The martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Guloninae, in the family Mustelidae. They have bushy tails and large paws with retractile claws; the fur varies from yellowish to dark brown, depending on the species, is valued by trappers for the fur trade. Martens are slender, agile animals, adapted to living in the taiga, inhabit coniferous and northern deciduous forests across the Northern Hemisphere. Results of DNA research indicate that the genus Martes is polyphyletic, with some studies placing Martes americana outside the genus and allying it with Eira and Gulo, to form a new New World clade; the genus first evolved up to seven million years ago during the Miocene epoch. American marten Newfoundland pine marten Yellow-throated marten Beech marten Nilgiri marten European pine marten Japanese marten Sable Martes wenzensis† Martes nobilis† The Modern English "marten" comes from the Middle English martryn, in turn borrowed from the Anglo-French martrine and Old French martre, itself from a Germanic source.
Martens are solitary animals, meeting only to breed in early summer. Litters of up to five blind and nearly hairless kits are born in early spring, they are weaned after around two months, leave the mother to fend for themselves at about three to four months of age. Due to their habit of seeking warm and dry places and to gnaw on soft materials, martens cause damage to soft plastic and rubber parts in cars and other parked vehicles, annually costing millions of euros in Central Europe alone, thus leading to the offering of marten-damage insurance, "marten-proofing", electronic repellent devices, they are omnivorous. The marten is popular in the northern Ontario community of Big Trout Lake. During the fur trade, commissioned by the Hudson Bay Company in the 17th and 18th centuries, the marten pelt was fashioned into mittens; the marten is still traded locally. The locals place a high value on this pelt trading it for consumable goods. In the Middle Ages, marten pelts were valued goods used as a form of payment in Slavonia, the Croatian Littoral, Dalmatia.
The banovac, a coin struck and used between 1235 and 1384, included the image of a marten. This is one of the reasons why the Croatian word for marten, kuna, is the name of the modern Croatian currency. A marten is depicted on the obverse of the 1-, 2-, 5-kuna coins, minted since 1993, on the reverse of the 25-kuna commemorative coins. A running marten is shown on the coat of arms of Slavonia and subsequently on the modern design of the coat of arms of Croatia; the official seal of the Croatian Sabor from 1497 until the late 18th century had a similar design. The Finnish communications company Nokia derives its name, via the river Nokianvirta, from a type of marten locally known as the nokia. In the Illiad, the fleet-footed spy Dolon wore a marten-pelt cap; the Latin word for helmet, galea meant "marten pelt," although it is unclear whether early Romans wore these helmets for symbolical reasons or for their fine fur. Data related to Martes at Wikispecies Media related to Martes at Wikimedia Commons
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, 419.2 million years ago, to the beginning of the Carboniferous, 358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon, where rocks from this period were first studied; the first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land, forming extensive forests which covered the continents. By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods became well-established. Fish reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian to be dubbed the "Age of Fishes." The first ray-finned and lobe-finned bony fish appeared, while the placoderms began dominating every known aquatic environment. The ancestors of all four-limbed vertebrates began adapting to walking on land, as their strong pectoral and pelvic fins evolved into legs.
In the oceans, primitive sharks became more numerous than in the Late Ordovician. The first ammonites, species of molluscs, appeared. Trilobites, the mollusc-like brachiopods and the great coral reefs, were still common; the Late Devonian extinction which started about 375 million years ago affected marine life, killing off all placodermi, all trilobites, save for a few species of the order Proetida. The palaeogeography was dominated by the supercontinent of Gondwana to the south, the continent of Siberia to the north, the early formation of the small continent of Euramerica in between; the period is named after Devon, a county in southwestern England, where a controversial argument in the 1830s over the age and structure of the rocks found distributed throughout the county was resolved by the definition of the Devonian period in the geological timescale. The Great Devonian Controversy was a long period of vigorous argument and counter-argument between the main protagonists of Roderick Murchison with Adam Sedgwick against Henry De la Beche supported by George Bellas Greenough.
Murchison and Sedgwick named the period they proposed as the Devonian System. While the rock beds that define the start and end of the Devonian period are well identified, the exact dates are uncertain. According to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the Devonian extends from the end of the Silurian 419.2 Mya, to the beginning of the Carboniferous 358.9 Mya. In nineteenth-century texts the Devonian has been called the "Old Red Age", after the red and brown terrestrial deposits known in the United Kingdom as the Old Red Sandstone in which early fossil discoveries were found. Another common term is "Age of the Fishes", referring to the evolution of several major groups of fish that took place during the period. Older literature on the Anglo-Welsh basin divides it into the Downtonian, Dittonian and Farlovian stages, the latter three of which are placed in the Devonian; the Devonian has erroneously been characterised as a "greenhouse age", due to sampling bias: most of the early Devonian-age discoveries came from the strata of western Europe and eastern North America, which at the time straddled the Equator as part of the supercontinent of Euramerica where fossil signatures of widespread reefs indicate tropical climates that were warm and moderately humid but in fact the climate in the Devonian differed during its epochs and between geographic regions.
For example, during the Early Devonian, arid conditions were prevalent through much of the world including Siberia, North America, China, but Africa and South America had a warm temperate climate. In the Late Devonian, by contrast, arid conditions were less prevalent across the world and temperate climates were more common; the Devonian Period is formally broken into Early and Late subdivisions. The rocks corresponding to those epochs are referred to as belonging to the Lower and Upper parts of the Devonian System. Early DevonianThe Early Devonian lasted from 419.2 ± 2.8 to 393.3 ± 2.5 and began with the Lochkovian stage, which lasted until the Pragian. It spanned from 410.8 ± 2.8 to 407.6 ± 2.5, was followed by the Emsian, which lasted until the Middle Devonian began, 393.3± 2.7 million years ago. During this time, the first ammonoids appeared. Ammonoids during this time period differed little from their nautiloid counterparts; these ammonoids belong to the order Agoniatitida, which in epochs evolved to new ammonoid orders, for example Goniatitida and Clymeniida.
This class of cephalopod molluscs would dominate the marine fauna until the beginning of the Mesozoic era. Middle DevonianThe Middle Devonian comprised two subdivisions: first the Eifelian, which gave way to the Givetian 387.7± 2.7 million years ago. During this time the jawless agnathan fishes began to decline in diversity in freshwater and marine environments due to drastic environmental changes and due to the increasing competition and diversity of jawed fishes; the shallow, oxygen-depleted waters of Devonian inland lakes, surrounded by primitive plants, provided the environment necessary for certain early fish to develop such essential characteristics as well developed lungs, the ability to crawl out of the water and onto the land for short periods of time. Late DevonianFinally, the Late Devonian started with the Frasnian, 382.7 ± 2.8 to 372.2 ± 2.5, during which the first forests took shape on land. The first tetrapods appeared in the fossil record in the ensuing Famennian subdivisi
A civet is a small, lithe-bodied nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different mammal species. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia; the best-known civet species is the African civet, Civettictis civetta, the main species from, obtained a musky scent used in perfumery. The word civet may refer to the distinctive musky scent produced by the animals. A minority of writers use "civet" to refer only to Civettictis and Viverricula civets, but in more common usage in English, the name covers Chrotogale, Diplogale, Arctogalidia, Macrogalidia and Paradoxurus civets. The common name is used for a variety of carnivorous mammalian species of the family Viverridae; the African palm civet belongs in its own monotypic family, Nandiniidae. Civets are called "toddycats" in English, "Luwak" in Bahasa Indonesian "musang" in Malay and urulǣvā in Sinhala; the latter may lead to some confusion among Malay speakers and non-speakers alike as the indigenous word "musang" has been mistakenly appropriated to foxes by certain printed media over the years instead of "rubah", the correct but lesser known term.
Foxes are not native to Malaysia or Southeast Asia, are never encountered in that geographical region, although they exist in popular culture imported from the West, where the animal's habitat exists. Civets have a broadly cat-like general appearance, though the muzzle is extended and pointed, rather like that of an otter or a mongoose, they range in length in weight from about 1.4 to 4.5 kg. The civet produces a musk valued as a fragrance and stabilizing agent for perfume. Both male and female civets produce the strong-smelling secretion, produced by the civet's perineal glands, it is harvested by either killing the animal and removing the glands, or by scraping the secretions from the glands of a live animal. The latter is the preferred method today. Animal rights groups, such as World Animal Protection, express concern that harvesting musk is cruel to animals. Between these ethical concerns and the availability of synthetic substitutes, the practice of raising civets for musk is dying out. Chanel, maker of the popular perfume Chanel No.
5, claims that natural civet has been replaced with a synthetic substitute since 1998. Viverrids are native to sub-Saharan Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, southern China and Southeast Asia. Favoured habitats include woodland and mountain biome. In consequence, many are faced with severe loss of habitat; some species of civet are rare and elusive and hardly anything is known about them, e.g. the Hose's civet, endemic to the montane forests of northern Borneo, is one of the world's least known carnivores. In Sri Lanka, the Asian palm civet species is known as "uguduwa" by the Sinhala speaking community; the terms uguduwa and kalawedda are used interchangeably by the Sri Lankan community to refer to the same animal. However, the term kalawedda is used to refer to another species in the civet family, the small Indian civet. Sri Lanka has an endemic civet species called golden palm civet; this species was split into 3 separate endemic species as Paradoxurus montanus, P. aureus, P. stenocephalus. In Bangladesh and Bengali-speaking areas of India, civets are known as "khatash" for the smaller species and "bagdash" for the larger ones and is now rare in Bangladesh.
In Assamese this animal is known as "zohamola" which means "to have zoha aromatic feces". Civets are unusual among feliforms, carnivora in general, in that they are omnivores or herbivores. Many species eat fruit; some use flower nectar as a major source of energy. Kopi Luwak is called caphe cut chon, in Vietnam, kape alamid, in the Philippines, it is coffee, prepared using coffee cherries that have been eaten and digested by the Asian palm civet harvested from its fecal matter. The civets digest the flesh of the coffee cherries but pass the pits inside, where stomach enzymes affect the beans, which adds to the coffee's prized aroma and flavor. 0.5 kg can cost up to $600 in about $100 a cup in others. The Malay civet is found in many habitats, including forests, secondary habitats, cultivated land, the outskirts of villages, is adaptable to human disturbances, including "selecting logging". African civets are listed as Least Concern, but in certain regions of Africa the population is declining due to hunting, both direct and indirect poisoning, an increase in large scale farm fences that limit population flow.
They are seen as comparatively abundant options in the bushmeat trade. Palm civets venture into cities and suburbs, with people complaining about civet feces and the noise of the animals' climbing on roofs; some studies have been undertaken to mitigate such human -- animal conflict. Raising Small Indian civet archive.org copy from website www.vietlinh.vn
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago, to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words carbō and ferō, was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern'system' names to be employed, reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time; the Carboniferous is treated in North America as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the Pennsylvanian. Terrestrial animal life was well established by the Carboniferous period. Amphibians were the dominant land vertebrates, of which one branch would evolve into amniotes, the first terrestrial vertebrates. Arthropods were very common, many were much larger than those of today. Vast swaths of forest covered the land, which would be laid down and become the coal beds characteristic of the Carboniferous stratigraphy evident today.
The atmospheric content of oxygen reached its highest levels in geological history during the period, 35% compared with 21% today, allowing terrestrial invertebrates to evolve to great size. The half of the period experienced glaciations, low sea level, mountain building as the continents collided to form Pangaea. A minor marine and terrestrial extinction event, the Carboniferous rainforest collapse, occurred at the end of the period, caused by climate change. In the United States the Carboniferous is broken into Mississippian and Pennsylvanian subperiods; the Mississippian is about twice as long as the Pennsylvanian, but due to the large thickness of coal-bearing deposits with Pennsylvanian ages in Europe and North America, the two subperiods were long thought to have been more or less equal in duration. In Europe the Lower Carboniferous sub-system is known as the Dinantian, comprising the Tournaisian and Visean Series, dated at 362.5-332.9 Ma, the Upper Carboniferous sub-system is known as the Silesian, comprising the Namurian and Stephanian Series, dated at 332.9-298.9 Ma.
The Silesian is contemporaneous with the late Mississippian Serpukhovian plus the Pennsylvanian. In Britain the Dinantian is traditionally known as the Carboniferous Limestone, the Namurian as the Millstone Grit, the Westphalian as the Coal Measures and Pennant Sandstone; the International Commission on Stratigraphy faunal stages from youngest to oldest, together with some of their regional subdivisions, are: A global drop in sea level at the end of the Devonian reversed early in the Carboniferous. There was a drop in south polar temperatures; these conditions had little effect in the deep tropics, where lush swamps to become coal, flourished to within 30 degrees of the northernmost glaciers. Mid-Carboniferous, a drop in sea level precipitated a major marine extinction, one that hit crinoids and ammonites hard; this sea level drop and the associated unconformity in North America separate the Mississippian subperiod from the Pennsylvanian subperiod. This happened about 323 million years ago, at the onset of the Permo-Carboniferous Glaciation.
The Carboniferous was a time of active mountain-building as the supercontinent Pangaea came together. The southern continents remained tied together in the supercontinent Gondwana, which collided with North America–Europe along the present line of eastern North America; this continental collision resulted in the Hercynian orogeny in Europe, the Alleghenian orogeny in North America. In the same time frame, much of present eastern Eurasian plate welded itself to Europe along the line of the Ural Mountains. Most of the Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangea was now assembled, although North China, South China continents were still separated from Laurasia; the Late Carboniferous Pangaea was shaped like an "O." There were two major oceans in the Carboniferous—Panthalassa and Paleo-Tethys, inside the "O" in the Carboniferous Pangaea. Other minor oceans were shrinking and closed - Rheic Ocean, the small, shallow Ural Ocean and Proto-Tethys Ocean. Average global temperatures in the Early Carboniferous Period were high: 20 °C.
However, cooling during the Middle Carboniferous reduced average global temperatures to about 12 °C. Lack of growth rings of fossilized trees suggest a lack of seasons of a tropical climate. Glaciations in Gondwana, triggered by Gondwana's southward movement, continued into the Permian and because of the lack of clear markers and breaks, the deposits of this glacial period are referred to as Permo-Carboniferous in age; the cooling and drying of the climate led to the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse during the late Carboniferous. Tropical rainforests fragmented and were devastated by climate change. Carboniferous rocks in Europe and eastern North America consist of a repeated sequence of limestone, sandstone and coal beds. In North America, the early Carboniferous is marine
Miacis is a genus of extinct carnivorous mammals that appeared in the late Paleocene and continued through the Eocene. The genus Miacis is not monophyletic but a diverse collection of species that belong to the stemgroup within the Carnivoramorpha; as such, most Miacis species belong to the group of early carnivores that represent the ancestors of the modern order, the crown-group Carnivora. However, the species Miacis cognitus is placed not in the stem-group but among the Caniformia, one of the two suborders of the crown-group Carnivora. Miacis species were five-clawed, about the size of a weasel, lived on the North American and Eurasian continents, they retained some primitive characteristics such as low skulls, long slender bodies, long tails, short legs. Miacis retained 44 teeth, although some reductions in this number were in progress and some of the teeth were reduced in size; the hind limbs were longer than the forelimbs, the pelvis was dog-like in form and structure, some specialized traits were present in the vertebrae.
It had retractable claws, agile joints for climbing, binocular vision. Miacis and related forms had brains that were larger than those of the creodonts, the larger brain size as compared with body size reflects an increase in intelligence. Like many other early carnivoramorphans, it was well suited for an arboreal climbing lifestyle with needle sharp claws, had limbs and joints that resemble those of modern carnivorans. Miacis was a agile forest dweller that preyed upon smaller animals, such as small mammals and birds, might have have eaten eggs and fruits. Since Edward Drinker Cope first described the genus Miacis in 1872, at least twenty other species have been assigned to Miacis. However, these species share few synapomorphies other than plesiomorphic characteristics of Miacids in general; this reflects the fact that Miacis has been treated as a wastebasket taxon and contains a diverse collection of species that belong to the stemgroup within the Carnivoramorpha. Many of the species assigned to Miacis have since been assigned to other genera and, apart from the type species, Miacis parvivorus, the remaining species are referred to with Miacis in quotations.
The following table lists the Miacis species in chronological order of their original description and notes the reassignments to other genera. A phylogenetic analysis of "Miacis" species and other carnivoramorphans reveals the paraphyletic nature of the genus Miacis; some are found in a basal position among the stem carnivoraform groups, others are clustered in the middle near Miacis parvivorous, one, "M". Cognitus, within Caniform family Amphicyonidae; the cladogram is based on a morphological analysis of dental and postcranial features. Data related to Miacis at Wikispecies Media related to Miacis at Wikimedia Commons
Carnivoramorpha are a clade of mammals that includes the modern order Carnivora. Clade Carnivoramorpha Superfamily †Miacoidea Family †Miacidae genera: Chailicyon, Ictognathus, Miocyon, Palaearctonyx, Paroodectes, Quercygale, Uintacyon, Vulpavus, Ziphacodon Family †Viverravidae genera: Bryanictis, Ictidopappus, Pristinictis, Raphictis, Viverravus Order Carnivora Suborder Caniformia or Canoidea Suborder Feliformia or FeloideaAs phylogenetic studies indicate that the superfamily Miacoidea is paraphyletic, with miacids being more related to carnivorans than to viverravids, Finarelli & Spaulding named a new clade within Carnivoramorpha, containing carnivorans and miacids but not viverravids. Archibold, J. D. and K. D. Rose.. “The Rise of Placental Mammals: Origins and Relationships of the Major Clades.” Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8022-X Archibold, J. D. and K. D. Rose.. “Womb with a View: the Rise of Placentals.” Benton, Michael J. and Philip C. J. Donoghue.. “Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life.”
Dating the Tree of Life 31. Bryant, H. N. and M. Wolson “Phylogenetic Nomenclature of Carnivoran Mammals.” First International Phylogenetic Nomenclature Meeting. Paris, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, July 6–9, 2004. Flynn, John J. and Gina D. Wesley-Hunt. 2005. "Phylogeny of the Carnivora: Basal Relationships Among the Carnivoramorphans, Assessment of the Position of'Miacoidea' Relative to Carnivora." Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 3: 1-28. Abstract: Haaramo, Mikko.. “Mikko's Phylogeny Archive Carnivoramorpha - Carnivores and relatives.” Retrieved February 17, 2007, from: Stiles, David P.. “An investigation of the Vulpes and Urocyon phylogenetic classification: Feliformia or Caniformia?” Fox Phylogeny. Vertebrate Evolution – Fall 2005, The Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA. Wesley-Hunt, Gina D.. “The Morphological Diversification of Carnivores in North America.” Paleobiology. Vol. 31, Issue 1, pp. 35–55. Wyss, A. R. & Flynn, J. J.. “A Phylogenetic Analysis and Definition of the Carnivora.” in Mammal Phylogeny – Placentals, Szalay, F.
S. M. J. Novacek and M. C. McKenna. ISBN 0-387-97853-4. John J. Flynn. "Phylogeny of the Carnivora and Carnivoramorpha, the use of the fossil record to enhance understanding of evolutionary transformations". In Anjali Goswami. Carnivoran evolution. New views on phylogeny and function. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 25–63. Doi:10.1017/CBO9781139193436.003. ISBN 9781139193436
The shrew is a small mole-like mammal classified in the order Eulipotyphla. True shrews are not to be confused with treeshrews, otter shrews, elephant shrews, or the West Indies shrews, which belong to different families or orders. Although its external appearance is that of a long-nosed mouse, a shrew is not a rodent, as mice are, it is in fact a much closer relative of hedgehogs and moles, shrews are related to rodents only to the extent that both belong to the Boreoeutheria Magnorder – together with humans, cats, horses, cows, whales and others. Shrews have not the familiar gnawing front incisor teeth of rodents. Shrews are distributed worldwide: of the major tropical and temperate land masses, only New Guinea and New Zealand have no native shrews. In terms of species diversity, the shrew family is the fourth most successful mammal family, being rivalled only by the muroid rodent families Muridae and Cricetidae and the bat family Vespertilionidae. All shrews are comparatively small; the largest species is the Asian house shrew of tropical Asia, about 15 cm long and weighs around 100 g.
In general, shrews are terrestrial creatures that forage for seeds, nuts, a variety of other foods in leaf litter and dense vegetation, but some specialise in climbing trees, living underground, living under snow, or hunting in water. They have small eyes and poor vision, but have excellent senses of hearing and smell, they are active animals, with voracious appetites. Shrews have unusually high metabolic rates, above that expected in comparable small mammals. Shrews in captivity can eat 1/2 to 2 times their own body weight in food daily, they are capable of entering torpor. In winter, many species undergo morphological changes. Shrews can lose between 30% and 50% of their body weight, shrinking the size of bones and internal organs. Whereas rodents have gnawing incisors that grow throughout life, the teeth of shrews wear down throughout life, a problem made more extreme because they lose their milk teeth before birth, so have only one set of teeth throughout their lifetimes. Apart from the first pair of incisors, which are long and sharp, the chewing molars at the back of the mouth, the teeth of shrews are small and peg-like, may be reduced in number.
The dental formula of shrews is:3.1.1-3.31-2.0-1.1.3 Shrews are fiercely territorial, driving off rivals, coming together only to mate. Many species dig burrows for catching food and hiding from predators, although this is not universal. Female shrews can have up to 10 litters a year. Shrews have gestation periods of 17–32 days; the female becomes pregnant within a day or so of giving birth, lactates during her pregnancy, weaning one litter as the next is born. Shrews live 12 to 30 months. Shrews are unusual among mammals in a number of respects. Unlike most mammals, some species of shrews are venomous. Shrew venom is not by grooves in the teeth; the venom contains various compounds, the contents of the venom glands of the American short-tailed shrew are sufficient to kill 200 mice by intravenous injection. One chemical extracted from shrew venom may be useful in the treatment of high blood pressure, while another compound may be useful in the treatment of some neuromuscular diseases and migraines.
The saliva of the northern short-tailed shrew contains soricidin, a peptide, studied for use in treating ovarian cancer. Along with the bats and toothed whales, some species of shrews use echolocation. Unlike most other mammals, shrews lack zygomatic bones, so have incomplete zygomatic arches; the only terrestrial mammals known to echolocate are two genera of shrew, the tenrecs of Madagascar and the solenodons. These include the Eurasian or common shrew and the American vagrant shrew and northern short-tailed shrew; these shrews emit series of ultrasonic squeaks. By nature the shrew sounds, unlike those of bats, are low-amplitude, broadband and frequency modulated, they contain no "echolocation clicks" with reverberations and would seem to be used for simple, close-range spatial orientation. In contrast to bats, shrews use echolocation only to investigate their habitats rather than additionally to pinpoint food. Except for large and thus reflecting objects, such as a big stone or tree trunk, they are not able to disentangle echo scenes, but rather derive information on habitat type from the overall call reverberations.
This might be comparable to human hearing whether one calls into a beech forest or into a reverberant wine cellar. The 385 shrew species are in 26 genera, which are grouped into three living subfamilies: Crocidurinae and Soricinae. In addition, the family contains the extinct subfamilies Limnoecinae, Crocidosoricinae and Heterosoricinae. Family Soricidae Subfamily Crocidurinae Crocidura Diplomesodon Feroculus Palawanosorex Paracrocidura Ruwenzorisorex S