stage actor, she appeared in productions of MacBird!, The Death of Daddy Hugs and Kisses, Ride a Wild Horse, The Vagina Monologues, In the Blink of an Eye, other plays. One of her early television advertisement appearances was for Ultra Sheen hair products. In 1964, Michelle—still known by her birth name Geneva Mercadel—received her first film role in the short film The Legend of Jimmy Blue Eyes, nominated for an Academy Award.
Her contract did not allow her to receive residuals when the film aired on television. Her talent agent and the film studio both believed her birth name would be received poorly, so she adopted the stage name Janee Michelle, she chose the name Janee to keep the first two syllables of her birth name. She chose the surname Michelle because she "thought it would be unique to have a name with two first names"; when she found people had difficulty pronouncing the name Janee, she considered changing it again, but decided against it because she believed this pronunciation difficulty caused people to remember her. In 1967, an article in The Chicago Defender predicted that Michelle's career in American cinema would be successful; that year, she appeared on the cover of an issue of the magazine Jet alongside Ronnie Eckstine in recognition of their appearance together in Eckstine's debut film The Love-Ins. A Variety reviewer wrote. Michelle's acting in the television series The Outcasts was critically