SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mezzanine

A mezzanine is speaking, an intermediate floor in a building, open to the double-height ceilinged floor below, or which does not extend over the whole floorspace of the building. However, the term is used loosely for the floor above the ground floor where a high original ground floor has been split horizontally into two floors. Mezzanines may serve a wide variety of functions. Industrial mezzanines, such as those used in warehouses, may be temporary or semi-permanent structures. In French architecture, entresol means a room created by partitioning that does not go up all the way to the ceiling. A mezzanine is an intermediate floor in a building, open to the floor below, it is placed halfway up the wall on a floor which has a ceiling at least twice as high as a floor with minimum height. A mezzanine does not count as one of the floors in a building, does not count in determining maximum floorspace; the International Building Code permits a mezzanine to have as much as one-third of the floor space of the floor below.

Local building codes may vary somewhat from this standard. A space may have more than one mezzanine, as long as the sum total of floor space of all the mezzanines is not greater than one-third the floor space of the complete floor below. Mezzanines help to make a high-ceilinged space feel more personal and less vast, can create additional floor space. Mezzanines, may have lower-than-normal ceilings due to their location; the term "mezzanine" does not imply a function, as mezzanines can be used for a wide array of purposes. Mezzanines are used in Modern architecture, which places a heavy emphasis on light and space. In industrial settings, mezzanines may be installed in high-ceilinged spaces such as warehouses; these semi-permanent structures are free-standing, can be dismantled and relocated, are sold commercially. Industrial mezzanine structures can be supported by structural steel columns and elements, or by racks or shelves. Depending on the span and the run of the mezzanine, different materials may be used for the mezzanine's deck.

Some industrial mezzanines may include enclosed, paneled office space on their upper levels. A structural engineer is sometimes hired to help determine whether the floor of the building can support a mezzanine, to design the appropriate mezzanine. Employees in material handling and manufacturing are at risk to falls when they are on the job. Recent figures show 20,000 serious injuries and nearly 100 fatalities a year in industrial facilities. Falls of people and objects from mezzanines are of particular concern. In many industrial operations, openings are cut into the guardrail on mezzanines and elevated work platforms to allow picking of palletized material to be loaded and unloaded with a fork truck, to upper levels; the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and International Building Council have published regulations for fall protection and The American National Standards Institute has published standards for securing pallet drop areas to protect workers that work on elevated platforms and are exposed to openings.

In most cases, safety gates are used to secure these openings. OSHA requires openings taller to be secured with a fall protection system. Removable sections of railing or gates that swing or slide open would be used to open up the area and allow the transfer of material, close once the material is removed. However, current ANSI standards require dual-gate safety systems for fall protection. Dual-gate safety systems were created to secure these areas, allowing a barrier to be in place at all times while pallets are being loaded or removed. Dual-gate systems create a enclosed workstation providing protection for the worker during loading and off-loading operations; when the rear-side gate opens, the ledge gate automatically closes, ensuring there is always a gate between the operator and the ledge. Aghayere, Abi O.. Structural Wood Design: A Practice-Oriented Approach. Hoboken, N. J.: John Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-05678-3. Allen, Edward; the Architect's Studio Companion: Rules of Thumb for Preliminary Design.

Hoboken, N. J.: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-64191-0. Coates, Michael; the Visual Dictionary of Interior Architecture and Design. Lausanne: AVA Academia. ISBN 9782940373802. Drury, Jolyon. Buildings for Industrial Storage and Distribution. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-7506-4819-8. Guo, Qinghua; the Mingqi Pottery Buildings of Han Dynasty China, 206 BC-AD 220: Architectural Representations and Represented Architecture. Portland, Ore.: Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-321-8. Habraken, N. J.. Structure of the Ordinary: Form and Control in the Built Environment. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-58195-0. Harris, Cyril M.. Illustrated Dictionary of Historic Architecture. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-24444-0. Materials Handling and Management Society; the Professional Materials Handling Learning System: A Basic Reference Collection in Materials Handling. Volume 2. Charlotte, N. C.: Material Handling Education Foundation. The dictionary definition of mezzanine at Wiktionary Proper safeguarding for elevated work platforms Material Handling Industry Protective Guarding Manufacturers Association

Inter-parliamentary institution

An inter-parliamentary institution is an organization of more than one national legislatures. Most of the inter-parliamentary institutions are part of an intergovernmental organization; such branches of intergovernmental organizations are established in order to provide for representation of citizens, rather than governments who are represented in other bodies within the organization. Most of the inter-parliamentary institutions have an assembly comprising members of the national legislatures. Most of the inter-parliamentary institutions do not hold legislative power and have a consulting or informal cooperation-stimulating role; when the intergovernmental organization chooses to operate through a hybrid system of not only intergovernmentalism, but supranationalism an organization-level legislature is established in the form of international parliament. Members of international parliaments could be assigned in the same way as members of inter-parliamentary institutions or in cases of more advanced supranationalism they could be directly elected.

Since 1949, more than 40 parliamentary assemblies have been brought into being. Commonwealth Parliamentary Association Parliamentary assembly List of national legislatures Article by Steve Charnovitz on Transparliamentary Assemblies in Global Governance

Bristol Cenotaph

Bristol Cenotaph is a war memorial at the north end of Magpie Park, in Bristol, erected in 1932. It is a Grade II listed building; the project was controversial, the memorial was one of the last built by a major British city after the First World War, being completed after the Arch of Remembrance in Leicester in 1925, the Coventry War Memorial in 1927, the Liverpool Cenotaph in 1930. Unusually, it was designed by a local female architect Eveline Blacker, with her business partner Harry Heathman. 60,000 men from Bristol enlisted in the British armed forces in First World War, around 4,500 were killed. After the armistice, Bristol City Council established a committee to consider proposals for a war memorial, but little progress was made for years, with opinions divided between those wanting a purely commemorative structure and those preferring a more practical project, such as a memorial hospital, it proved difficult to raise sufficient money for a more ambitious project, the committee decided on a commemorative structure.

The siting of the memorial was controversial, with sites proposed near Bristol Cathedral, others including the Old Market, The Downs, the Horsefair. A decision was made to make space by removing a statue of Queen Victoria, but that proposal was not implemented. A site at the north end of Colston Avenue was chosen, on an area were the River Frome had been culverted in the 1890s. A public fundraising campaign raised £1,700, designs were sought from local architects, with a committee selecting the three best from the 18 submitted for a public vote. All three were influenced by the Cenotaph in Whitehall, designed by Edwin Lutyens; the vote chose a scheme proposed by the firm of Harry Heathman and Eveline Blacker, ahead of a proposal from Charles Roy Beechcroft and another from Adrian E. Powell; the memorial comprises a 6 metres high rectangular stone slab constructed from shelly limestone ashlars with a moulded top, bearing a stone sarcophagus, with bundles of spears or fasces laid down to either side and a console at each end.

The main slab stands on a stone plinth with one step, positioned on a stone base with three steps. The base has one at each corner, with each bearing a bronze lion's head. Positioned outside the base are four bronze lamp standards; the longer main faces of the central memorial face to the north and south, each bearing a carved stone wreath above a bronze sword gilded, with the dates 1914 and 1939 to the left and 1918 and 1945 to the right, together with carved stone medallions bearing the arms of the city of Bristol, the British Army, the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force, with a large central bronze plaque bearing an inscription. The plaque on the north face reads SACRED TO THE MEMORY / OF BRISTOL'S SONS AND / DAUGHTERS, WHO MADE / THE SUPREME SACRIFICE and in smaller type "THEY DIED THAT MANKIND MIGHT LEARN TO LIVE IN PEACE"; the plaque on the south face bears the first and third verses from the hymn "O Valiant Hearts", reading O VALIANT HEARTS WHO TO YOUR GLORY CAME THROUGH DUST OF CONFLICT AND THROUGH BATTLE FLAME: TRANQUIL YOU LIE, YOUR KNIGHTLY VIRTUE PROVED, YOUR MEMORY HALLOWED IN THE LAND YOU LOVED: SPLENDID YOU PASSED THE GREAT SURRENDER MADE INTO THE LIGHT THAT NEVERMORE SHALL FADE.

ALL YOU HAD HOPED FOR, ALL YOU HAD, YOU GAVE TO SAVE MANKIND, YOURSELVES YOU SCORNED TO SAVE, accompanied by two torches, turned upside down. The shorter sides, to east and west, are plainer, each bearing two medallions, carved with flower emblems, one each for England, Scotland and Wales, a bronze representation of the city's arms; the Cenotaph was unveiled 26 July 1932 by Field Marshal Sir William Birdwood. The dates "1939" and "1945" were latter added to commemorate the dead in the Second World War, it became a Grade II listed building in 1977