Miami University is a public research university in Oxford, Ohio. The university was founded in 1809, although classes were not held until 1824. Miami University is the second-oldest university in Ohio and the 10th oldest public university in the United States; the school's system comprises the main campus in Oxford, as well as regional campuses in nearby Hamilton and West Chester. Miami maintains an international boarding campus, the Dolibois European Center in Differdange, Luxembourg; the Carnegie Foundation classifies Miami University as a research university with a high research activity. It is affiliated with the University System of Ohio. Miami University is well known for its liberal arts education. In its 2019 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the university 96th among national universities and the 42nd top public university in the United States. Additionally, Miami University is ranked 3rd best national university for undergraduate teaching. Miami is one of the original eight Public Ivy schools, a group of publicly funded universities considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
Miami University has a long tradition of Greek life. Today, Miami University hosts over 50 fraternity and sorority chapters, one-third of the undergraduate student population are members of the Greek community. Miami is renowned for its campus' beauty, having been called "The most beautiful campus that there was" by Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Robert Frost. Additionally, Forbes ranked the city of Oxford first on its 2016 list of the best college towns in the United States. Miami's athletic teams compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and are collectively known as the Miami RedHawks, they compete in the Mid-American Conference in all varsity sports except ice hockey, which competes in the National Collegiate Hockey Conference. The foundations for Miami University were first laid by an Act of Congress signed by President George Washington, stating an academy should be Northwest of the Ohio River in the Miami Valley; the land was within the Symmes Purchase. Congress granted one township to be in the District of Cincinnati to the Ohio General Assembly for the purposes of building a college, two days after Ohio was granted statehood in 1803.
The Ohio Legislature appointed three surveyors in August of the same year to search for a suitable township, they selected a township off of Four Mile Creek. The Legislature passed "An Act to Establish the Miami University" on February 2, 1809, the state created a board of trustees; the township granted to the university was known as the "College Township," and was renamed Oxford, Ohio, in 1810. The University temporarily halted construction due to the War of 1812. Cincinnati tried—and failed—to move Miami to the city in 1822 and to divert its income to a Cincinnati college. Miami created a grammar school in 1818 to teach frontier youth, but it was disbanded after five years. Robert Hamilton Bishop, a Presbyterian minister and professor of history, was appointed to be the first President of Miami University in 1824; the first day of classes at Miami was on November 1, 1824. At its opening, there were two faculty members in addition to Bishop; the curriculum included Greek, Algebra and Roman history.
An "English Scientific Department" was started in 1825, which studied modern languages, applied mathematics, political economy as training for more practical professions. It offered a certificate upon completion of coursework, not a diploma. Miami students purchased a printing press, in 1827 published their first periodical, The Literary Focus, it promptly failed. The Miami Student, founded in 1867, traces its foundation back to the Literary Register and claims to be the oldest college newspaper in the United States. A theological department and a farmer's college were formed in 1829. William Holmes McGuffey joined the faculty in 1826, began his work on the McGuffey Readers while in Oxford. By 1834 the faculty had grown to seven professors and enrollment was at 234 students. Eleven students were expelled including one for firing a pistol at another student. McGuffey resigned and became the President of the Cincinnati College, where he urged parents not to send their children to Miami. Alpha Delta Phi opened its chapter at Miami in 1833, making it the first fraternity chapter West of the Allegheny Mountains.
In 1839, Beta Theta Pi was created. In 1839 Old Miami reached its enrollment peak, with 250 students from 13 states. President Bishop resigned in 1840 due to escalating problems in the University, although he remained as a professor through 1844, he was replaced as President by George Junkin, former President of Lafayette College.
Peremoha is the 30th station of the Kharkiv Metro, located on the system's Oleksiivska Line. The station is located north of the Oleksiivska station, is the line's new terminus; the station's official opening was on 19 August 2016 by Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko. The station welcomed its first passengers on 25 August 2016. Peremoha is named after the Prospect Peremohy road; the station is the first Kharkiv metro station with disabled access. Construction of the station began in 1992, since construction was stopped numerous times. Under the initiative of Kharkiv Mayor Mikhail Dobkin, construction work on the station began again in 2009, with an opening date of 2010, although it was set back a couple of years due to inadequate funding. A new date was set at 7 or 8 May 2012, which would have had significance since Victory Day used to be celebrated on 9 May, which would have been in time for the UEFA Euro 2012 football championship. However, new funding problems pushed the completion date back to 23 August 2012 again another year further to 23 August 2013, again to 23 August 2014.
Architecturally, the station was planned to be modeled in the Victory Day theme. In April 2015, the parliament of Ukraine outlawed Soviet and Communist symbols, street names and monuments, in a set of decommunization laws. So in May 2015 Ukraine abolished Victory Day and replaced the holiday with Victory Day over Nazism in World War II. Hence, the station's interior was changed to comply with the April 2015 decommunization laws; the station is designed to be two-tiered with the upper balconies used as an underground passenger walkway from either side of the Ludvík Svoboda Prospect. The station's direct vicinity includes a market and trolleybus lines. After the Peremoha station's completion, the Oleksiivska Line depot is planned to be constructed to the north of the station. Planned is a new intercity bus station, which would lighten the traffic load upon the Tsentralnyi Rynok's bus station
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". The alphabet is designed for transcribing sounds, not phonemes, though it is used for phonemic transcription as well. A few letters that did not indicate specific sounds have been retired, though one remains: ⟨ɧ⟩, used for the sj-sound of Swedish; when the IPA is used for phonemic transcription, the letter–sound correspondence can be rather loose. For example, ⟨c⟩ and ⟨ɟ⟩ are used in the IPA Handbook for /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/. Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation.
These are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe. A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is littl