Grissom Air Reserve Base
Grissom Air Reserve Base is a United States Air Force base, located about 12 miles north of Kokomo in Cass and Miami counties in Indiana. The facility was established as Naval Air Station Bunker Hill in 1942 and an active Air Force installation from 1954 to 1994. Since it is a joint-use civil airport/military base with the Grissom Aeroplex providing general aviation and charter service; the base is named in memory of astronaut and Indiana native Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, along with fellow astronauts Ed White and Roger Chaffee, perished in the Apollo 1 fire at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 34 in 1967. It is home to the largest KC-135R Stratotanker wing in the Air Force Reserve Command, units from the United States Army Reserve and the US Marine Corps Reserve; the host unit is the 434th Air Refueling Wing, the "Hoosier Wing", which consists of three major groups and a variety of squadrons and flights. The wing develops and maintains the operational capability of its units and train reservists for worldwide duty.
Training consists of flight operations and weekday and weekend training. Other organizations located at Grissom ARB include the A Company, 1st Battalion, 330th Infantry Regiment. Established as Naval Reserve Air Base, Peru, 1 July 1942 Renamed Naval Air Station, Peru, 1 January 1943 Renamed Naval Air Station, Bunker Hill, 1 March 1943 Deactivated and used for farming, 1946–1951 Reestablished as United States Air Force Storage Branch, 16 November 1951 Reestablished as Bunker Hill Air Force Base, 22 June 1954 Renamed Grissom Air Force Base, 12 May 1968 Renamed Grissom Air Reserve Base, 1 October 1994–present Tactical Air Command, 22 June 1954 Strategic Air Command, 1 September 1957 Air Mobility Command, 1 June 1992 Air Force Reserve Command, 1 October 1994 4433d Air Base Squadron, 1 April 1955 323d Air Base Group, 8 August 1955 319th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, 1 November 1955 – 1 March 1963 4041st Air Base Group, 1 September 1957 305th Combat Support Group, 1 June 1959 931st Air Refueling Group, 15 January 1970 – 1 July 1975.
434th Mission Support Group, 1 October 1994 – present 434th Operations Group, 1 October 1994 – present 434th Maintenance Group, 1 October 1994 – present 323d Fighter-Bomber Wing, 8 August 1955 – 1 September 1957 319th Fighter Interceptor Squadron, 1 November 1955 – 1 January 1959 305th Bombardment Wing, 1 June 1959 – 30 September 1994 434th Special Operations Wing, 15 January 1971–present Boeing B-47 Stratojet Convair B-58 Hustler Boeing KC-135 Boeing EC-135 On 18 March 1942, the Bureau of Yards and Docks sent out a letter to the Judge Advocate General of the Navy, Rear Admiral Walter Browne Woodson, for the acquisition of land near Peru, with the intention of constructing a Naval Reserve Aviation Base. The following day, the Shore Station Development Board sent a letter of recommendation to the US Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox, estimating the cost of the project, including land acquisition, at $7,000,000. On 21 March 1942, the Chief of Naval Operations, Fleet Admiral Ernest King, concurred with BuDocks and sent a letter to SECNAV.
Secretary Knox sent a letter the same day to JAG Woodson approving the base. On 27 March 1942, Russell B. Moore Company, Indiana, signed contract NOy-5485, for the architectural and engineering services for Naval Reserve Aviation Base at Peru, Indiana. Two other firms had been considered. On 3 April 1942, contract NOy-5475, for the construction of a Naval Reserve Aviation Base at Peru, with Captain R. D. Spalding, USN, the Officer-in-Charge, was sent out; the contract included Projects 1 to 47, with a fee of $4,965,500. Changes "A" through "M", were added over the next several months, adding Projects 48 to 77, 501, on 19 November 1942, Purchase Order 4057 authorized Projets 78 to 87, with manual instruction authorizing Project 88. Four contractors were considered for the project. South Bend. L. Simmons Company, Inc. Indianapolis, United Construction Company, Minnesota; the bid was given to J. L. Simmons Company, Inc. and United Construction Company, signed on 16 April 1942. Preliminary plans for the base were issued 20 April 1942.
The base was commissioned on 1 July 1942, with a contingent of Naval personnel moving in on 15 July 1942. Actual construction wasn't finished until 12 April 1943, with 99.5% field work completed. The final cost was $13,064,424.43. The design called for a Naval Air Station, occupying 2,158 acres, with the facilities and equipment to house and train 1,200 air cadets; this would include the housing and other necessary facilities needed for a total of 3,200 officers and men. Station facilities would include four runways of 5,000 ft long and 200 ft wide; the training facilities included 25 auxiliary fields, within a 20 mi radius, with a combined area of 4,696 acres. Of the 2158 acres 75 acres were of dense timber that needed to be c
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Cass County, Indiana
Cass County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, its population was 38,966; the county seat is Logansport. Cass County comprises the Logansport, IN Micropolitan Statistical Area. Cass County was formed in 1828, it is named for Gen. Lewis Cass, 2nd Territorial Governor of Michigan and afterward U. S. Secretary of War. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 414.85 square miles of which 412.16 square miles is land and 2.69 square miles is water. The Wabash River flows through the county from east to west, is joined by the Eel River in Logansport. Fulton County Miami County Howard County Carroll County White County Pulaski County Logansport Galveston Onward Royal Center Walton Twelve Mile Lucerne Young America Grissom AFB Circleville Taberville Taberville Norfolk Southern Railway Winamac Southern Railroad Logansport and Eel River Shortline Company Toledo and Western Railway In recent years, average temperatures in Logansport have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −24 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in June 1988.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.53 inches in February to 3.89 inches in June. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners; the commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.
Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association; the judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk; each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare a party affiliation and to be residents of the county. Cass County is part of Indiana's 2nd congressional district and in 2008 was represented by Joe Donnelly in the United States Congress, it is part of Indiana Senate district 18 and Indiana House of Representatives districts 16 and 24. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 38,966 people, 14,858 households, 10,144 families residing in the county.
The population density was 94.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,474 housing units at an average density of 40.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.2% white, 1.5% black or African American, 1.1% Asian, 0.5% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 7.0% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 12.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 24.0% were German, 15.0% were American, 11.8% were Irish, 9.0% were English. Of the 14,858 households, 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.8% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families, 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.08. The median age was 38.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $49,873. Males had a median income of $37,823 versus $26,938 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $20,562. About 9.8% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.7% of those under age 18 and 8.0% of those age 65 or over. Rollie Zeider, major league baseball player, 1910–1918, played for Chicago White Sox, New York Yankees, Chicago Chi-Feds, Chicago Whales and Chicago Cubs, he was born near the unincorporated town of Hoover in Cass County. Actor Greg Kinnear was born in Logansport. Public schools in Cass County are administered by the Logansport Community School Corporation, the Pioneer Regional School Corporation and the Southeastern School Corporation. High Schools and Middle Schools 6th Grade Academy Lewis Cass High School Logansport Junior High School Logansport High School Pioneer Junior – Senior High SchoolElementary Schools Columbia Elementary School Fairview Elementary School Franklin Elementary School Galveston Elementary School Landis Elementary School Pioneer Elementary School Thompson Elementary School List of public art in Cass County, Indiana National Register of Historic Places listings in Cass County, Indiana Powell, Jehu Z.
History of Cass Cou
Gilead is an unincorporated community in Perry Township, Miami County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. Gilead was platted about 1840 by Adam E. Rhodes who had settled there in 1835, it was named after Gilead, in the Hebrew Bible. Gilead is located at 40°58′13″N 86°01′07″W. Gilead supports four stores: The Gilead General Store, Squirrel Creek Bulk Foods, Rabers Kountry Store LLC, Interurban Collectibles
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Converse is a town in Richland Township, Grant County and Jackson Township, Miami County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 1,148 at the 2010 census. Converse was called Xenia, under the latter name was laid out in 1849. J. N. Converse platted an addition in 1867; the Converse Depot and Converse-Jackson Township Public Library are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Converse is located at 40°34′47″N 85°52′8″W. According to the 2010 census, Converse has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,265 people, 489 households, 337 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,405.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 553 housing units at an average density of 614.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.5% White, 0.1% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.2% of the population. There were 489 households of which 38.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.1% were non-families.
27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.12. The median age in the town was 36.9 years. 29.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.1% male and 51.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,137 people, 470 households, 329 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,276.4 people per square mile. There were 548 housing units at an average density of 615.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.71% White, 0.18% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.79% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.99% of the population. There were 470 households out of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.8% were non-families.
27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.91. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,333, the median income for a family was $42,813. Males had a median income of $35,938 versus $25,441 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,317. About 12.6% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.6% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over. Oak Hill United School Corporation operates Oak Hill High School at Converse; the town has the Converse-Jackson Township Public Library. Monte Towe, Denver Nuggets basketball player Town website Hometown Locator
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol