Mexicans are the people of Mexico, a country in North America. The Mexica founded Tenochtitlan in 1325 as an altepetl located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico, it became the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century, until captured by the Spanish in 1521. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas, it subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in the central part of Mexico City; the modern nation of Mexico achieved independence from the Spanish Empire. This led to what has been termed "a peculiar form of multi-ethnic nationalism"; the most spoken language by Mexicans is Mexican Spanish, but some may speak languages from 68 different indigenous linguistic groups and other languages brought to Mexico by recent immigration or learned by Mexican immigrants residing in other nations. In 2015, 21.5% of Mexico's population self-identified as being Indigenous or Indigenous. There are about 12 million Mexican nationals residing outside Mexico, with about 11.7 million living in the United States.
The larger Mexican diaspora can include individuals that trace ancestry to Mexico and self-identify as Mexican. The Mexican people have varied origins and an identity that has evolved with the succession of conquests among Amerindian groups and by Europeans; the area, now modern-day Mexico has cradled many predecessor civilizations, going back as far as the Olmec which influenced the latter civilizations of Teotihuacan and the much debated Toltec people who flourished around the 10th and 12th centuries A. D. and ending with the last great indigenous civilization before the Aztecs. The Nahuatl language was a common tongue in the region of modern Central Mexico during the Aztec Empire, but after the arrival of Europeans the common language of the region became Spanish. After the conquest of the Aztec empire, the Spanish re-administered the land and expanded their own empire beyond the former boundaries of the Aztec, adding more territory to the Mexican sphere of influence which remained under the Spanish Crown for 300 years.
Cultural diffusion and intermixing among the Amerindian populations with the European created the modern Mexican identity, a mixture of regional indigenous and European cultures that evolved into a national culture during the Spanish period. This new identity was defined as "Mexican" shortly after the Mexican War of Independence and was more invigorated and developed after the Mexican Revolution when the Constitution of 1917 established Mexico as an indivisible pluricultural nation founded on its indigenous roots. Mexicano is derived from the word Mexico itself. In the principal model to create demonyms in Spanish, the suffix -ano is added to the name of the place of origin, it has been suggested that the name of the country is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexicas, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "Place where Huitzilopochtli lives". Another hypothesis suggests; this meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco.
The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the Moon. Still another hypothesis suggests that it is derived from the goddess of maguey; the term Mexicano as a word to describe the different peoples of the region of Mexico as a single group emerged in the 16th century. In that time the term did not apply to a nationality nor to the geographical limits of the modern Mexican Republic; the term was used for the first time in the first document printed in Barcelona in 1566 which documented the expedition which launched from the port in Acapulco to find the best route which would favor a return journey from the Spanish East Indies to New Spain. The document stated: "el venturoso descubrimiento que los Mexicanos han hecho"; that discovery led to the Manila galleon trade route and those "Mexicans" referred to Criollos and Amerindians alluding to a plurality of persons who participated for a common end: the conquest of the Philippines in 1565.
A large majority of Mexicans have been classified as "Mestizos", meaning in modern Mexican usage that they identify neither with any indigenous culture nor with a Spanish cultural heritage, but rather identify as having cultural traits incorporating elements from indigenous and Spanish traditions. By the deliberate efforts of post-revolutionary governments the "Mestizo identity" was constructed as the base of the modern Mexican national identity, through a process of cultural synthesis referred to as mestizaje. Mexican politicians and reformers such as José Vasconcelos and Manuel Gamio were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of mestizaje. Since the Mestizo identity promoted by the government is more of a cultural identity than a biological one it has achieved a strong influence in the country, with a good number of biologically white people identifying with it, leading to being considered Mestizos in Mexico's demographic investigations and censuses due the ethnic criteria having its base on cultural traits rather than biological ones.
A similar situation occurs regarding the distinctions
Charles Frederick Burns is a retired American-born Canadian professional ice hockey forward who played 749 games in the National Hockey League. He played for the Detroit Red Wings, Boston Bruins, Oakland Seals, Pittsburgh Penguins, Minnesota North Stars. Burns was known for being an excellent skater and defensive player who performed checking and penalty-killing, his trademark was the padded helmet that he was forced to wear after suffering a serious head injury while playing junior hockey in 1954–55. In 1959, he was the only US-born player in the NHL. Although Burns was born in Detroit, his family moved to Toronto, Ontario when he was a child. Burns chose Canadian citizenship when he turned 21 and played for the 1958 World Champion Whitby Dunlops. Burns had three spells as a player-coach, twice with the San Francisco Seals and one with the Minnesota North Stars, he coached the Stars again in 1974-75 after his retirement. Curiously, all of these were midseason assignments, he coaches youth hockey for the Wonderland Wizards of Bridgeport, Connecticut in his spare time.
Biographical information and career statistics from Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database
Lupe Victoria Yolí Raymond, better known as La Lupe, was a Cuban singer of boleros and Latin soul, known for her energetic, sometimes controversial performances. Following the release of her first album in 1961, La Lupe moved from Havana to New York and signed with Tico Records, which marked the beginning of a prolific and successful career in the 1960s and 1970s, she retired in the 1980s due to religious reasons. La Lupe was born in the barrio of San Pedrito in Santiago de Cuba, her father was a major influence on her early life. In 1954 she participated on a radio program which invited fans to sing imitations of their favorite stars. Lupe escaped from school to sing a bolero of Olga Guillot's, called "Miénteme", won the competition; the family moved to Havana in 1955, where she was enrolled at the University of Havana to become a teacher. She admired Celia Cruz and like her, she graduated from teaching instruction before starting her professional singing career. Lupe married in 1958 and formed a musical trio with her husband Eulogio "Yoyo" Reyes and another female singer.
This group, Los Tropicuba, broke up along with her marriage in 1960. She began to perform her own act at a small nightclub in Havana, La Red, which had a clientele of distinguished foreigners, she acquired a devoted following, which included Ernest Hemingway, Tennessee Williams, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir and Marlon Brando. She recorded her first album, Con el diablo en el cuerpo, in 1960 for Discuba, the Cuban subsidiary of RCA Victor. On the album she was backed by two different groups directed by Eddy Gaytán, her first television appearance on Puerto Rican television caused a stir due to her frenzied, vibrant performance, which shocked some viewers. In 1962 she was exiled to México, she approached Celia Cruz and asked for her support to get work, in turn, Celia recommended her to Mongo Santamaría in New York. In New York City, Lupe performed at a cabaret named La Berraca and started a new career, making more than 10 records in five years, she married a second time, with whom she had a son.
That marriage ended in divorce. Lupe's passionate performances covered the range of music: son montuno, boogaloo, venturing into other Caribbean styles like Dominican merengue, Puerto Rican bomba and plena, it was her recordings which brought Tite Curet Alonso into prominence as a composer of tough-minded boleros in the salsa style. For a good part of the 1960s she was the most acclaimed Latin singer in New York City due to her partnership with Tito Puente, she did a wide variety of cover versions in either Spanish or accented English, including "Yesterday", "Dominique" by The Singing Nun, "Twist & Shout", "Unchained Melody", "Fever" and "America" from West Side Story. Fred Weinberg, her favorite audio engineer, worked with Celia Cruz, Mongo Santamaria, Tito Puente, many more of the Latin American greats, a producer on several of Lupe's albums, called La Lupe "A talent hurricane" in the studio due to her intense singing and enthusiasm; the quality of her performances became inconsistent. There were persistent rumors of her drug addiction and her life was "a real earthquake" according to statements of close friends, although Fred Weinberg, who engineered, produced a vast amount of her albums, stated that "In all the years I worked with Lupe, not once did I see her on drugs, or using drugs...
Heck, she never drank liquor due to her strong belief in religion." She ended some of her on-stage engagements being treated with an oxygen mask. Although she may have been poorly managed by her label Fania Records in particular, she managed and produced herself in mid-career, after she parted ways with Tito Puente. However, in the late 1960s her ephemeral career went downhill; the explosion of salsa and the arrival of Celia Cruz to New York were the determining factors that sent her into the background and her career declined thereafter. A devout follower of Santería, she continued to practice her religion, her record label Fania Records ended her contract in the late 1970s simply because of her falling record sales. She retired in 1980, found herself destitute by the early 1980s. In 1984 she injured her spine while trying to hang a curtain in her home. An electrical fire made her homeless. After being healed at an evangelical Christian crusade, La Lupe abandoned her Santería roots and became a born-again Christian.
In 1991, she gave a concert at La Sinagoga in New York. La Lupe died of a heart attack at the age of 55 and is buried in Saint Raymond's Cemetery in the Bronx. Con el diablo en el cuerpo La Lupe is back 1961 Mongo introduces La Lupe 1963 The King swings, the incredible Lupe sings 1965 Tú y yo 1965 Homenaje a Rafael Hernández 1966 La Lupe y su alma venezolana 1966 A mí me llaman La Lupe 1966 The King and I 1967 The Queen does her own thing 1967 Two sides of La Lupe 1968 Queen of Latin soul 1968 La Lupe's era 1968 La Lupe is the Queen 1969 Definitely la Yiyiyi 1969 That genius called the Queen 1970 La Lupe en Madrid 1971 Stop, I'm free again 1972 ¿Pero cómo va ser? 1973 Un encuentro con La Lupe – with Curet Alonso 1974 One of a kind 1977 La pareja 1978 En algo nuevo 1980 This section is not complete. Lo mejor de la Lupe Compilation, 1974 Apasionada Compilation, 1978 La Lupe: too much 1989. Compilation from Tico recordings only, by Charly Records LP HOT 123 Dance with the Queen 2008 La Lupe greatest hits 2008 Short list of her best-known
The five paragraph order or five paragraph field order is a style of organizing information about a military situation for a unit in the field. It is an element of United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Navy Seabees of small unit tactics, similar order styles are used by military groups around the world. An order specifies the instruction to a unit in a structured format that makes it easy to find each specific requirement; the five paragraphs can be remembered with the acronym SMEAC: "S" Situation, "M" Mission, "E" Execution, "A" Administration/Logistics, "C" Command/Signal. There are a number of subtypes of these field orders, based on knowledge patterns specific to individual military branches; each subtype has its own acronym. Most are based on a METT-TC analysis. In addition, the Marines use the BAMCIS process while the Army uses the eight Troop Leading Procedures prior to potential enemy engagement. Supervision is the most important step from the BAMCIS acronym.
It provides a structure for the unit to be able to understand and execute the mission of the unit leader. It is different from other instruction from higher authority in that it is given orally, instead of being issued as written orders. Officers and non-commissioned officers use it informally to communicate relevant information prior to a non-combat movement. Outline of five paragraph order: I. Situation A. Enemy Forces Enemy's Composition, Strength Enemy's Capabilities & Limitations: Defend, Attack, Delay, Gas Enemy's Most Likely Course Of Action Enemy's Most Dangerous Course of Action B. Friendly Forces Higher's Mission & Intent Adjacent Units North/South/East/West Same Echelon Supporting C. Attachments/Detachment D. Civil/Terrain considerationsII. MissionWho, Where and Why? III. Execution A. Commander's IntentCenter of Gravity Critical Vulnerability Exploitation Plan Desired Endstate B. Concept of the Operations Scheme of Maneuver Fire Support Plan C. Tasks D. Coordinating InstructionsIV. Administration/Logistics A.
Administration - "Bad Guys & Bandages": Enemy Prisoners of War & Casualty evacuation Plans B. Logistics - "Beans, Bullets, & Batteries": Food, Supply, Pyrotechnics, etc. V. Command/Signal A. Signal Primary Alternate Contingency Emergency B. Command Location of Key Leaders Succession of CommandSince Marines and soldiers work in small teams, it is important that each member know and understand the order in its entirety so as to be aware of which parts of the order apply directly to them and the subordinate unit to which they belong without being exceedingly aware of minute details provided for general situational awareness; the British armed forces use a similar system subdivided into: Preliminaries - This involves the orders group going to the platoon commander and receiving their orders for their section and finding out about their commanders plans for the platoon as a whole. This stage involves the second-in-command of a section preparing them for battle; this includes all ammunition checks ensuring all of the sections equipment is in working order and that the section is camouflaged and hydrated.
This is done from the mnemonic PAWPERSO: Protection, Weapons, Personal Camouflage, Radios, Specialist Equipment, OrdersThis is done by the section commander. If the second-in-command has any spare time after this he will prepare a detailed model for the briefing of the troops. Ground - Now that the section commanders have received orders from the platoon commander they return to their sections to deliver their briefing, he or she will use the model provided for by the second-in-command to give a brief description of the ground on which the mission will take place. He will explain contours and possible cover for the route in and how it will be exploited to avoid enemy detection. Situation - This is similar to the American system in that it includes the enemy situation as well as friendly forces situation; when This part of the briefing is given possible enemy-locations, strength, weapons, supply routes, watering points, patrol routes, objectives and motivation. Mission - This is a one sentence statement that summarises the mission objectives.
For example, The mission to is to conduct a fighting patrol in order to eliminate any enemy positions so that the platoon can keep advancing into enemy territory safely. The mission statement is important as it is more than the only bit of the briefing squadies are bothered to listen to. So make it short sharp and to the point. You must always repeat the mission twice so that any squadies not paying attention have a chance to catch what it is they are meant to be doing. Execution - If a briefing is considered to be a sandwich this would be considered the filling, it should be the longest part of the briefing and will explain in detail what is going to be done under all conditions. This means the first plan of attack and any thing that will be done if the plan is compromised in any way for example if something unexpected happens; the section commander will explain the plan in a series of logical commands. It starts as followsPlatoon HQ is located on the model Enemy position located Patrol Form up point located Bearing for
The Cave Creek Service Station, at 6141 Cave Creek Rd. in Cave Creek, was built in 1936. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. According to its NRHP nomination, it is:a good example of a style of automobile service station designed in 1935 and patented in 1936 by Ralph N. Aldrich for Standard Stations, Inc. a division of Standard Oil of California. The station is a prefabricated building consisting of galvanized steel panels on a frame of steel girders; the design reflects the Modern Movement, showing elements of the Streamline Moderne and International styles. Character-defining elements include the building's strong horizontal emphasis, smooth wall surface, flat roof with beveled coping at the roofline, extensive glazing, elongated canopy, minimal decoration, streamlines on the canopy columns and entry surround; the station was erected in Phoenix circa 1936. In 1952 it was moved to Cave Creek. Media related to Cave Creek Service Station at Wikimedia Commons
HMCS Goose Bay is a Kingston-class coastal defence vessel that has served in the Canadian Forces since 1998. Goose Bay is the eighth ship of her class, the name for the Maritime Coastal Defence Vessel Project, she is the first vessel to be named Goose Bay. The coastal defence vessel is homeported at CFB Halifax; the Kingston class was designed to fill the minesweeper, coastal patrol and reserve training needs of the Canadian Forces, replacing the Bay-class minesweepers, Porte-class gate vessels and Royal Canadian Mounted Police coastal launches in those roles. In order to perform these varied duties the Kingston-class vessels are designed to carry up to three 6.1-metre ISO containers with power hookups on the open deck aft in order to embark mission-specific payloads. The seven module types available for embarkation include four route survey, two mechanical minesweeping and one bottom inspection modules; the Kingston class displace 970 long tons and are 55.3 metres long overall with a beam 11.3 metres and a draught of 3.4 metres.
The coastal defence vessels are powered by four Jeumont ANR-53-50 alternators coupled to four Wärtsilä UD 23V12 diesel engines creating 7.2 megawatts. Two LIPS Z-drive azimuth thrusters are driven by two Jeumont CI 560L motors creating 3,000 horsepower and the Z drives can be rotated 360°; this gives the ships a range of 5,000 nautical miles at 8 knots. The Kingston class is equipped with a Kelvin Hughes navigational radar using the I band and a Kelvin Hughes 6000 surface search radar scanning the E and F bands; the vessels carry an AN/SQS-511 towed side scan sonar for minesweeping and a Remote-control Mine Hunting System. The vessels are equipped with one Bofors 40 mm/60 calibre Mk 5C gun and two M2 machine guns; the 40 mm gun was declared obsolete and removed from the vessels in 2014. Some of them ended up on display at naval reserve installations across Canada; the Kingston-class coastal defence vessels have a complement of 37. Goose Bay's keel was laid down on 22 February 1997 by Halifax Shipyards Ltd. at Halifax, Nova Scotia and was launched on 4 September 1997.
The ship was commissioned into the Canadian Forces on 26 July 1998 at Happy Valley-Goose Bay and Labrador and carries the hull number MM 707. In Fall 2000, the coastal defence vessel took part in the naval exercise Unified Spirit off the east coast of North America. From 23 April to 9 May 2001, Goose Bay, accompanied by sister ship Moncton, took part in the NATO naval exercise Blue Game off the coasts of Norway and Denmark. In August 2002, Goose Bay and sister ship Summerside sailed to Arctic waters as part of Operation Narwhal Ranger, a military exercise involving all arms of the Canadian Forces; this marked the first Arctic visit by naval vessels in thirteen years. In August 2010 Goose Bay participated in the Canadian Arctic; this was the fourth annual joint exercise, the first where foreign vessels participated. In 2012, the vessel deployed as part of Operation Caribbe, Canada's participation in the war on drugs. In February 2015, Goose Bay was deployed again to Operation Caribbe. In March 2015, as part of Operation Caribbe, Goose Bay, along with sister ship Shawinigan and the US Navy frigate USS Kauffman, intercepted a vessel in the Caribbean Sea carrying 1,017 kilograms of cocaine.
On 8 September 2015, Goose Bay deployed for large NATO naval exercises Joint Warrior and Trident Venture with Athabaskan, Montréal, Halifax and Summerside. In the summer of 2016, Goose Bay was sent on a goodwill tour of the Great Lakes, making several port visits. In July, Goose Bay visited her namesake port. In September Goose Bay was among the Canadian warships deployed to the NATO naval training exercise "Cutlass Fury" off the east coast of North America. In June 2017, Goose Bay returned to the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence Seaway for a goodwill tour, making several port visits. In August Montréal and Goose Bay and sister ship Kingston departed Halifax to take part in the Operation Nanook in Canada's northern waters. In 2019, Goose Bay sailed to the Caribbean to take part in the naval exercise Tradewinds, training with other nation's navies from the area. Macpherson, Ken; the Ships of Canada's Naval Forces 1910–2002. St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing. ISBN 1-55125-072-1. Saunders, Stephen, ed..
Jane's Fighting Ships 2004–2005. Alexandria, Virginia: Jane's Information Group Inc. ISBN 0-7106-2623-1. Saunders, Stephen, ed.. Jane's Fighting Ships 2008–2009. Jane's Fighting Ships. Surrey: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2845-9. OCLC 225431774. HMCS Goose Bay – official website