Isaac Liev Schreiber is an American actor, director and producer. He became known during the late 1990s and early 2000s, having appeared in several independent films, mainstream Hollywood films, including the Scream trilogy of horror films, Phantoms, The Sum of All Fears, The Omen, X-Men Origins: Wolverine, Taking Woodstock, Goon, Pawn Sacrifice, Spotlight, he became known through a younger generation of audiences for his work in My Little Pony: The Movie and Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse. Schreiber is a stage actor, having performed in several Broadway productions. In 2005, he won the Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play for his performance in the play Glengarry Glen Ross; that year, he made his debut as a film director and writer with Everything Is Illuminated, based on the novel of the same name. Schreiber has had further success in the television world, notably portraying the eponymous protagonist of the Showtime drama series Ray Donovan, he narrates the HBO series 24/7, as well as various PBS programs.
Schreiber was born in San Francisco, the son of Heather and Tell Carroll Schreiber, a stage actor and director. His father comes from a wealthy Protestant family, his mother is Jewish, his maternal grandfather emigrated from Ukraine. With a firm knowledge of classical music and Russian literature, Schreiber's mother has been described by Schreiber as a "far-out Socialist Labor Party hippie bohemian freak who hung out with William Burroughs." When Heather was 12, her mother was lobotomized. His mother has said that she named him after her favorite Russian author, Leo Tolstoy, while his father has stated that Schreiber was named after the doctor who saved his mother's life, his family nickname, adopted when Schreiber was a baby, is "Huggy."When Schreiber was one year old, his family moved to Canada, winding up in the unincorporated rural community of Winlaw, in the southern interior of British Columbia. Prior to this time, according to Schreiber's father, at the beginning of their marriage, Schreiber's mother had a bad experience on LSD.
Over the next four years, she was admitted to hospitals and underwent therapy. After Schreiber's father threatened to admit her to a mental institution, she left with her son. With his father in pursuit and his mother were trailed by private detectives in various states. By the time Schreiber was four, he was living with her on the fourth floor of a dilapidated walkup at First Avenue and First Street in New York City, he was the object of a fierce custody battle, which bankrupted his maternal grandfather, Alex Milgram. Milgram, the most significant male in Schreiber's youth, played the cello and owned Renoir etchings, made his living by delivering meat to restaurants; when Schreiber was five, his parents divorced. Growing up, they had no electricity, hot water, or beds, his mother was "a cultured eccentric" who supported them by splitting her time between driving a cab and creating papier-mâché puppets." On Schreiber's 16th birthday, his mother bought him a motorcycle "to promote fearlessness."
The critic John Lahr wrote in a 1999 New Yorker profile that, "To a large extent, Schreiber's professional shape-shifting and his uncanny instinct for isolating the frightened, goofy parts of his characters are a result of being forced to adapt to his mother's eccentricities. It's both his grief and his gift." He endured her mood swings and bohemian proclivities, which included making him take Hindu names, wear yoga shirts, forcing Liev to go to an ashram school in Connecticut when he was 12. In high school, Liev played the bass clarinet. Schreiber's mother forbade her son from seeing color movies; as a result, his favorite actors were Andrew Cartwright and Basil Rathbone. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, known as Shiva Das, lived at the Satchidananda Ashram, Yogaville East, in Pomfret, Connecticut, he abided by his mother's vegetarian diet. In retrospect, Schreiber said in a 2008 interview that he appreciates his mother's influences, saying: "Since I've had Sasha, I've identified with everything my mother went through raising me... and I think her choices were inspired."Subsequently, Schreiber attended Friends Seminary at the same time as future actress Amanda Peet.
Schreiber went on to Hampshire College in Amherst, where he began his acting training at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, via the Five Colleges consortium. In March 1989, Liev played Antonio in The Merchant of Venice alongside Jeffrey Donovan. Liev graduated with a master's degree from the Yale School of Drama in 1992, where he starred in Charles Evered's The Size of the World, directed by Walton Jones. At Yale, Liev studied with Earle R. Gister, he attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London. He wanted to be a screenwriter, but was steered toward acting. Schreiber had several supporting roles in various independe
Samuel Shepard Rogers III, known professionally as Sam Shepard, was an American actor, author and director whose career spanned half a century. He won ten Obie Awards for directing, the most won by any writer or director, he wrote 44 plays as well as several books of short stories and memoirs. Shepard received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1979 for his play Buried Child and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of pilot Chuck Yeager in the 1983 film The Right Stuff, he received the PEN/Laura Pels International Foundation for Theater Award as a master American dramatist in 2009. New York magazine described Shepard as "the greatest American playwright of his generation."Shepard's plays are known for their bleak, surrealist elements, black comedy, rootless characters living on the outskirts of American society. His style evolved from the absurdism of his early off-off-Broadway work to the realism of plays like Buried Child and Curse of the Starving Class.
Shepard was born on November 1943, in Fort Sheridan, Illinois. He was named Samuel Shepard Rogers III after his father, Samuel Shepard Rogers, Jr. but was called Steve Rogers. Samuel Shepard Rogers, Jr. was a teacher and farmer who served in the United States Army Air Forces as a bomber pilot during World War II. Shepard characterized his father as "a drinking man, a dedicated alcoholic", his mother, Jane Elaine, was a native of Chicago. Shepard worked on a ranch as a teenager. After graduating from Duarte High School in Duarte, California in 1961, he studied animal husbandry at nearby Mt. San Antonio College. While at college, Shepard became enamored of Samuel Beckett and abstract expressionism, he dropped out to join the Bishop's Company. Shepard found work as a busboy at the Village Gate nightclub when he arrived in New York City, in 1962 became involved in the off-off-Broadway theater scene through Ralph Cook, the Village Gate's head waiter. Steve Rogers adopted the professional name Sam Shepard.
Although his plays would be staged at several off-off-Broadway venues, Shepard was most connected with Cook's Theatre Genesis, housed at St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery in the East Village. In 1965, Shepard's one-act plays Dog and The Rocking Chair were produced at La MaMa Experimental Theatre Club; this was the first in many productions of Shepard's work at La MaMa during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s. In 1967, Tom O'Horgan directed Shepard's Melodrama Play alongside Leonard Melfi's Times Square and Rochelle Owens' Futz at La MaMa. In 1969, Jeff Bleckner directed; the Unseen Hand would influence Richard O'Brien's musical The Rocky Horror Show. Bleckner directed The Unseen Hand alongside Forensic and the Navigators at the nearby Astor Place Theater in 1970. Shepard's play. Seth Allen directed Melodrama Play at La MaMa the following year. In 1981, Tony Barsha directed The Unseen Hand at La MaMa; the production transferred to the Provincetown Playhouse and ran for over 100 performances. Syracuse Stage co-produced The Tooth of Crime at La MaMa in 1983.
In 1983, the Overtone Theatre and New Writers at the Westside co-produced Shepard's plays Superstitions and The Sad Lament of Pecos Bill on the Eve of Killing His Wife at La MaMa. John Densmore performed in his own play Skins and Shepard and Joseph Chaikin's play Tongues, directed as a double bill by Tony Abatemarco, at La MaMa in 1984. Nicholas Swyrydenko directed a production of Geography of a Horse Dreamer at La MaMa in 1985. Several of Shepard's early plays, including Red Cross and La Turista, were directed by Jacques Levy. A patron of the Chelsea Hotel scene, he contributed to Kenneth Tynan's Oh! Calcutta! and drummed sporadically from 1967 through 1971 with the psychedelic folk band The Holy Modal Rounders, appearing on their albums Indian War Whoop and The Moray Eels Eat The Holy Modal Rounders. After winning six Obie Awards between 1966 and 1968, Shepard emerged as a screenwriter with Robert Frank's Me and My Brother and Michelangelo Antonioni's Zabriskie Point. Cowboy Mouth, a collaboration with his then-lover Patti Smith, was staged at The American Place Theatre in April 1971, providing early exposure for Smith, who became a well-known musician.
The story and characters in Cowboy Mouth were loosely inspired by Smith's relationship. After opening night, he abandoned the production and fled to New England without a word to anyone involved. Shortly thereafter, Shepard relocated with his son to London. While in London, he immersed himself in the study of G. I. Gurdjieff's a recurring preoccupation for much of his life. Returning to the United States in 1975, he moved to the 20-acre Flying Y Ranch in Mill Valley, where he raised a young colt named Drum and rode double with his young son on an appaloosa named Cody. Shepard continued to write plays and served for a semester as Regents' Professor of Drama at the University of California, Davis. Shepard accompanied Bob Dylan on the Rolling Thunder Revue of 1975 as the screenwriter for Renaldo and Clara that emerged from the tour. However, because much of the film was improvised, Shepard's work was used, his diary of the tour, Rolling Thunder Logbook, was published in 1978. A decade Dylan and Shepard co-wrote the 11-minute song "Brownsville Girl", included on Dylan's 1986 Knocked Out Loaded album and on compilations.
In 1975, Shepard was named playwright-in-residence at the Magic Theatre in San Francisco, where he created many of his notable works, including his
William James Murray is an American actor and writer. He first gained exposure on Saturday Night Live, a series of performances that earned him his first Emmy Award, starred in comedy films—including Meatballs, Stripes, Ghostbusters, Ghostbusters II, What About Bob?, Groundhog Day. He co-directed Quick Change. Murray garnered additional critical acclaim in his career, starring in Lost in Translation, which earned him a Golden Globe and a BAFTA Award for Best Actor, as well as an Oscar nomination for Best Actor, for collaborating with director Wes Anderson, he received Golden Globe nominations for his roles in Ghostbusters, Hyde Park on Hudson, St. Vincent, the HBO miniseries Olive Kitteridge, for which he won his second Primetime Emmy Award. Murray received the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor in 2016, his comedy is known for its deadpan delivery. Murray was born on September 21, 1950, in Evanston, Illinois, to Lucille, a mail-room clerk, Edward Joseph Murray II, a lumber salesman, he was raised in a northern suburb of Chicago.
Murray and his eight siblings were raised in a Roman Catholic Irish-American family. Three of his siblings, John Murray, Joel Murray, Brian Doyle-Murray, are actors. A sister, Nancy, is an Adrian Dominican nun in Michigan, who has traveled the United States in a one-woman program, portraying St. Catherine of Siena, their father died in 1967 at the age of 46 from complications of diabetes when Bill was 17 years old. As a youth, Murray read children's biographies of American heroes like Kit Carson, Wild Bill Hickok, Davy Crockett, he attended Loyola Academy. During his teen years, he worked as a golf caddy to fund his education at the Jesuit high school. One of his sisters had polio and his mother suffered several miscarriages. During his teen years he was the lead singer of a rock band called the Dutch Masters and took part in high school and community theater. After graduating, Murray attended Regis University in Denver, taking pre-medical courses, he dropped out, returning to Illinois. Decades in 2007, Regis awarded him an honorary Doctor of Humanities degree.
On September 21, 1970, his 20th birthday, the police arrested Murray at Chicago's O'Hare Airport for trying to smuggle 10 lb of cannabis, which he had intended to sell. The drugs were discovered after Murray joked to the passenger next to him that he had packed a bomb in his luggage. Murray was sentenced to probation. With an invitation from his older brother, Murray got his start at The Second City in Chicago, an improvisational comedy troupe, studying under Del Close. In 1974, he moved to New York City and was recruited by John Belushi as a featured player on The National Lampoon Radio Hour. In 1975, an Off-Broadway version of a Lampoon show led to his first television role as a cast member of the ABC variety show Saturday Night Live with Howard Cosell; that same season, another variety show titled. Cosell's show lasted just one season, canceled in early 1976. After working in Los Angeles with the "guerrilla video" commune TVTV on several projects, Murray rose to prominence in 1976, he joined the cast of NBC's Saturday Night Live for the show's second season, following the departure of Chevy Chase.
Murray was with SNL for three seasons from 1977 to 1980. A Rutland Weekend Television sketch Eric Idle brought for his appearance on SNL developed into the 1978 mockumentary All You Need Is Cash with Murray appearing as "Bill Murray the K", a send-up of New York radio host Murray the K, in a segment of the film, a parody of the Maysles Brothers's documentary The Beatles: The First U. S. Visit. During the first few seasons of SNL, Murray engaged in a romantic relationship with fellow cast member Gilda Radner. Murray landed his first starring role with the film Meatballs in 1979, he followed. In the early 1980s, he starred in a string of box-office hits, including Caddyshack and Tootsie. Murray was the first guest on NBC's Late Night with David Letterman on February 1, 1982, he appeared on the first episode of the Late Show with David Letterman on August 30, 1993, when the show moved to CBS. On January 31, 2012 – 30 years after his first appearance with Letterman – Murray appeared again on his talk show.
He appeared as Letterman's final guest when the host retired on May 20, 2015. Murray began work on a film adaptation of the novel The Razor's Edge; the film, which Murray co-wrote, was his first starring role in a dramatic film. He agreed with Columbia Pictures to star in Ghostbusters—in a role written for John Belushi—to get financing for The Razor's Edge. Ghostbusters became the highest-grossing comedy of all-time; the Razor's Edge, filmed before Ghostbusters but not released until after, was a box-office flop. Frustrated over the failure of The Razor's Edge, Murray retired from acting for four years to study philosophy and history at Sorbonne University, frequent the Cinémathèque in Paris, spend time with his family in their Hudson River Valley home. During that time, his second son, was born. With the exception of a cameo appearance in the 1986 movie Little Shop of Horrors, he did not make any appearances in films, though he did participate in several public readings in Manhattan organized by playwright/director Timothy Mayer and in a stage production of Bertolt Brecht's A Man's a
William Eggleston in the Real World
William Eggleston in the Real World is a documentary film about the photographer William Eggleston directed by Michael Almereyda and released in 2005. The film reveals the deep connection between William Eggleston's personality and his work, reveals his parallel commitments as a musician and videographer; the film follows Eggleston on trips to Kentucky, Los Angeles, New York City and Memphis, where Eggleston lives. The film was nominated for a Gotham Award for Best Documentary from the Independent Filmmaker Project at the Gotham Awards 2005. Heather Parks and James Patterson were associate producers. William Eggleston in the Real World on IMDb Palm Pictures - William Eggleston In The Real World William Eggleston at Xavier Hufkens, Brussels
Trance (1998 film)
Trance is a 1998 horror film directed and written by Michael Almereyda and starring Alison Elliott, Jared Harris, Christopher Walken. The film's score features music by Mark Geary, it premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival, was released as direct-to-video in the United States. Nora and Jim are an alcoholic couple. After a night of drinking, Nora experiences a flashback and falls down the stairs of their New York apartment building. Though alright, she complains of headaches, her doctor orders her to give up alcohol. For the sake of their son Jimmy and Jim pledge to sober up, but the doctor expresses skepticism when he learns they will be traveling to Ireland to visit Nora's elderly grandmother. Nora assures her doctor. In Ireland and Jim stop at a pub to get directions. While drinking, they run into one of Nora's old friends, he warns them. Jim becomes jealous and starts a fight with Joe, they are thrown out of the pub. Before they reach the mansion, Nora crashes the car. Though none of them are injured, they are forced to walk the rest of the way.
Alice, a young girl adopted by Bill, leads them there. When Bill offers them drinks, Jim declines, much to Nora's annoyance. Bill reveals himself to be blind. After Jim makes several insensitive remarks, Nora takes Jim aside, accuses him of being drunk, searches his clothes for a hidden flask. Though Nora is angry when she finds it is empty, Jim says they will restart their sobriety anew together. Bill suggests that Nora meet her grandmother alone, but she is confused and becomes ill when he leads her to the basement. There is a Druid witch named Niamh. Meanwhile, Jim encounters Nora's grandmother, who wanders off; when Bill describes his belief that Niamh will come back to life, Nora returns upstairs, though she is surprised to see Niamh open her eyes. Nora tells Jim as Joe was right about Bill. Concerned for their safety amid crazy relatives and Nora move Jimmy into their room; when they lie down, they discover Druidic relics hidden under their mattress. Bill and Alice lead her back to her bedroom.
When Bill returns to the basement, now a lookalike of Nora, comes to life. After Bill kisses her, Niamh slits his throat, decapitates him, goes upstairs. At the same time, Nora's behavior becomes erratic, she tells Jim that she left Ireland for America after having an abortion. Jim goes downstairs to drink, where he encounters Niamh. Mistaking her for Nora, Jim kisses her; when he becomes uncomfortable with the idea of public sex, she wanders outside. Jim follows, only to be knocked out by Joe. Joe seduces Nora. Seeing both Nora and Niamh, Jim becomes confused. Nora hits him he attempts to pull her away from Joe, but she returns to normal and apologizes for her bizarre behavior shortly afterward; when Niamh appears and attacks them, the gardener, saves them by shooting Niamh. When she revives and kills Joe, they retreat to the kitchen, where they electrocute her, her burning body falls through the floor. Alice explains that Niamh intends to steal Nora's soul; when Jimmy stands too close to the hole, Niamh grabs him.
Nora jumps through the hole, the others race downstairs. Nora encounters her grandmother, who upon hearing that Nora is willing to sacrifice herself to save Jimmy, encourages her to do so. Nora and Niamh begin showing shared personalities. Noticing this, Jim uses Nora's alcoholism to keep Niamh occupied. Niamh flees outside with Jimmy, where Nora confronts her. Remembering her grandmother's advice, Nora slits her throat and jumps into the ocean, as Niamh watches; when Jim arrives, Niamh says that everything is alright, as Nora has purged herself of the Druid's influence and taken over Niamh's body. Niamh – now Nora – and Jim embrace, Alice says that Nora has shed herself of her fears and weaknesses. Alison Elliott as Nora / Niamh Raina Feig as Young Nora Rachel O'Rourke as Alice Jared Harris as Jim Jeffrey Goldschrafe as Jim, Jr. Christopher Walken as Uncle Bill Ferriter Lois Smith as Mrs. Ferriter Sinead Dolan as Nora's mother Jason Miller as The Doctor Paul Ferriter as Joe David Geary as Nora's Father Shooting took place in Yonkers, New York.
The film premiered as Trance at the Toronto International Film Festival. Released as The Eternal, the film went direct-to-video in the United States in July 1999, it had been titled The Mummy, but it was retitled to Trance when it clashed with the Stephen Sommers film of the same name. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, reports that 33% of nine surveyed critics gave the film a positive review. Gary Morris of Bright Lights Film Journal wrote, "The Eternal's mood-drenched Irish coastal landscape and unsettling sense that these are real people trapped in an unreal, terrifying world make it well worth the watch." Keith Phipps of The A. V. Club wrote, "It may be more thoughtful, less derivative, more interesting than this year's other Mummy, but it still feels half-baked." Robert Pardi of TV Guide rated it 2/4 stars and wrote, "Unfortunately, its excessive artiness undermines the laudable effort to make character more important than blood and guts." Ken W. Hanley of Fangoria wrote, "Almereyda's take on independent witchcraft horror boasts commendable imagery, wonderful supernatural moments and admirably gonzo acting choices, placing an abstract perspective on a subgenre, otherwise clouded in Gothic inspiration."
In The Mummy in Fact, Fiction a
Experimenter is a 2015 American biographical drama film written and directed by Michael Almereyda, based on the 1961 Milgram experiment. The film stars Peter Sarsgaard, Winona Ryder, Taryn Manning, Kellan Lutz, Anton Yelchin, John Leguizamo, Lori Singer, Dennis Haysbert, Anthony Edwards, Jim Gaffigan; the film was released on October 2015, by Magnolia Pictures. The film is based on the true story of famed social psychologist Stanley Milgram, who in 1961 conducted a series of radical behavior experiments at Yale University that tested the willingness of ordinary humans to obey an authority figure while administering electric shocks to strangers. In the first half of the film, it is shown how the experiments are conducted, with nearly every test subject succumbing to the pressure of the circumstances and administering shocks to a stranger, despite the stranger begging him to stop. Between the experiments, it is shown how Milgram meets Alexandra, who will become his wife and mother of two children.
The second half of the film shows how Milgram struggles with the public outcry about the ethics of the experiments and how his career advances as he becomes a professor in New York City and continues to study social interactions and social pressure in more benign experimental settings, including the small-world experiment, the lost-letter experiment, the street-corner experiment, the familiar stranger experiment, various experiments that he makes his students carry out. Archive footage occurs either as recordings that Milgram watches or as a backdrop for entire scenes. Milgram's work continues until he dies from a heart attack at the age of 51. In the final scene, the street-corner experiment is repeated in the present day, with a cameo of the real-life Sasha Milgram. In a mid-credits scene, more archival footage is shown. Although director Almereyda was aware of Milgram's work, it wasn't until his girlfriend began taking a class on him that Almereyda became interested. Subsequently, he found himself reading Milgram's Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View.
According to Almereyda once he started reading " saw how filmable it was" becoming interested in making it into a film the more he went on. In filming, Almereyda wanted it to be "playful" in nature as he felt that's how Stanley Milgram himself would have made it. Almereyda decided to have Milgram break the fourth wall based on viewing films of his in which Milgram would talk to the camera, reminding him of Rod Serling or Alfred Hitchcock. From this Almereyda figured having the character talk to the camera "seemed natural and in fact essential to include that in the movie." On May 13, 2014, Peter Sarsgaard and Winona Ryder joined the cast. On June 30, Kellan Lutz, Taryn Manning, Anton Yelchin, Anthony Edwards, Edoardo Ballerini joined the cast. Principal photography began on June 2014, in New York City; the film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January 25, 2015. On March 26, 2015, Magnolia Pictures acquired distribution rights to the film; the film was released on October 16, 2015, through video on demand.
Experimenter received positive reviews. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of an average rating of 7.3 / 10, sampled from 72 reviews. The consensus reads: "Led by a gripping performance from Peter Sarsgaard, Experimenter uses a fact-based story to pose thought-provoking questions about human nature." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 81 out of 100 calculated from 20 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim". The Tenth Level Experimenter on IMDb Experimenter at Box Office Mojo Experimenter at Rotten Tomatoes Experimenter at Metacritic
Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, futurist, best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current electricity supply system. Born and raised in the Austrian Empire, Tesla received an advanced education in engineering and physics in the 1870s and gained practical experience in the early 1880s working in telephony and at Continental Edison in the new electric power industry, he emigrated in 1884 to the United States. He worked for a short time at the Edison Machine Works in New York City before he struck out on his own. With the help of partners to finance and market his ideas, Tesla set up laboratories and companies in New York to develop a range of electrical and mechanical devices, his alternating current induction motor and related polyphase AC patents, licensed by Westinghouse Electric in 1888, earned him a considerable amount of money and became the cornerstone of the polyphase system which that company would market.
Attempting to develop inventions he could patent and market, Tesla conducted a range of experiments with mechanical oscillators/generators, electrical discharge tubes, early X-ray imaging. He built a wireless-controlled boat, one of the first exhibited. Tesla became well known as an inventor and would demonstrate his achievements to celebrities and wealthy patrons at his lab, was noted for his showmanship at public lectures. Throughout the 1890s, Tesla pursued his ideas for wireless lighting and worldwide wireless electric power distribution in his high-voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York and Colorado Springs. In 1893, he made pronouncements on the possibility of wireless communication with his devices. Tesla tried to put these ideas to practical use in his unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project, an intercontinental wireless communication and power transmitter, but ran out of funding before he could complete it. After Wardenclyffe, Tesla experimented with a series of inventions in the 1910s and 1920s with varying degrees of success.
Having spent most of his money, Tesla lived in a series of New York hotels, leaving behind unpaid bills. He died in New York City in January 1943. Tesla's work fell into relative obscurity following his death, until 1960, when the General Conference on Weights and Measures named the SI unit of magnetic flux density the tesla in his honor. There has been a resurgence in popular interest in Tesla since the 1990s. Nikola Tesla was born an ethnic Serb in the village Smiljan, Lika county, in the Austrian Empire, on 10 July 1856, his father, Milutin Tesla, was an Eastern Orthodox priest. Tesla's mother, Đuka Tesla, whose father was an Orthodox priest, had a talent for making home craft tools and mechanical appliances and the ability to memorize Serbian epic poems. Đuka had never received a formal education. Tesla influence. Tesla's progenitors were near Montenegro. Tesla was the fourth of five children, he had three sisters, Milka and Marica, an older brother named Dane, killed in a horse riding accident when Tesla was aged five.
In 1861, Tesla attended primary school in Smiljan where he studied German and religion. In 1862, the Tesla family moved to the nearby Gospić, Lika where Tesla's father worked as parish priest. Nikola completed primary school, followed by middle school. In 1870, Tesla moved far north to Karlovac to attend high school at the Higher Real Gymnasium; the classes were held in German. Tesla would write that he became interested in demonstrations of electricity by his physics professor. Tesla noted that these demonstrations of this "mysterious phenomena" made him want "to know more of this wonderful force". Tesla was able to perform integral calculus in his head, which prompted his teachers to believe that he was cheating, he finished a four-year term in three years, graduating in 1873. In 1873, Tesla returned to Smiljan. Shortly after he arrived, he contracted cholera, was bedridden for nine months and was near death multiple times. Tesla's father, in a moment of despair, promised to send him to the best engineering school if he recovered from the illness.
In 1874, Tesla evaded conscription into the Austro-Hungarian Army in Smiljan by running away southeast of Lika to Tomingaj, near Gračac. There he explored the mountains wearing hunter's garb. Tesla said that this contact with nature made him stronger, both mentally, he read many books while in Tomingaj and said that Mark Twain's works had helped him to miraculously recover from his earlier illness. In 1875, Tesla enrolled at Austrian Polytechnic in Graz, Austria, on a Military Frontier scholarship. During his first year, Tesla never missed a lecture, earned the highest grades possible, passed nine exams, started a Serb cultural club, received a letter of commendation from the dean of the technical faculty to his father, which stated, "Your son is a star of first rank." During his second year, Tesla came into conflict with Professor Poeschl over the Gramme dynamo, when Tesla suggested that commutators were not necessary. Tesla claimed that he worked from 3 a.m. to 11 p.m. no Sundays or holidays excepted.
He was "mortified when father made light of hard won honors." After his father's death in 1879, Tesla found a package of letters from his professors to his father, warning that unless h